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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Конспекты / Практикум по грамматике английского языка

Практикум по грамматике английского языка

  • Иностранные языки

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Областное бюджетное образовательное

учреждение

среднего профессионального образования

«Железногорский политехнический колледж»





М.А. Плющова






Практикум

по грамматике английского языка.


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Железногорск 2014


Областное бюджетное образовательное

учреждение

среднего профессионального образования

«Железногорский политехнический колледж»





М.А. Плющова







Практикум

по грамматике английского языка.























Железногорск 2014


Практикум по грамматике английского языка. Составитель Плющова М.А.





Рецензент: Трунова Н.Ф., преподаватель ОБОУ СПО «Железногорский политехнический колледж»






Данное методическое пособие предназначено для студентов учреждений начального и среднего профессионального образования. Практикум по грамматике английского языка является составной частью учебно-методического комплекса, разработанного в соответствии с рабочей программой дисциплины «Иностранный язык».

Выполнение грамматических упражнений на практических занятиях, а также в качестве самостоятельной работы студентов при изучении дисциплины «Английский язык» позволит оценить их знания, приобретенные в ходе теоретического освоения этой учебной дисциплины. Целью предлагаемых студентам заданий является определение степени и прочности усвоения грамматических навыков и умений на английском языке.























Содержание

 

1) Глагол. Общие сведения…………………………………………...4-7

2) Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense………………………………….8-12

3) Present Progressive (Continuous) Tense…………………………13-17

4) Types of questions…………………………………………………18-22

5) Future Simple (Indefinite) Tense…………………………………23-26

6) Past Simple (Indefinite) Tense……………………………………27-34

7) Present Perfect Tense…………………………………………….35- 42

8) Present Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense……………….43- 45

9) Past Progressive (Continuous) Tense ………………………………46

10) Future Progressive (Continuous) Tense ……………………….47-49

11) Past Perfect Tense………………………………………………. ...50

12) Future Perfect…………………………………………………...51-54

13) Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense……………………55

14) Future Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense……………...56-59

15) Сопоставление времен………………………………………...60-65

16) Adding. Приложение…………………………………………...66-87

18) Литература…………………………………………………………88











ГЛАГОЛ (The Verb) ОБЩИЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ

Глагол - это часть речи, которая обозначает действие или состояние лица или предмета.

Не works as an engineer. Он работает инженером.
The child is sleeping now. Ребенок спит сейчас.

1.Глаголы бывают простые, производные, сложные и составные.

К простым глаголам относятся глаголы, не имеющие в своем составе ни префиксов, ни суффиксов: to sit, to go, to eat, to come.

Производные глаголы имеют в своем составе суффиксы или префиксы: to deepen, to rewrite.

Наиболее характерные суффиксы глаголов:

-ate: to decorate, to separate, to educate,

-en: to widen, to strengthen, to brighten,

-ize: to memorize, to organize, to dramatize,

-fy: to purify, to satisfy, to justify.

Наиболее характерные префиксы глаголов:

re-: to build- to rebuild (строить-перестроить), to read- to reread, to pay- to repay,

dis-: to like- to dislike(нравиться- не нравиться), to appear- to disappear, to prove- to disprove,

un-: to wrap- to unwrap(запаковывать-распаковывать), to pack- to unpack, to limit- to unlimit,

mis-: to understand- to misunderstand(понимать-не понимать), to trust- to mistrust,

under-: to underline(подчеркивать), to undergo(подвергаться), to undertake(предпринять).

Сложные глаголы в английском языке состоят из двух основ, но выражают одно понятие: to broadcast-вещать(о радио), to whitewash-ретушировать, to kidnap-похитить

Составные глаголы состоят из глагольной основы и предлога или наречия, которые могут отделяться друг от друга другими словами. Местоимение в объектном падеже всегда стоит между глаголом и предлогом (наречием).

Ring me up, please. Позвони мне, пожалуйста.

Switch on the radio, please    Включите, пожалуйста, радио.

Многие английские глаголы совпадают по форме с существительными (реже с прилагательными).

to work - работать       work - работа

to play – играть play - пьеса

to dry – сушить dry - сухой

2. По своему значению и выполняемой в предложении функции глаголы делятся на

 смысловые, вспомогательные, модальные глаголы и глаголы-связки.

Смысловые глаголы (Notional Verbs) имеют самостоятельное лексическое значение и употребляются в предложении в роли глагольного сказуемого.

He lives in Minsk.         Он живет в Минске.

She left school last year. Она закончила школу в прошлом году.

Вспомогательные глаголы (Auxiliary Verbs) не имеют самостоятельного значения и служат для образования сложных глагольных форм сказуемого. К ним относятся глаголы: to be, to have, to do, shall, should, will, would.

He is working now. Он работает сейчас.

I have answered all the questions. Я ответил на все вопросы.

Do you speak Spanish?         Вы разговариваете на испанском языке?
She doesn't teach English. Она не преподает английский язык.
They will discuss the plan      Они обсудят этот план,

Не said that he would buy a car Он сказал, что купит        машину.

Модальные глаголы (Modal Verbs) can, may, must, should, ought(to) употребляются в сочетании с инфинитивом, образуя в предложении составное модальное сказуемое.

You may go home. Вы можете идти домой.

Can you help me?        Можете ли вы помочь мне?

You must not do it. Вы не должны делать это.

Глаголы-связки (Link Verbs) служат для образования составного именного сказуемого. Основным глаголом-связкой служит глагол to be. В функции связки могут выступать также, глаголы to become, to get,
to grow, to turn
(в значении становиться), to look - выглядеть и др.

Не is an economist. Он экономист.

She became a lawyer. Она стала юристом.

It gets dark early in autumn.  Осенью темнеет рано.

Все глаголы (за исключением модальных) имеют личные (Finite Forms) и неличные формы (Non-Finite Forms или Verbals).

Личные формы глагола имеют категории лица, числа, наклонения, времени и залога. Они служат в предложении сказуемым и согласуются с подлежащим в лице и числе

Не knows English well. Он знает английский хорошо.

They are playing chess. Они играют в шахматы.

She has seen this film.Она видела этот фильм.

Неличные формы глагола: инфинитив (The Infinitive), герундий (The Gerund) и причастие (The Participle) не имеют категории лица, числа и наклонения и не употребляются в предложении в функции сказуемого.

Английские глаголы, также как и русские, делятся на переходные (требующие после себя прямого дополнения: to take, to tell) и непереходные (после которых не употребляются прямое дополнение: to go, to live).

 В английском языке выделяются четыре основные формы глагола, которые в сочетании со вспомогательными глаголами образуют все времена в действительном и страдательном залогах:



В зависимости от способа образования второй и третьей форм все глаголы делятся на правильные (Regular Verbs) и неправильные (Irregular.Verbs).



Infinitive

Past Indefinite

Past Participle

Present Participle

Инфинитив

Прошедшее

неопределенное время

Причастие

прошедшего

времени

Причастие

настоящего

времени

ask
speak

asked
spoke

asked
spoken

asking
speaking

 

Правильные глаголы образуют формы Past Indefinite и Participle II при помощи суффикса -ed, который прибавляется к основе глагола, причем соблюдаются определенные правила произношения и правописания:

to stop - stopped - stopped    Глаголы, оканчивающиеся на согласную с предшествующим кратким гласным звуком

to travel - travelled - travelled конечной букве 1 предшествует краткий гласный

to permit - permitted - permitted     ударение падает на последний слог

Неправильные глаголы образуют формы прошедшего времени (Past Indefinite) и причастия прошедшего времени (Participle II) различными другими способами. Формы неправильных глаголов нужно заучивать: to go - went – gone, to become - became – become, to be - was/were – been, to have - had - had  to hope - hoped - hoped [t], после глухих согласных

to close - closed - closed [d], после звонких согласных и гласных

to visit - visited - visited [id], to study - studied - studied

to play - played – played букве у предшествует согласная









Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense (Настоящее простое неопределенное) время.

Present Simple (Indefinite) употребляется для выражения обычного, постоянного, регулярного действия, свойственного подлежащему. Констатация факта.

Слова-определители времени:

Always -всегда, often - часто, usually - обычно, every day (week, month) – каждый день (неделю, месяц), sometimes - иногда, seldom - редко.



1)  Утвердительная форма Present Simple (Indefinite) образуется из первой основной формы глагола (инфинитив без частицы to );

в 3-м лице единственного числа она принимает окончание -s или -es. ( V, Vs)

Примечания:

Окончание -s 3-го лица единственного числа произносится после глухих согласных [s], после гласных и звонких согласных [z]:

Не works [wo:ks] He lives [livz] She writes [raits] She knows [nouz]

Если глаголы оканчиваются на согласные -s, -ss, -ch,-tch, -sh, -x, то в 3-м лице единственного числа к ним прибавляется окончание -es, которое произносится [iz]:Не teaches ['ti:t∫iz] She dresses ['dresiz]

Глаголы, оканчивающиеся на с предшествующей согласной, в 3-м лице единственного числа меняют -у на -i и принимают окончание es:

I carry — he carries      Ср.: I play — she plays

Глаголы to do и to go принимают в 3-м лице единственного числа ок. -es:

Не goes [gouz] He does

в) Глаголы to be и to have образуют формы Present Simple (Indefinite) не по общим правилам.

 2 ) Вопросительная форма образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола do, does в 3 лице единственного числа, который ставится перед подлежащим, и смыслового глагола в первой основной форме( без окончания) — после подлежащего.

Вспомогательный глагол + подлежащее + основной глагол(без окончания) +…..? (общий вопрос)

 

Do you work at a factory?

Does he take part in the concert?

Вопросы к подлежащему образуются без вспомогательного глагола, к глаголу прибавляется окончание - s или –es:

I take part in the concert. Я принимаю участие в концерте.

Who takes part in the concert? Кто принимает участие в концерте?

 3) Отрицательная форма образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола do или does в 3 лице единственного числа и отрицания not, которые ставятся между подлежащим и смысловым глаголом в первой основной форме.

Подлежащее + вспомогательный глагол + not + основной глагол (без окончания) + … .

I do not work there. (I don't work there.)
He does not take part in it. (He doesn't take part in it.)

Для справок:

1.Вопросительная и отрицательная формы Present Simple (Indefinite) смыслового глагола to do образуются с помощью вспомогательного глагола to do.

What do you do on Sunday? He does not do his morning exercises.

2.Вопросительная форма глаголов to be и to have образуется путем постановки этих глаголов перед подлежащим. Отрицательная форма глагола to be образуется при помощи частицы not, а глагола to have — при помощи отрицательного местоимения no, которые ставятся после соответствующего глагола. Are you all right? How many lessons have you today?

I am not a student yet. The postman has no letters for us.

3. No употребляется также для образования отрицательной формы с оборотом there is (there are).There are no tickets left for the performance of the Vakhtangov theatre. Но: Перед местоимением any в отрицательных предложениях с глаголом to have и с оборотом there is (there are) употребляется not. I haven't any questions. There isn't any river in this place.



EXERSISES.



Ex.1 Поставьте окончание –s или –es , где нужно.

1) Mike like_ coffee. 2) My friends often go_ to the cinema. 3) I make_ dinner myself. 4) Mary wash_ her face in the morning. 5) He go_ to bed at 10 o’clock. 6) Dan speak_ English well. 7) They live_ in Tambov. 8) My mum watch_ TV in the evening. 9) I clean_ my teeth every day. 10) My sister play _ the piano.

Ex.2 Поставьте Do / Does.

1).... you sleep well? Yes I .... 2)..... your sister wash the plates? Yes, she... 3) What ... the teacher give you for homework ? She gives exercises. 4) .... the child read Russian ? No , she ... not. 5) He ... not like cakes.

6) We ...not go to school in August.

Ex. 3 Поставьте в отрицательную форму.

Например : He goes to school by bus . - I do not go to school by bus .

1) We get up at 7 o'clock .- He ... 2) I drink tea in the morning.-You ... 3) You go to bed at eleven . - They ... 4) They play in the yard in the afternoon . - She ... 5) He likes TV.-She... 6) I live with my parents . - He …

Ex.4 Опровергните утверждения.

1)  My mother gets up at 7 o’clock but I ......... .

2)  I like cartoons but my dad ........... .

3)  We watch horror films but they ...... .

4)  My sisters like to read but I ............ .

5)  We like apples but my friend ........... .

6)  I go to school every day but Tolya ............. .

Ex. 5 Complete the sentences with am, is, are, have got, has got, am not, is not, are not, haven’t got or hasn’ got.

1) I … on the first course. 2) They … got an English class today. 3) He … eleven. 4) They … students.

5) We … English books at home. 6) … you at the college? 7) Where … she? 8) He … got a lot of friends.

9) Mother … got a cake. 10) Paul and Mary … got two children, a boy and a girl. 11) Why … she crying?

12) What … he doing? 13) A dog … four legs. 14) I … not got a camera. 15) … your father got a car?

16) … it a cat? 17) She … very beautiful.18) Tom … in the garden. 19) She … got a nice home.

20) … you got any brothers or sisters? 21) Tom and Mary … playing tennis. 22) The table … in the

middle of the room. 23) Everybody likes Tom. He … got many friends. 24) The books … on the table.

25) The weather … very nice today. It … raining. 26) There … pictures on the wall. 27) The sky … blue.

28) … there any clouds in the sky? 29) You cannot buy anything on Sunday in England. The shops …

open. 30) The cat … grey. 31) The kittens … very funny. 32) English … a difficult language. 33) Jane

wants to go to Moscow, but she … any money. 34) Ann … black hair. Her hair … very beautiful. 35) I

don’t like this book. It … interesting. 36) I can’t open the door. I … the key. 37) John is going to be the dentist. He …got a bad tooth. 38) He … got a good library at home. 39) Be quick! We …got much time.

Ex. 6 Какие слова соответствуют определениям?

1) Customs a) get smth secretly and illegally into/out of the country

2) prohibited article b) person employed in a hotel to receive clients

3) weapon c) smth designed for and used in fighting and struggling

4)smuggle d) smth not allowed (for importing in a country)

5) check in e) department of government that collects duties on goods imported into a country

6) guest f) arrive and register at a hotel

7) receptionist g) make known clearly or formally; announce

8) form h) printed paper with space to be filled in

9) declare i) person staying at or paying a visit to some place

10) key board j) a board where keys are left at a hotel



Ex. 7 Add the sentences with the following words.

 Smuggler, restrictions, reception desk, excess, declare, double, checking in, suit, bellboy, cross the border.

1)  Have you got anything to … ? Any jewels, objects of art, weapon?

2)  Before you … you should go through the Customs.

3)  If a person has prohibited articles he can be called a … .

4)  Mr. Smith is going to stay at the hotel with his wife, so he’s made a reservation for a … room.

5)  If this room doesn’t … you we can offer you a suite.

6)  If you don’t want to have any troubles you should know the Customs … .

7)  The very first thing a person does at the hotel is … .

8)  Where shall I check in? – At the …, over there.

9)  (knocking at the door) – Who’s that? – It’s a … ,here’s the message for you,sir.

10) Put your luggage on the scale, please. Oh, you’ll have to pay for the … weight.





Present Progressive (Continuous) Tense. Настоящее длительное время

Present Progressive обозначает длительное действие, которое совершается в настоящее время, в момент речи, процесс.

I am having dinner. (I'm having dinner.) He is waiting for you. (He's waiting for you.)

They are travelling in the south. (They're travelling in the south.)

Слова-определители времени:

Now - сейчас, at this moment - в данный момент, at the present moment - в настоящий момент

 

Present Progressive образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be (am,is,are) и к основному глаголу в первой основной форме (V) прибавляется окончание -ing (V-ing).

go — going; read — reading

Примечания:

а) На письме при образовании Present Participle глаголы оканчивающиеся на немую -е, теряют эту букву: write — writing;     take — taking

б) Одна согласная после одиночной гласной в ударном (конечном) слоге удваивается, удваивается также конечная -1: win — winning     prefer — preferring

shut — shutting      travel — travelling

Ho: sleep — sleeping    work — working

wash — washing    develop — developing

c) Глаголы, выражающие чувства, желания, восприятия и умственные состояния, такие, как to like, to want, to love, to wish, to know, to understand, to see, to hear, to feel и др. как правило, не употребляются в форме Progressive(Continuous).

При образовании вопросительной формы вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.

Вспомогательный глагол (am, is, are) + подлежащее + основной глагол(в первой форме + -ing) + …..? (общий вопрос)



Is he sleeping?        What are you doing?

В вопросах к подлежащему порядок слов не изменяется, подлежащее меняем на who –кто или what – что, вспомогательный глагол всегда is . I am ringing at the door. Who is ringing at the door?

При образовании отрицательной формы отрицательная частица not ставится после вспомогательного глагола.

Подлежащее + вспомогательный глагол did + not + основной глагол (в первой форме + -ing) + … .

I am not reading. (I'm not reading.)

He is not taking his examination. (He's not taking his examination. He isn't taking his examination.)

They are not travelling. (They're not travelling. They aren't travelling.)

Для справок

1. Present Progressive (Continuous) иногда употребляется для обозначения
будущего действия, когда выражается намерение совершить действие.

She is leaving by the five-o'clock train.Она уезжает с пятичасовым поездом.
We are going to the theatre tonight.Мы собираемся вечером в театр.

2. Для выражения намерения совершить действие или уверенности, вероятности в его совершении в будущем употребляется оборот to be going в сочетании с инфинитивом.

Не is going to spend his winter holidays in the mountains.

What are you going to do now? Что ты собираешься делать сейчас?

We are not going to wait for him any more.Мы больше не собираемся его ждать.

The weather is going to change. Погода похоже меняется.





EXERSISES.



Ex. 8 Open the brackets & put the verbs into Present Progressive..

1) She (to read) magazines. 2) He (to work) hard at his French. 3) Mr. White (not to give) a lecture. 4) He (to write) a letter to his brother. 5) I (to prepare) for the test. 6) They (to work) at this factory. 7) She (to sit) in an arm-chare and (to watch) TV. 8) I (to have) supper with my friends. 9) Her brother (not to go) to school. 10) He (to stand) at the table.11) What you (to do)?

Ex. 9 Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.

1. My sister is playing the piano now. 2. The teacher is explaining the rule. 3. We are learning the new words. 4. Ann is standing at the window. 5. We are going to the park.. 6. John is taking a piece of chalk and writing a sentence on the blackboard. 7. I am doing my homework. 8. Jane is speaking on the telephone. 9. She is cooking supper.

Ex. 10 Измените предложения по образцу.

Например:: My friend is sitting at the desk. - I am sitting at the desk too .

1) The children are reading the text.- I ... 2) The teacher is working in the school garden .- The pupils...

3) The father is sleeping. His daughter ... 4) The mother is cleaning her room . - Her son … 5) I am putting on my coat. You ... 6) Our teacher is speaking English.- We...

Ex. 11 Измените предложения по образцу.

Например: He is going home .- I am not going home.

1)He is sleeping .-You ... 2) The women are standing in the street.- We... 3) You are doing your exercises .-He ... 4) He is putting on his suit.- I ... 5) She is washing socks and stockings . - Her friends ... 6) The bus is turning to the right. - The car...

Ex. 12 Измените предложения по образцу.

Например : I go to school. - I am not going to school now .

1) You read English newspapers after dinner . 2) I drink milk. 3) We play ball. 4) 1 sleep well. 5) They work at a factory . 6) I have breakfast with my father . 7) We get up at 7 o' clock . 8) They go there by bus .9) You do your homework in the evening.

Ex. 13 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple или Present Progressive

1.The man who (to speak) with my mother (to be) our neighbor who (to live) across the street. 2. It (to be) a very interesting scientific film. In it you can see how the plants (to grow) right before your eyes. 3. Where you (to hurry)? — I (to hurry) to the railway station. My sister (to come) from Moscow. 4. You (to hear) the speaker well? — Yes, I (to hear) him clearly. I (to listen to) very attentively, but still I (not to understand) the main point of his speech. 5. Don't come into this room. Father (to work) there now. 6. Where are you going this Sunday? — This Sunday I (to go) to the country, but usually on Sundays I (to stay) at home.

Ex. 14 Put the words into three columns according to the types of syllables.

a)Sit, her, we, term, bed, market, test, cart, duck, dark, plate, farmer, due, part, harm, luck, port, large, take, burn, make, girl, pot, broke, hum, see, sir, men, nurse, then, can, pine, toss, sate, sad, first, plane.

b)Dress, his, pupil, student, much, nice, milk, music, name, myrtle, hill, tack, stock, bone, cosy, curly, phone, clock, sun, from, middle, first, smart, far, but, big, has, that, like, go, long, hot, funny, happy, as.

Ex.15 Choose the right answer.

1. Our manager …………. in the office all day. a)stay b) stays c) is staying

2. As a rule I ………… customers in the evening. a) meet b) meets c) am meeting

3. We usually ………… … our work at 6. a) finishes b) finish c) are finishing

4. He often ………… to London. a) go b) goes c) is going

5. They ………….. customers in different cities. a) have got b) has got c) are having

6. We don’t ………. out at weekends. a) goes b) go c) are going

7. After lunch the secretary … letters to different companies. a) write b) is writing c) writes

8. I ……….. my chief tomorrow. a) meet b) am meeting c) meets

9. My boss … with your enquiry now but you won’t get a rapid answer. a) is dealing b) deals c) deal

10. The office ………… at 6 p.m. on weekdays. a) is closing b) closes c) close

Ex. 16 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple или Present Progressive

1.Where is John? He (to play) football in the yard. 2.I not (to like) the picture you (to look) at now. 3. He (to read) books in three languages, and now he (to read) a French novel. 4. She usually (to do) her homework at home, but now she (to do) it at the library. 5. In autumn many birds (to fly) to the South. 6. What that woman (to do) there? She (to sell) vegetables. 7. What you (to buy) here? I (to buy) an English text-book. 8)Look! How many birds (to fly) high up in the air! 9)There are many children in the garden. Some of them (to run) about, others (to sit) on the benches and (to laugh)! 10. Where you (to go) now? I (to go) to the library to prepare for my examination.

Ex. 17 Open the brackets

 1)Let ( I, me) introduce you to my family. 2) Ken knows ( he, him) very well. 3) This is Ann. Jane and I go to school with ( she, her). 4) My grandmother and grandfather do not live with ( we, us). 5) Aunt Helen often comes and stays with (they, them). 6) Peter Brown and I saw ( he, him) and ( she, her) in town. 7) How often do you write letters to (they, them)? 8) Will you stay with (we, us) long? 9) We saw ( they, them) at the theatre. 10) Please give (my, me) that book. It’s on the table. 11) We like (our, us) English teacher. She is very kind to ( we, us). 12) Jane is very pretty.( She, her) eyes are blue and (she, her) hair is black. 13) I don’t know this man. What is ( him, his) name? 14) Thank you for (you, your) letter. 15) Tom is a very nice boy. I like ( his, him). 16) I know Ted and Ann and ( they, their) children.17) They are very nice people. I like (them, their). 18) I am fond of reading. It is( my, me) hobby. 19) Do you see that boy? Give (my, me) an apple. 20) Tennis is (me, my) favourite sport.















TYPES OF QUESTIONS (Типы вопросов)

I. The General Question (Yes/No questions) (Общий вопрос)

—  относится ко всему предложению в целом;

—  требует ответа, начинающегося с yes или по;

—  начинается с вспомогательного глагола (глагола-связки);

—   

 Вспомогательный глагол + подлежащее + основной глагол + …?

 

 Рrеsent Simple Do you live in Saratov? Does he study at the University?

Present Progressive Is the child drawing? Are they going home now?

Future Simple Will you come tomorrow? Will he go there next week?

Past Simple Did your sister come to you yesterday?

Present Perfect Have you already been there? Has she done it ?

II. The Special Question (Wh-questions) (Специальный вопрос)

—  относится к части предложения;

—  в качестве ответа требует конкретную информацию;

—  начинается с вопросительного слова, за которым следует вспомогательный глагол (what-что, какой, whom- чей, which- который, какой, whose- чей, how- как, when- когда, where- где, why- почему);

— 

Вопросит, слово + вспомогат. глагол + подлежащее + основной глагол + …?

 

Рrеsent Simple Where do you live?

Present Progressive What is the child doing?

Future Simple When will you come tomorrow?

Past Simple Where did he find it?

Present Perfect Why have you been there?

Вопрос к подлежащему.

Начинается с вопрос. слова who (для одушевленных) и what (для неодушевленных предметов)

- Прямой порядок слов.

Рrеsent Simple We know her address. Who knows her address?(без вспом. глагола,к основному глаголу прибавляется окончание -s или –es)

Present Progressive You are going home . Who is going home ?( вспом. глагол to be в форме is ,подлежащее заменяем на Who)

Future Simple You will come tomorrow. Who will come tomorrow?( вспом. глагол will,

 подлежащее заменяем на Who)

Past Simple You asked me about it. Who asked me about it? ?(без вспом. глагола,

 подлежащее заменяем на Who)

Present Perfect We have been there. Who has been there? ( вспом. глагол has, подлежащее заменяем на Who)

III Alternative Question ( Альтернативный вопрос)

представляет собой вопрос выбора между двумя действиями, предметами, явлениями и т.п.;

- повышение тона перед союзом or- или;

 

 Вспомогат. глагол + подлежащее + основной глагол + or + …?

 

Рrеsent Simple I prefer skating. Do you prefer skating or skiing?

Present Progressive I am keen on reading. Are you keen on travelling or reading?

He is studying Maths. Is he studying Maths or Physics?

Future Simple He will come tomorrow. Will he or she come tomorrow?

Past Simple He studied at a lyceum. Did he study at a gymnasium or at a lyceum ?

Present Perfect She has already done this task. Has she done or started this task?

IV. The Disjunctive Question (Tag-question) (Разделительный вопрос)

состоит из двух частей:

- первая часть- повествовательное предложение с прямым порядком слов

 - вторая часть так называемый вопросительный "хвостик"

если первая часть имеет утвердительную форму, "хвостик" строится как отрицание, и наоборот (+ - или - + )

 

Утвердительное предложение , вспомогательный глагол + not +

подлежащее, выраженное личным местоимением?

Отрицательное предложение , вспомогательный глагол +

 Подлежащее ,выраженное личным местоимением?

Рrеsent Simple Kolya prefers skating, does not he?He doesn't go in for sports, does he? John is a driver, isn't he? He isn 't a painter, is he ?

Present Progressive I am keen on reading. I am keen on reading, am not I?

Future Simple He will not come tomorrow. He will not come tomorrow, will he?

Past Simple Mary went to school. Mary went to school, did not she?

Present Perfect You have sent the parcel. You have sent the parcel, haven't you?

Употребление различных типов вопросов

Great Britain consists of three parts.

I. Does Great Britain consist of three parts?
II. How many parts does Great Britain consist of?

III. Does Great Britain consist of three or two parts?

IV.Great Britain consists of three parts, doesn't it?
Great Britain doesn't consist of two parts, does it?

V. What island consists of three parts?





































EXERSISES.

Ex.18 Задайте вопросы к предложениям.

1) Mike goes to the theatre every month. 2) My sisters get up at 6 o’clock. 3) Kate plays on the computer every day. 4) My parents work in a bank. 5) He reads interesting books in the original.6) Tom usually plays in the garden. 7) Sometimes we eat at a restaurant.8) School year begins in September.9) She is cooking a Christmas dinner now.

Ex . 19 Make 5 questions to the following sentences.

1. Sandra always gets up early in the morning. 2. He is dancing with his girl-friend at the disco now.

3. Peter has some problems with Maths.4. They are climbing the mountains without a guide. 5. Mike says that school is the best thing in the world. 6. I am doing well in lot of subjects.

Ex. 20 Read the following words. Прочитайте следующие слова:

a)      количественные числительные:1, 2, 11, 12, 13, 27, 69, 248, 1000;1,008; 1,096; 2,355; 3,579;

b) порядковые числительные: 17, 20, 24, 149, 83, 56, 150, 178, 209;

c) хронологические даты: 1975, 1982, 1990, 1991, 2000, 2001, 2500, 2903.

Ex.21 Say in English.Скажите по-английски:

а) 1 сентября 1984 года, 8 мая 1861 года,7 ноября 1990 года, 21 января 1824 года, 9 октября 1947 года, 22 апреля 1907 года, 11 марта 1951 года, 27 июля 1990 года, 5 июля 1945 года, 10 февраля 1972 года.

b)1 325 543 книги, первый автобус, 1 325 учеников, вторая страница, 266 дней, сороковой размер, около 18 000 студентов, часть первая, более 1 500 000 человек, номер десятый, менее 1000 страниц.











Future Simple (Indefinite) Tense. (Будущее простое время)

Future Simple (Indefinite) употребляется для выражения однократных или повторяющихся действий, которые совершатся в будущем.

We shall see you tomorrow.

They will be glad to meet you.

Слова-определители времени:

Tomorrow - завтра , next week – на следующей неделе,

in three years – через 3 года

 

Future Simple (Indefinite) образуется при помощи вспомогательных глаголов shall (для первого лица единственного числа) и will (для всех остальных лиц) и первой основной формы смыслового глагола. В разговорной речи употребительны сокращения вспомогательных глаголов.(shall, will + V)

I shall ring you up. (I'll ring you up.) She will be twenty next month. (She'll be twenty next month.)

You will find him in the library. (You'll find him in the library.)

В вопросительной форме вспомогательные глаголы shall и will ставятся перед подлежащим.

Вспомогательный глагол + подлежащее + основной глагол(в первой форме) + …..? (общий вопрос)

 

Shall I read? What will you do in the evening?

В вопросах к подлежащему порядок слов не изменяется, подлежащее меняем на who –кто или what – что, вспомогательный глагол всегда will.

I shall go on the excursion.

Who will go on the excursion?

Отрицательная форма Future Simple (Indefinite) образуется при помощи частицы not, которая ставится после вспомогательных глаголов shall или will (возможны сокращения shan't, won't).

Подлежащее + вспомогательный глагол did + not + основной глагол (в первой форме) + … .

 

I shall not be able to join you on your trip. Я не смогу присоединиться к вам в вашей поездке.(I shan't be able to join you on your trip.)
He will not receive the telegram in time.Он не получит телеграмму вовремя.
(He won't receive the telegram in time.)

Примечания:

а)  Вопросительная форма типа Will you sit down? используется для выражения просьбы.

Will you please take off your coat?

Won't you go with us to the concert?

Чтобы общий вопрос ко 2-му лицу не воспринимался как просьба, в Англии вместо вспомогательного глагола will употребляется глагол shall.

Shall you be at home at 9?

В США в этих случаях обычно употребляется will.

б)      Future Simple (Indefinite) не употребляется в придаточных предложениях времени и условия. В них для выражения будущего действия глагол ставится в Present Simple (Indefinite).

I shall give him a letter when he comes. The children will go for a walk if it stops raining.













EXERSISES.

Ex. 22 Раскройте скобки, употребляя. глаголы в Future Simple.

1. I (to think) about this information. 2 According to the forecast it (to be) raining tomorrow. 3. We (to come) to see you on Monday. 4.I (to prepare) to my examinations next week. 5. You (to show) me your new picture? 6. I think he (not to come) tomorrow. 7 I don't think she (to answer) all the questions. 8. We (to work) in our garden tomorrow. 9. How you (to pack) your things? 10. Her mother (to buy) her a silver chain for her birthday.

Ex. 23 Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.

1. My sister will graduate from the University next year. 2.I shall go to the cinema tomorrow. 3. They will play tennis on Saturday. 4. We shall translate this text the day after tomorrow. 5. He will write a letter to his sister tomorrow. 6. My parents will go to the South next year. 7.I shall finish this work in a week. 8.He will come back on Friday. 9. We shall meet our friends tomorrow.

Ex. 24 Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глагол to be в Future Simple.

1) Я буду завтра в институте. 2) Она будет зубным врачом. 3) Где ты будешь завтра? — Я. буду дома. 4) Мы будем в Москве на следующей неделе. 5) Его не будет на работе завтра. Он будет в командировке. 6) Позвони ему позже. Может быть, он будет дома. 7) Завтра никого не будет в офисе.

Ex. 25 В предложениях описаны события, которые происходили прошлым летом. Представьте, что эти события произойдут будущим летом.

1.I was in America a year ago. 2.Where were your parents last summer? 3. It was in July. 4. There was no fruit in May. 5. Did you roller-skate? 6. She bought a new dress, didn’t she? 7. My mom taught my brother to swim.

В придаточных предложениях времени и условия после союзов

If-если, when-когда, as soon as- как только, till-до тех пор, before- перед, after- после, until- до тех пор, как, while – во время.

 Future Simple заменяется на Present Simple.

 Ex. 26 Раскройте скобки, употребляя. глаголы в Future Simple.

1.  I (to do) it as soon as I (to get) book. 2. When you (to see) Mr. Smith ask him to call immediately. 3. If the rain (not to stop) there (to be) a flood. 4. Don't leave before you (to get) our message. 5. If all (to go) well we shall land tonight. 6. Take care of my luggage while I (to get) my ticket. 7. Tomorrow if the weather (to be) good we (to go) to the country. 8. We (to stay) in the waiting-room while Robert (to look) for a porter. 9 .I (to make) you a nice cup of tea as soon as the water (to boil). 10. If you (to come) past six o'clock you (not to find) him waiting. 11. I think I (to wait) here until your bus (to come). 12. If you (to be) so excited you hardly (be able) to think.

Ex. 27 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Simple и Present Simple.

1.We (to begin) as soon as Tom (to be ready). 2. I (stay) here until it (to get) warmer. Mother (to bring) us cakes when she (to go) out. 3. If he (to have) time he (to come) to us. 4. Don't leave until I (to send) you a message. 5. She (to be) very happy if you (to take) her to the theatre. 6. We (to go) swimming as soon as school (be) over. 7. She (to be) a good actress if she (to work) hard. 8. I (to open) the door when father (to ring). 9. I (to see) him again if he (not to come) today.10.I (to notify) you as soon as I (to hear) from her.11.You (not to go) until I (to know) the truth. 12. He (to come) every day to help you with your work while I (be) away. 13. You (to have) a chocolate if you (to be) good. 14. I (to do) it as soon as I (to get) book. 15. When you (to see) Mr. Smith ask him to call immediately. 16. If the rain (not to stop) there (to be) a flood. 17. Don't leave before you (to get) our message. 18. If all (to go) well we shall land tonight. 19. Take care of my luggage while I (to get) my ticket. 20. Tomorrow if the weather (to be) good we (to go) to the country. 21. We (to stay) in the waiting-room while Robert (to look) for a porter. 22.I (to make) you a nice cup of tea as soon as the water (to boil). 23. If you (to come) past six o'clock you (not to find) him waiting. 24. I think I (to wait) here until your bus (to come). 25. If you (to be) so excited you hardly (be able) to think.

Ex. 28 Образуйте сравнительную и превосходную степени следующих прилагательных:

a) tall, long, short, hot, cold, nice, large, big, wide, happy, warm, high, heavy, low, hard, busy, easy,bright;

b) interesting, comfortable, important, necessary, beautiful, famous, pleasant, popular, wonderful, active, careful.

c) old, tall, thin, thick, fat, red, warm, high, short, black, small, light, late, large, fast, rich, dark, quick, sad, weak, pretty, bright, dry, full, nice, wet, early, strong, ugly, quite, funny, lazy, far, expensive, good, difficult, helpful, many, heavy, dirty, clean, near, little, famous, much, clever, cheap, pale, early, practical.



Past Simple (Indefinite) Tense.

Прошедшее простое ( неопределенное) время.

Past Simple (Indefinite) обозначает действия или состояния, происходившие в какой-то период в прошлом и не связанные с моментом речи. Past Simple (Indefinite) — форма, типичная для описания прошедших событий.

В предложениях с Past Simple (Indefinite) часто указывается время совершения действия.

Слова-определители времени:

Yesterday - вчера, two days ago – два дня назад, last year – в прошлом году .

 

Victor hurried to the station, went to the booking-office and bought two tickets.The show finished at 11 o'clock.

Past Simple (Indefinite) образуется: (V2, V-ed)

Если глагол неправильный используется его вторая форма( смотри таблицу неправильных глаголов) , которая не изменяется по лицам и числам, за исключением глагола to be (was – единственное число, were - множественное). I spent a lot of time at the library last month.

Если глагол правильный (т.е. его нет в таблице неправильных глаголов) к его первой форме прибавляется окончание - ed : ask – asked

He worked hard at his composition.

Вопросительная форма образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола did, который ставится перед подлежащим.

Смысловой глагол употребляется в первой основной форме.

 



Вспомогательный глагол + подлежащее + основной глагол(в первой форме) + …..? (общий вопрос)

I liked the match. Did you like the match? When did the train arrive?

Вопросы к подлежащему образуются, без вспомогательного глагола did.

Подлежащее заменяем на who –кто или what – что.

It happened yesterday. We were absent today.

What happened yesterday?   Who was absent today?( to be всегда в форме was)

Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола did, частицы not и смыслового глагола в первой основной форме.

Подлежащее + вспомогательный глагол did + not + основной глагол (в первой форме) + … .

 

I did not know you were ill.

В разговорной речи в отрицательной форме обычно употребляется сокращение didn't [didnt]. I didn't know you were ill.

Для справок:

1. Глагол to be в Past Simple (Indefinite) меняется по лицам.

I was ill. We were absent.

You were right. You were at school at that time.

 He (she, it) was late. They were at the theatre.
Вопросительная и отрицательная формы Past Simple (Indefinite) глагола to be образуются без помощи вспомогательного глагола.

Where were you at eight yesterday?

Was he at home at 8 o'clock?

It was not very cold.

2.С оборотом there was (there were) употребляется отрицательное местоимение  no, как и в Present Simple (Indefinite).

There was no rain for two months.

3. При образовании отрицательной формы Past Simple (Indefinite) глагола to have используется отрицательное местоимение no.

I had no letters for many weeks.



EXERSISES.

 Ex. 29 Вставьте глагол was или were.

1) I .......at the stadium last Sunday. 2) Dam and Mary .......in America a year ago.3)We .....in Moscow yesterday. 4) Mike ........at school last Monday. 5) We .........in Tambov a week ago.

 Ex.30 Поставьте глаголы в Past Simple.

1. Yesterday (to be) the third of October.2) It (to be) warm, and we (to play) ball in our yard. 3)Our dog (to be) with us too.4) It (to like) the game. 5) It (to jump) and (to jump). 6) We (to have) five lessons yesterday. 7) After the lessons the pupils on duty (to wash) the flowers and (to clean) the blackboard and other things. 8)When everything in the classroom (to look) clean, they (to go) home. 9)It (to be) half past three then, and they (to be) very hungry.10) The children (to work) on a collective farm last summer.11) We (to play) football and other interesting games at the pioneer camp a year ago.12) Mike (to go) to his circle early yesterday.13) It ( to snow) in last winter. 14) The Ninth Form pupils (to clean) the street in front of the school.15) She ( to answer) questions well yesterday.16) Yesterday evening I (to watch) TV. 17) He (to be) tired and (to go) to bad at half past ten.18) My brother and I (to be) at camp from the first of July to the twentieth of July.19) We (to take) warm things with us, because it (to be), cold. 20) My father (to give) us good ideas for our pictures. 21) Everything in the country (to look) beautiful when we (to be) there last spring. 22) Mike (to show) her how to take off her skis.

 Ex.31 Поставь глаголы в Past Simple.1.My sister … to England last summer (to travel).2. Ann … an interesting book yesterday (to buy).3.Helen … French last year (to study). 4. Kate … dinner two days ago (to cook).5. Не … to the south last year (to go).6. My friend … a letter yesterday (to write).7. I … English ten years ago (to study). 8.They … coffee yesterday morning (to drink).9. I and my friend       … to France, last year (to travel).10. Tom …me a telegram two days ago (to send).11. Is Kate at home? Yes, she … 5 minutes ago (to arrive).12. Yesterday I … early and …a shower (to get up, to have) 13. She … yesterday afternoon (to come).14.My granny … a chocolate cake last Sunday (to make).15. I … TV yesterday (to watch)

Ex. 32 Поставь вопросы к предложениям.1. Lena lived in Moscow in 1998. 2. She walked to the station. 3. The cat liked fish. 4. The students worked in the garden. 5. They went to the cinema yesterday. 6. She told us a very interesting story. 7. A strange woman came to our house yesterday. 8. I played piano when I was a boy. 9. Last year I began to write a book.10. Yesterday I had five lessons at school.

Ex.33 Put into negative form. Сделай предложения отрицательными.

1) I had six lessons last Tuesday.2) The first lesson was Russian.3) We wrote a dictation. 4) My friend went to the blackboard and wrote the date.5) I went to the canteen after the third lesson. 6) I ate a salad and a sandwich.7) After school I took a bus and went to the library.8) In the library I read a book.9)Then I played snowballs in the yard.10) In the evening I cleaned my teeth and went to bed.

Ex.34 Put the sentences into Past Simple, Present Progressive and Future Simple.

1)We like our trip to Spain. 2)They bathe in the sea every day in summer. 3) Mike lives in the country. 4) He knows well every subject.5) I get good marks in English.6) Helen dances every evening. 7) They play football every Sunday. 8) I like to play chess in my childhood. 9) The teacher writes new words on the blackboard. 10) We study English every evening.

Ex. 35 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple.

1.She (to make) tea for her guests. 2. We (to know) everything about that event. 3. He (to think) much about this problem. 4.I (to be) wrong and apologized to him. 5. He (not to realize) his mistakes. 6. When you (to speak) to him? — I (to speak) to him only yesterday.7.She (not to get) letters from her son last month.8.He (to go) to the airport to meet his brother. 9. What you (to do) yesterday evening? — Nothing in particular. We (to watch) TV and (to look) through newspapers.

10. I understand the article well. 11. I listen to this music. 12. I find many good stories in this book. 13. The students spend must time in the library. 14. She makes many mistakes in her test. 15. They read many English books.

Ex. 36 Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple.

1. Ей понравилось представление. 2. Было очень холодно на прошлой неделе. 3. Я встретил их у моего друга дома. 4. Кто-нибудь звонил мне пока меня не было? 5. Мы не получили ее ответ вчера. 6. Я отправил вчера письма моим друзьям. 7. У меня не было времени делать эту работу. 8. Я читал этот журнал вчера. 9. Ему не понравился фильм. 10. Он звонил тебе вчера? 11. Они провели каникулы в Лондоне. 12. Он сдал экзамен по английскому в понедельник. 13. Я навестил бабушку и дедушку на прошлой неделе. 14. Я разговаривал с ним вчера. 15. Я починил свою машину в воскресенье.

Ex.37 Поставьте предложения в Past Simple.

1. There is a large forest near our city. 2. There are many berries and mushrooms there. 3. There is always much work to do about the house. 4. There is no need to begin all over again. 5. There is nothing to do but to wait. 6. Are there any museums in your home town? 7. There will be no vacant seats in the stalls. 8. There will be an interesting lecture on literature tomorrow. 9. There is a sofa and two armchairs in our living-room. 10. There is always much light in this room.

Ex. 38 Поставьте следующие предложения в Past и Future Simple.

Образец: There is a park near our school. There was a park near our school. There will be a park near our school.

1. There is much snow in winter. 2. There are not any German books in our library. 3. There is one theatre and five cinemas in this town. 4. There is no lift in our house. 5. There is little milk in the bottle. 6. There are few shops in this district. 7. There are three rooms in our flat. 8. There is a new film on at our local cinema. 9. There are not many difficult exercises in this text-book. 10. There are two hospitals in this town.

Ex. 39 Put the nouns in plural.

a) a dish, a fork, a knife, a pen, a desk, an armchair, a land, a house, a house, an Indian, a dog, a game, a lion, an eagle, a road, a wolf, a watch, a glass, a city, a country, a day, a party, a bush, a box, a bus, a class, a potato, a foot, a tomato, a tooth, a child, a deer, a solo, a roof, a goose,

b) a chief, a man, a woman, a mouse, an Englishman, a form, a tie, a page, a bench, a bird, a bag, a copy, an apple, an enemy, a photo, a cherry, an army, a toy, a loaf, a comedy, a dining- room, a mother-in-law, an ear-ring, an ear-phone.

Ex. 40 Образуйте множественное число следующих существительных:

Train, seat, tie, shop, fork, forest, game, lesson, name, week, page, bag, bird, class, box., bush, bus, birch, bench, inch, copy, hero, cake, knife, wife, wolf, tomato, fly, piano, leaf, safe, victory, roof, watch, form, roof, room, pen, lamp, arm, tram, book, apple, day, ship, toy, university, chief, photo, style, handkerchief, enemy, match, bush.















TEST. THREE TENSES.

Ex. 41 Choose the write form of the verb.

1) Kate ... to the shop yesterday. a) go b) went c) will go

2) He ... interesting books in the original, a) read b) reads c) will read

3) John ... his leg last year. a) broke b) breaks c) will break

4).... he like cats? a) Does b) Do c) Doesn't

5) Tom usually ... in the garden. a) played b) will play c) plays

6) They ... to the cinema yesterday, a) have gone b) go c) went

7)Mum ... the washing up yesterday, a) does b) is doing c) did

8)She ... got two brothers. a) have b) has c) will have

9) They always ... fruit for breakfast, a) will buy b) buy c) buys

10) He ... to school because he was ill. a) doesn't go b) didn't go c) won't go

11)Every summer she ... holidays at her grandmother's, a) spent b) spend c) will spend

12)I ... this film 3 years ago. a) see b) saw c) shall see

13)    He never eats eggs. He ... them. a) doesn't like b) didn't like c) won't like

14)We ... a trip to Italy next summer, a) made b) make c) shall make

15)I think they ... the exam tomorrow. a) do pass b) will pass c) shall pass

16) He ... a minute ago. a) leave b) left c) leave

17) Yesterday I ... in the library. a) work b) worked c) shall work

18)I ... my English lessons on Fridays. a) took b) take c) shall take

19)Nancy ... her teeth now. a) brushes b) is brushing c) brushed

20)Sometimes we ... at a restaurant. a) eat b) are eating c) ate

21)She ... a Christmas dinner now. a) cooks b) is cooking c) cooked

22) It often ... in autumn. a) rains b) is raining c) rained

23) School year ... in September. a) begins b) begin c) is beginning

24)Bob ... television, he can't answer the call. a) watches b) is watching c) watched

25)John ... adventure books. a) liked b) like c) likes

Ex. 42 Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глагол to be в Present, Past и Future Simple.

1. Моя сестра сейчас в магазине. 2. Моя сестра была в театре вчера. 3. Моя сестра будет в библиотеке завтра. 4. Сегодня мы в Москве, а завтра будем в Туле. 5. Вчера он был за городом, а сегодня он дома. 6. Она была учителем в прошлом году сейчас она переводчик. 7. Она на работе сейчас, а вечером она будет у родителей. 8. Твоя сестра будет учителем? — Нет, она будет журналистом. 9. Нас будет дома завтра.10. Кто будет здесь завтра? — Я буду.

 

Ex. 43 Поставьте глаголы в следующих предложениях в прошедшем и будущем временах.

1.There are many trees in our garden.2.There is a trolley-bus stop near my office.3.There are some mistakes in his dictation.4.There is a piece of chalk on the table.5.There is much snow in the street. 6. There are many flowers in the vase. 7. There are two pens in my bag.

Ex.44 Поставьте глаголы в скобках в соответствующем времени Simple (Present, Past или Future):1.Не (come) to school tomorrow. 2. Ann not (come) to the park.3. He not (go) to the cinema every day. He (go) last Sunday. 4. Peter (write) a letter in two days. 5. The teacher says that the boys (speak) English next year. 6. When he (come)? I think he (come) next Tuesday.7. Where the teacher (go) last summer? 8. I (take) the book to the library tomorrow. 9. They not (see) the film because they were very busy. They (see) it in the near future. 10. When we (do) it? Tomorrow or next week?

Ex. 45 Задайте альтернативные вопросы своему собеседнику.

A. Образец: I’m a pupil (a student).

Are you a pupil or a student?

1.  Kate is at home (at school). 2. They are in England (Scotland). 3. Oxford is far from (near) London. 4. She is a writer (a painter). 5. She is interested in music (drawing). 5. I am seventeen (eighteen) years old. 6. The ice was thick (thin) on the river. 7. That was Jane (Ann) on the phone.

8. He was rude (polite) with you. 9. It will be cold (warm) tomorrow. 9.The weather will be fine (rainy) next week.

B. Образец: You have many (few) friends at school?

Have you many or few friends at school?

I had dinner at home (at school) yesterday.

Did you have dinner at home or at school yesterday?

They have a house (a flat) in Minsk. 2. My friend has a lot of English (French) books. 3. Our family had a rest in the countryside (abroad) last summer. 4. I usually have coffee (tea) in the morning. 5. We have meals three (four) times a day. 6. You will have five (six) lessons tomorrow.

































Present Perfect Tense. Настоящее совершенное время

Present Perfect употребляется для описания событий, которые произошли в еще неистекший период времени, или который продолжался вплоть до настоящего времени, а также при наличии наречий неопределенного времени: today- сегодня, this week/year/month-на этой неделе, already- уже, ever – когда-либо, never- никогда, yet - еще(в отрицательных предложениях со значением еще и в общих вопросах со значением уже), just- только что, for (a long time)- долгое время, for two hours- в течение 2 часов, up to now- до сих пор, since – с тех пор; при наличии слов it is the first (second) time...- в первый раз; в письмах, в первом вопросе и ответе, начинающих беседу о прошлых событиях. already- уже, ever – когда-либо, never- никогда, just- только что ставится между вспомогательным и основным глаголом

She has already left for Moscow. Она уже уехала в Москву.

Present Perfect в отличие от Past Simple(которое выражает действие, свершившееся в истекшем отрезке времени) выражает связь прошлого действия с настоящим благодаря наличию результата сейчас. Present Perfect никогда не употребляется в вопросах, начинающихся с вопросительного слова when).

Present Perfect Tense образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола have (has – в 3 лице ед. числа) , и третьей формы неправильного глагола, а к правильному глаголу прибавляется окончание –ed (причастия прошедшего времени (Participle II) смыслового глагола). (have/has + V3, V-ed) При образовании вопросительной формы вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.

 

Вспомогательный глагол (have, has) + подлежащее + основной глагол(V3, V-ed) + .? (общий вопрос)

 



Have you learnt this     poem by heart? -Yes, I have,

- No, I haven't learnt it yet.

В вопросах к подлежащему порядок слов не изменяется, подлежащее меняем на who –кто или what – что, вспомогательный глагол всегда has .

We have just left home.

Who has just left home?

При образовании отрицательной формы отрицательная частица not ставится после вспомогательного глагола.

Подлежащее + вспомогательный глагол (have, has) + not + основной глагол (V3, V-ed) + … .



We have not just left home.

 to have + Participle II

Present Perfect

have/has done

Past Perfect

had done

Future Perfect

shall/will have done

Future Perfect in the Past

Should / would have done

She has already left for Moscow.    Она уже уехала в Москву.

She had left for Moscow Она уехала в Москву до

before I arrived.   того, как я приехал.

She will have left for    Она уедет в Москву до

Moscow before I arrive. того, как я приеду.

She said that she would         Она сказала, что уедет в

have left for Moscow    Москву до того, как я приеду.

before I arrived.  

Сравните:а)The lift has broken down Лифт сломался, (приходится ходить сейчас пешком)

The lift broke down. Лифт сломался, (возможно, он уже снова работает)
When did the lift break? Когда сломался лифт?

Не has smoked for two years. (He continues smoking)

He smoked for two years.      (and then stopped smoking)

б)I'm sorry I haven't written before because I've been very busy lately. Извините, что я не писал раньше, но я был занят последнее время.

EXERSISES.

Ex 46 Заполните пропуски глаголом has пли have:

1.Mum … already cooked dinner.2.My friends … not watched this film.3.I … never been to England. 4. He ... gone home. 5. ... she come yet? 6. They ... gone home. 7. ... they gone home? 8. The bus ... gone. 9. I ... found it. 10. ... the bus gone? 11. Where ... he been? 12. Where ... you been? 13. I ... got some interesting books.

Ex 47 Поставьте глаголы в Present Perfect.

1.I (clean) ...........the room.2. He (not read)...........this book.3. We (play) .........football.4. She (be) ........to America.5. I ( not see) ..........her yet.

Ex48 Напишите предложения в Present Perfect, добавив нужные наречия. 1.He is leaving home at the moment.2. She does her homework in the evening.3. They are crossing the road.4. He sends me two letters every month. 5. Mr.Norris finishes the work at 5 p.m.

Ex 49 Задайте 4 вопроса к предложению.

1.We have seen a good film recently.2. I have done a lot of work today.3.He has been in the yard.

Ex. 50 Переведите на английский язык.

1.Они были в Америке в этом году. 2.Я только что встретил Тома. 3.Мы уже перевели этот текст.

Ex . 51 Complete the sentences with how long, since, for, already, yet.

1. My sister has been at the University … six months. 2. ... have you known John and Susan? 3. Haven't you typed those letters ... ? 4. She's ... cleaned the house and it's only nine a.m. 5.I haven't watched TV ... my set broke down.

Ex.52 Поставьте глаголы в скобках в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1.Не (see) just me. 2. They (finish) already the letter. 3. John (find) them. They (be) in the yard. 4. What he (do)? 5. Where he (be)? 6. The car (stop). 7. I never (be) there. 8. We just (be) to the cinema. We (see) a good film. 9. Peter (come) home yet? 10. I (be) to the doctor. 11. I am so tired. I (do) a lot of work today.

Ex 53 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect.

1.I (be) to Paris. 2.I think the director (leave) the town. 3. We (know) her since she arrived to our city. 4.I (forget) your name.5. He (close) the door? 6. He (do) it since we left him. 7. They (leave) Moscow this month? 8. He (not bring) a lot of French papers. 9.I (get) a long letter from father this week.10. She just (come); she will speak to you in a minute. 11. This order (lead) to many misunderstandings.12. He (write) his name on my book.

Ex 54 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1.I (meet) two of my friends today. I (meet) them on mу way to school. 2. A month ago my uncle (build) a new house in the country. We (visit) it recently and (enjoy) ourselves very much. 3. He (forget) to close the window when he (leave) the house. 4. He (write) several letters this week. 5. Where Helen (go)? I don't see her here. — She (go) home an hour ago. 6. When the concert (to begin)? 7.1 don't think I ever (to see) such a beautiful garden as this one. 8. Jack London (to be born) in San Francisco in an extremely poor family. 9. You (to read) many books by Jack London? 10. How careless you are! You (to break) your mother’s favourite cup.

Ex.55 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1.I never (to hear) this story from my father. 2. He (to be) a reader of this magazine for years. 3. She (to be) ill last week. 4.I cannot tell you whether I like this book, as I not (to read) it. 5. My mother not (to come) home yet. 6. I (to be) there last year. 7. When you last (to see) him? 8.I cannot give you this book as I (to give) it to Ann. When you (to give) it to her? 9. The child (to be) quite all right for the last two weeks. 10. It is cold today. The weather (to change) since yesterday. 11. You ever (to visit) this picture gallery? 12.I (to lose) my textbook and cannot remember when I last (to see) it.

Ex 56 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1. Не never (to be) in Germany. 2. He (not to answer) my letter. 3. My mother (to go) to the country a month ago. 4. His brother not (to go) to school yesterday. 5. Where you (to be) last night? 6. You (to receive) a letter from your father this week? 7.I (to see) Ann on Wednesday. 8. My mother just (to go) out. 9. She never (to read) this book. 10.I (not to come) to you yesterday because I (to be) very busy. 11. When you (to write) a letter to your friend? — I (to write) a letter to him this week. 12. How many books you (to read) this week? 13. I (to be) at the theatre five or six times last month. 14. I (to reply) to his letter today. 15. They (to lose) their way. 16. I (to speak) to him about it over and over again. 17. I (to speak) to him about it yesterday. 18. He (to be) in Vienna several times.

Ex . 57 Choose the correct item.

1. We (live/have lived) in Hastinhs. 2. I (got/have got) two brothers and a sister. 3. He (plays/is playing) football once a week. 4. We (are/ have been) here since the shop opened. 5. I always (am drinking/drinks) black coffee. 6. (Has/does) he got a camera?7. When did you (got/get) home last night? 8. (We're/We) going to stay at home today. 9. We (knew/have known) them for a long time. 10. I (worked/am working) there two years ago.

Ex . 58 Put the words in the correct order.

1.I/on Saturday/didn't/you/at the party/see/night. 2. Some/in the library/ we/interesting/books/found. 3.Walked/ around the town/have/I. 4. Every week-end/do/clean/you/the house? 5.Slowly/he/getting/is/better.

Ex. 59 Переведите на английский язык.1)Вы смотрели вчера вечером фильм по телевизору? – Да. Вам он понравился? – Не очень. 2)Что ты делала в выходные дни? –Я ходила по грибы (to go mushrooms). 3)Когда ты приехал?- Я приехал на прошлой неделе. Ты хорошо (well) доехал?

Ex.60 a) Напишите в каком времени вы бы перевели эти предложения.

Мы играем в прятки сейчас.

Моя тётя только что приготовила завтрак.

Я поеду на море следующим летом.

Мы убираем свою комнату раз в неделю

Гости уехали неделю назад.

b) Соотнесите время и способ его образования.

1. Past Simple

2 Present Progressive

3 Future Simple

4 Present Simple

 5 Present Perfect,

V2

V, Vs

to be + Ving

will/shall + V

have + V3

c) Добавьте к каждому предложению подходящий указатель времени.

1. I went to school....... .

2. I go to school .......

3. I am going to school......

4. I have....... gone to school.

5. . I shall go to school......

( next Monday, yesterday, now, already, every day)







EXERSISES.

Ex.61 Раскройте скобки и поставьте глагол в нужном времени.

1. I never ( cook) dinner myself.

2. She ( make ) a cake at the present moment.

3. He ( visit ) my granny next summer.

4. They ( see) this film last week.

5. My friend ( phone) me every day.

Ex.62 Измените предложения в соответствии с местом действия.

1.  I write letters every day. ------- next month.

2.  He has crossed the road.----------- 2 hours ago.

3.  They are playing hockey now.------already.

4.  She went to the theatre last month.----- once a month.

5.  We will eat ice-cream tomorrow. -----now.

TEST . 5 TENSES.

Ex. 63 Choose the right tense.

1)  He … newspapers after dinner every day . a) reads b) read c) has read

2) She …. home now . a) is going b) goes c) will go

3) Helen …. her friend in the street yesterday. a) see b) has seen c) saw

4) My brother … just … from work.. a) has come b) will come c) comes

5) I …. at 7 o`clock tomorrow. a) get up b) shall get up c) got

6) They often … to the theatre. a) go b) will go c) have gone

7)We …. an English lesson at this moment. a) have b) are having c) have had

8) My family … to England last year. a) went b) go c) has gone

9) I …. already …my homework . a) shall do b) did c) have done

10) I ….. to you tomorrow. a) shall come b) came c) will come

11) He … to school by bus every day. a)goes b) shall go c) will go

12) What … you … now ? a) are doing b) will do c) have done

13) Where …. you … yesterday ? a) did go b) have gone c) do go

14) I …. just …my breakfast . a) shall have b) had c) have had

15) They … to Moscow next week. a) will go b) go c) went

16) He usually …. coffee in the morning. a) shall drink b) drinks c) drank

17) You ….. for a walk now . a) have gone b) are going c) go

18) She …. you about it a day ago . a) has asked b) asked c) will ask

19) I …. supper next Sunday. a) shall prepare b) prepared c) have prepared

20) I … already … the window. a) have opened b) do open c) will open

Ex. 64 Use the necessary word.

1) Many people go in for … a) take b) beautiful c) sports

2) English helps people in cultural … a) relations b) own c) important

3) I like to watch sports … on TV. a) competition b) kinds c) favorite

4) I want to read foreign literature in the … a) develop b) original c) different

5) Sport is very … a) hear b) go c) useful

6) Today English is the … of the world . a) adventure b) foreign c) language

7) … is the most famous summer kind of sports. a) swimming b) skating c) skiing

8) Books help people in our … a) studies b) important c) often

9) We … many things from books a) learn b) self-education c) nature

10) I think a book is the best … a) often b) present c) favourite

Ex. 65 Choose the right word .

1)  The gallery in Moscow is named in honour to … a) Tretyakov b) Surikov c) Rublyov

2) The history … begin in the year 1147. a) Moscow b) St. Petersburg c) Samara

3) The oldest part of London is called … . a) East End b) City c) West End

4) The first American president chose the place where the city now stands to build a capital and the city was named after … .

a) George Washington b) Winston Cherchil c) Abraham Lincoln

5) The … is the home of the president . a) Library of Congress b) White House c) Capitol

6) … is situated on several islands and has 5 districts. a) New York b) Boston c) London

7) Black Americans usually live in … where life is difficult. a) Broadway b) Harlem c) Brooklyn

8) Russia is bounded by … countries. a) four b) thirteen c) ten

9) Our … shows dramas, tragedies and comedies. a) cinema b) school c) theatre

10) The … begins when the third bell has rung. a) performance b) lesson c) competition

Ex. 66 Use the necessary form of the verb.

1)  I … to school every day . a) go b) am going c) have gone

2) She … basketball last week. a) plays b) play c) played

3) Look. They … football now . a) had played b) played c) are playing

4) He … to the library every month. a) go b) goes c) went

5) We ….. the book this week. a)are reading b) were reading c)have read

6) Lena …. to the stadium tomorrow . a) was going b) has gone c) will go

7) John … to the cinema yesterday. a) is going b) went c) go

8) She … just … the exercise. a) is doing b) has done c) did

9) He …. his work by 6 o’clock. a) finished b) had finished c) was finished

10) They … a music lesson at 10 o’clock. a) have b) have had c) were having

 

Present Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense Настоящее завершено-длительное время

Утвердительная форма

Вопросительная форма

Отрицательная форма

I have been waiting

He

She has been

It waiting

 

We have been
You waiting

They

Have I been waiting?

 he
Has she been waiting?

 it
 

 we

Have you been waiting?

 they

I have not been waiting
He has not
She been
It waiting

We have not
You been

They waiting









Типичные предлоги для Present Perfect Progressive for, since. Present Perfect Progressive выражает действие, начавшееся в прошлом и продолжающееся в настоящем.













EXERSISES.

Ex. 67 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect Progressive.

1.John is in his room, he (to sit) there since the morning. 2. For two hours now we (to talk) about it and we haven't come to any conclusion yet. 3. John, do you know where my bag is? I (to look) for it for half an hour and I can't find it. 4. Look, your brother (to dance) with that red-haired girl since she came into the room. 5. He (to try) to solve this problem for several months now but he hasn't found a solution yet. 6. She (to teach) at school for twenty years. 7. Mr. Brown (to work) in his room since early morning. 8. The children (to sleep) for six hours.

Ex. 68 Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.

1. Mr. Smith has been staying with them for a fortnight. 2. It has been raining all the morning. 3. He has been writing this exercise for two hours. 4. The boy has been fishing since early morning. 5. For a week you have been promising to take me for a walk. 6. The children have been playing in the garden since their mother came.

Ex. 69 Выпишите конструкции с Present Perfect Progressive.

1.No, I wasn't thinking of Martin's cottage. I must have been thinking of another one — perhaps your own. 2. Surely you must have known that Martin took it. You can't have been thinking all this time that I did. 3. And I've not been thinking about it — I've been torturing myself with it. 4. You've been living in a fool's paradise, and now ... you're busy building yourself a fool's hell to live in.

Ex. 70 Переведите на русский язык

1.I have been waiting for you since 12 o'clock. 2. She has been working here for 2 hours. 3. For how long have they been sleeping? 4. What have you been doing? — I have been marking essays. 5. I have been pruning my roses. 6. I've been waiting here since three o'clock. 7. I've been drinking too much. 8. That noise has been going on since they came home. 9. The telephone has been ringing for five minutes, why don't you answer it? 10. Look at my hands I've been cleaning your shoes. 11. He has been coming here day after day for years. 12. I suppose you have been telling lies again.

 







Past Progressive (Continuous) Tense Прошедшее длительное время





Утвердительная форма

Вопросительная
форма

Отрицательная
форма

I

Не was
She walking
It

We

You were

They walking

 I

Was he walking?

 she

 it

 we

Were you walking?

 they

I

He was not

She (wasn’t)

It walking.

We were not

You (weren’t)

They walking












Past Continuous выражает действие, которое совершилось в определенный момент времени в прошлом (at 6 o'clock yesterday) или в определенный период времени в прошлом (from 5 till 8 o'clock yesterday).











Future Progressive (Continuous) Tense Будущее длительное время





Утвердительная форма

Вопросительная
форма

Отрицательная
форма

I shall be waiting

 

He will be

She waiting

It

We shall be waiting

You will be
They waiting

Shall I be waiting?

 he
Will she be waiting
 it

Shall we be waiting?

Will you be wait-
 they ing?

I shall not be waiting

He

She will not be waiting

It

We shall not be waiting

You will not be
They waiting.







Future Progressive выражает действие, которое будет происходить в определенный момент в будущем (at 5 o'clock tomorrow) или в определенный период времени в будущем (from 2 till 5 o'clock tomorrow)











EXERSISES.

Present Progressive, Past Progressive & Future Progressive

Ex. 71 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Progressive или Past Progressive.

1.Why you (to look) at me in that way? 2. He (to skate) yesterday from five till nine o'clock. 3. Why you (to smoke) in the room? 4. She (to read) the whole evening yesterday. 5. What you (to look) at? I (to look) at this monument. 6. He (to write) the article all the week. 7. Yesterday he (to tell) us for two hours about his trip to India. 8. I (to learn) to ride a bicycle now. 9.We (to work) at this problem during three months. 10.Be quiet, he (to write) a composition now.

Ex. 72 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Progressive.1. Не (not to wait) for us at 6 o'clock tomorrow. 2.I (to translate) this article, when my mother come. 3. The conference (to take place) from 2 till 6 o'clock on Monday. 4. How long you (to stay) at your parents?
Ex. 73 Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Future Progressive.

1.Завтра я буду работать весь вечер. 2. Мы встретим их, когда они будут идти в институт. 3. Когда я приду сюда, мои дети будут играть. 4. Завтра мы будем проводить опыты с 2 до 5 часов. 5. Когда мы приедем в лабораторию, они будут показывать свои опыты. 6. Я буду гулять в парке с 7 до 8 часов. 7. Она будет делать уроки в 8 часов? 8. Мы не будем играть в шахматы весь вечер.

Ex. 74 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Simple и Future Progressive.

1.Don't ring him up at 11 o'clock tomorrow. He (to work) at that moment. 2. At this time tomorrow my brothers (to play) football. 3. Maybe we (to play) football tomorrow. 4. They (to come) soon. 5.I am afraid it (to rain) all day tomorrow. 6. When the train (to come) my parents (to wait) for me at the station. 7. I (to finish) this book very soon; I (to read) it all day tomorrow. 8. I must tell John that Nick (to wait) for him at ten o'clock tomorrow. 9. He (to be) busy tomorrow. He (to put) electric light in our country-house. 10. What you (to do) all day tomorrow? 11. I (to listen) to the radio till you come back. 12. Don't come tomorrow, I (to write) my report. 13. This time tomorrow, I (to leave) Moscow for Tula.

Ex. 75 Fill in the gaps with : will start , is finding out, has been , have been  studying, lasted, were eating , came.

1) Natasha … never … in an American school. 2) The second class … 30 minutes yesterday. 3) Homeroom class … at 8 p. m. tomorrow.4) They… American History for a year.5) The teacher … which students are absent at the moment. 6)The guests … cake when he … home.

Ex. 76 Choose the proper form of the verb .

1)  A . Pushkin .... a lot of books

a)  wrote b) have written c) has written

2)  She .... her first book fifteen years ago .

a)  writes b) has written c) wrote .

3)  ..... you ever ...... Italian food ?

a ) do try b) did try c) have tried .

4)  I ..... in Glasgow for six years now and don’t want to move .

 . a) live b) have lived c) lived .

5)  He ...... in Paris for thirteen years , and then in 1988 he .... to Lion .

a)  lived , moved b) has lived , moved c) lived , has moved .

6)  They usually ..... to the south for the summer , but this year they .... abroad .

a) go , will go b) goes , are going c) go , are going .

7) “ Why you ...... ? “ - ,, I ..... my watch “.

a) cry , lost b) do you cry , have lost c) are you crying , have lost .

8) ,, ......... you ........ the book ?’’ - ,, Yes , I ..... it yesterday .”

a) did found , bought b) have found , bought , c) do find , have bought .

9) She ...... very nice with her hair up .

a) looks b) is looking c) look .

10) You always ...... the same mistake . I ..... it several times already .

a) make , correct b) are making , is correcting c) are making , have corrected

Ex. 77 Put in who ,what , which or that .

1) Do you know that gentlman ..... is talking to Peter ?

2) I visited the museum ..... is very famous .

3) A book .... was left on the table belongs to John .

4) Have you got back the things ...... were stolen ?

5) Jane works for the company .... sells washing machines .

6) I have lost all .... makes life pleasant .

7) The holiday was not at all ..... I expected .

8) The police haven`t found the man ..... stole my car .

9) Do you know a shop .... sells good coffee ?

10) You misunderstood - that isn`t ...... I meant .

Ex. 78 Choose the right answer .

1) How much ..... ? a) it costs b) does it cost c) it cost d) is it .

2) When ....... him last ? a) you saw b) have you seen c) you see d) did you see .

3) Who ....... the window ? a) break b) did break c) broke .

4) I hope she ...... come. a) will b) is going to c) comes d ) is coming .

5) I ` ll meet you ...... Wednesday . a) at b) on c) in .

6) You ..... touch the switch. It`s dangerous . a) can`t b) must not c) may not d) don`t have to .

7) He left without ..... goodbye . a) to say b) saying c) say d) he says .

8) I`ve know him ..... we were at school . a) since b) when c) for d) as .

Ex. 80 Ask all kinds of questions to the sentences .

1) After breakfast he goes to the university . 2) She is giving a lecture now . 3)You have had a tape-reorder. 4)He has been learning English for 5 years. 5)She studied very hard .

6)They were taking notes at the lecture at this time yesterday.7)We had done the translation by the time he came.

8)He had been doing the homework for two hours when she came.9)We shall have the exam tomorrow.10)I hope , I`ll have finished it by next Sunday.1 1)Tomorrow at this time you will be looking for it .12)He will have been writting a letter for three hours when you come.

 

Past Perfect Tense Прошедшее завершенное время

Утвердительная форма

 Вопросительная форма

 Отрицательная форма

I

He

She had
It

We broken

You

They

 I
 he

 she
 it
Had we broken?

 you

 they

I
He

She
It had not

We (hadn’t)
You broken.

They







Past Perfect выражает действие, которое совершилось раньше другого действия в прошлом или к определенному моменту в прошлом. Отсюда его название: "прошедшее законченное".

1.  Момент прошедшего времени выражается обстоятельством времени с предлогом by, часто в сочетании с наречием already.

2.  Момент прошедшего времени выражается другим прошедшим действием в Past Simple в придаточном предложении времени.

 















Future Perfect Будущее завершенное время

 Утвердительная форма

 Вопросительная форма

 Отрицательная форма

I shall have finished

He will have
She finished

It

We shall have finished

You will have
They finished

Shall I have finished?

 

 he

Will she have

 it finished?

Shall we have finished?

Will you have

 they finished?

I shall have not finished

He will have
She not
It finished.

We shall have not finished

You will have

They finished









Future Perfect Tense выражает действие, которое уже закончится ранее определенного момента будущего времени; переводится на русский язык будущим временем совершенного вида обычно в сочетании с такими наречиями, как already, before, after, предлогом by.









EXERSISES.

Past Perfect & Future Perfect

Ex. 81 Translate into Russian.Переведите на русский язык.1. We had already built this plant by the end of 1997. 2.I had already written my exercise by half past six. 3. At nine o'clock he had already left. 4 I had written my exercise before he came. 5. They had returned home long before I rang them up.

Ex. 82 Дополните предложения для обоснования использования глаголов в Past Perfect Tense. Образец: We had lived here for six years. Then we moved to Bruges.

1.I had worked at this ministry for two years.

2. He had eaten his breakfast.

3. Tom had been a student for 5 years.

4. The dog had eaten the meat. 5

5. Nick had told the whole story.

6. Tom had done his lessons.

7. He had called the managers.

8. He had bought a new brief- case. 9. He had chopped the firewood. 10. He had got a job offer.

Ex. 83 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple и Past Perfect.

1.Не (to study) better than his father (to do). 2. They (to spend) their vacation last year at the same . village where they (to live) many years ago. 3. When we (to come) she already (to send) the children away and (to be free) to speak to us. 4. Yesterday I (to buy) a new watch as I (to lose) my old one. 5. He (to take) the boy to the door by which he himself (to enter) the room. 6. He (to open) his eyes (to look) around and (think) for some time, trying to remember what (to happen) to him. 7. After they travelled in the Caucasus they (to decide) to make a sea voyage. 8. They (to see) at once that the man (to travel) a lot. 9. He could go to the seaside in June because he (to pass) all his examination. 10. He (to eat) all the cakes after she (to tell) him not to do it. 11. The day after the party he (to ask) why we (to leave) so early. 12. After they (to go) at last I (to go) to bed. 13 I (have) nothing to eat and felt very hungry. 14. As soon as he quite (finish), he looked round. 15. I ... never (see) him in my life, so of course I couldn't recognize him. 16. He (eat) quickly, then he got up and walked out.



Ex. 84 Переведите на русский язык.

1. Will you have come home by 5 o'clock? 2. We shall have erected this dam by 2002. 3. In three years' time I shall have taken my degree. 4. John will not have signed the contract before we come. 5. Will you have repaired the watch by Friday? 6. John will have examined the car well before he buys it.

Ex. 85 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Perfect.

1. By next winter he (to sold) all his things. 2. He (to leave) when you arrive. 3. By next month he (to write) his fourth play. 4. We (to solve) this difficult problem by the end of the week. 5. The wind (to drop) by then. 6. When the sun sets I (to read) this book. 7. If you come at nine they (to have) dinner. 8. If you ring me up after nine o'clock, I (to speak) to the doctor. 9. We (to travel) twenty miles more before we cross the frontier 10. Next year we (to be) together for ten years.

 Вместо Future Perfect Tense в обстоятельственных придаточных предложениях после after, when, as soon as, before, if употребляется Present Perfect.

Ex. 86 Переведите на русский язык 1.I shall leave for Moscow as soon as I have finished my business here. 2. He will not see you before I spoken to him. 3. She will return this magazine after she has read it. 4. Don't come here before you have finished writing this letter. 5.I shall lend you this journal as soon as I have read it. 6. As soon as I have come home, I will call you. 7. After you have finished writing this document, please, call the manager about it 8. When you have done the work, you still will have plenty of time. 9. As soon as you have got any news, let me know.

 Ex. 87 Fill in the verbs.

 Could, is going, didn’t walk, would, began, is playing, are, have been, will travel, haven’t

 finished

1)  They … never … to London.

2)  I think he … to watch TV.

3)  … you like some apple juice?

4)  They … not rich enough to buy a new house.

5)  The boy … the guitar now.

6)  My parent … by plane next week.

7)  … you help me, please?

8)  We … this exercise now.

9)  I … school when I was six years old.

10)  They … to school yesterday.

Ex. 88 Fill in the verbs.

Will travel, wrote, would, could, haven’t got, are drinking, has cooked, have polluted, recycle, is going

1)  Factories and cars … the air. 8) … you like a cap of coffee?

2)  … you turn the TV down, please. 9) I … enough money for this dress.

3)  He … a dictation yesterday. 10) We … there by plane.

4)  They usually … unnecessary things.

5)  We … coffee now.

6)  Her family … to buy a car.

7)  My mother … already … dinner.





















Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense Прошедшее завершено-длительное время

Утвердительная форма

Вопросительная форма

Отрицательная форма

I

He

She had
It

We been
You waiting

They

 I
 he

 she
 it
Had we been
 you waiting?

they

He

She
It

We had not
You been
They waiting

Типичный предлог для Past Perfect Progressive — for. Past Perfect Progressive выражает действие, длившееся в определенный период времени в прошлом до указанного момента или включая этот момент.

Future Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense Будущее завершено-длительное время

Утвердительная форма

Вопросительная форма

Отрицательная форма

I shall have been waiting

He will have
She been
It waiting

We shall have been waiting

You have
They been

 waiting

Shall I have been waiting?

 he have
Will she been

 it waiting?

Shall we have been waiting?

 you have

Will they been

 waiting?

I shall have not been

 waiting

He will have
She not been
It waiting

We shall have not
been waiting

You will have
They not been waiting

Типичный предлог для Future Perfect Progressive — for. Future Perfect Progressive выражает действие, которое будет происходить в определенный период времени в будущем до указанного момента или включая этот момент.

EXERSISES.

Ex. 89 Choose the right tense .

1) I .... at the University since September . a) study b) am studying c) have been studying

2) He .... already this film . a) saw b) has seen c) had seen

3) We .... on the blackboard with a peace of chalk . a) are writing b) write c) have been  writing

4) He ..... this film last week . a) has seen b) had seen c) saw

5) Don`t come to the room . The students from our group ..... a test here .

a) write b) have been writing c) are writing

Ex. 90 Ask questions .

She teaches English at the University . a) does b) where c) what d) who

Last summer he went to the Caucasus . a) did b) where c) when d) who

Ex. 91 Fill in the gaps .

1) Ann and all other students are in the lecture hall . They ..... (do) a test .

It started four hours ago . They .... (do) it for four hours .

2)  Hello , Pete , I ....(see) you for ages . – I was on holiday . I ... (come back) last  night .- .... you ....(have) your holiday this year yet , Mary ? - Not yet . I am taking it at the end of July . Where are you going ? I think of going to the Crimea . But you .... (be) there twice .

3)  Peter and Mary walked on to the station half an hour ago . They ....(wait) for a train They ....(wait) for half an hour.

4) - Where ... (go) ? – Oh , hello , Pete . We`re off to the theatre .- ...(go) to the theatre

often ? - Yes , we usually .... (go) there every week . What about you ? – Well , I do

not often find time , I`m afraid . – Bye . –Bye . Have a good time .

5) How long .... you ... ( learn) English ? What ... you (do) now ? I .... (write) a test .

I ... (write) a test for ten minutes .Where is Tom ? I ....(not see) him today . Where

is Tom ? I ..... (not see) him at school yesterday . I ... (be) to Leningrad several times. I ... (be) in Leningrad twice last year .

7)  Dear Boris ,

I (receive) your letter about a month ago , but I couldn`t find time to answer it .

I (be) very busy lately . Three days ago I (fail) in History , as I (miss) many lectures and (not attend) seminars . In general I (not to work) hard . Right now it is 6 p.m. and I (sit) at my desk . I (sit) here for five hours doing my work . I (decide) to have a few hour`s rest , so I (write) you . Please write soon . Sincerely yours , Pete .

Ex. 92 Choose the right answer .

1) I .... school 2 years ago . a) left b) have left c) had left

2) What article .... you now ? a) translate b) have been translating c) are translating

3) Yesterday at 5 o `clock I .... an article . a) translated b) will translate c) was translating

4) How many articles ..... you this year . a) have translated b) translated c) had translated

5) He ..... articles very well. a) is translating b) translates c) translated

6)Tomorrow at 7 o`clock I ..... an article .a) shall translate b) shall have translated c) shall be

 translating

7) I .... this article since Monday. a) translate b) have been translating c) am translating

8) I ... this article soon . a) shall translate b) shall be translating c) was translating

9) Yesterday I .... this article . a) translated b) was translating

10) I .... this article before you came . a) had translted b) was translating c) translated

11) I ..... this article for an hour already when you came .a) had been translating b) was translating c) had translated

12) Tomorrow will be a month , when I .... this article . a) shall have been translating

b) shall translate c) shall be translating .

Ex. 93 Translate into English .

1) Я учусь в университете уже несколько месяцев. (study)

2) Я окончил школу в прошлом году.(leave)

3) В конце каждого семестра мы будем сдавать несколько экзаменов.(term, to take)

4) Мы часто работаем в лингафонном кабинете.(language laboratory)

5) К концу года мы представим курсовую работу нашему куратору.(to present, course paper,tutor)

Past Perfect Progressive & Future Perfect Progressive

Ex. 94 Translate into Russian.( Переведите на русский язык. )

1. Не had been sitting here for 40 minutes when the telephone rang. 2.I had been trying to get him on the phone all day. 3. At eight in the morning we had bee driving for six hours. 4. It was clear that they had bee gossiping again. 5. He'd probably been brooding over it day and night — he was that sort. 6. We had been walking in the rain for many hours when we saw house. 7. She had been sitting there for half an hour before it started raining. 8. He had been looking for the glasses for an hour before he realized he had them in his pocket. 9. He had been waiting for her for a long time before she came. 10. Tom had been doing his homework for an hour when his friend came to see him.

Ex. 95 Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы. 1. I thought you had been working here for five years. 2. John said the children had been playing in the garden since nine o'clock. 3. By that time she had already been studying at the university for three year 4. He told me he had been working at his translation since the morning. 5. They had been sleeping for six hours when the noise began. 6. She had finished her work before she went out.   

Ex. 96 Translate into Russian.( Переведите на русский язык. )1. They will have been sitting here for 20 minutes when I come. 2. In ten minutes' time I shall have been hanging around here for exactly four hours! 3. When they finish I will have been waiting for them for 30 minutes. 4. Tomorrow it will be a month as they have been working on this project. 5. When the boss will see me, I will have been waiting for him for 2 hours. 6. He will have been repairing his car for two weeks on Wednesday. 7. He will have been working on his book for a year soon.

Ex. 97 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Perfect Progressive.

1.Не (to study) in London for two years when I come here. 2. He (to teach) German for two years when I begin to teach English. 3. By next July she (to live) here for five years. 4. At six o'clock I (to work) for five hours. 5. I (to work) at the library for 3 hours when you come there.

 Ex. 98 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple, Present Progressive, Past Simple, Past Progressive, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Progressive.

It ... (rain) all day today. I ... (suspect) it ... always (rain) on Sundays in England. Anyhow, it ... (rain) every Sunday since I... (arrive) here three months ago. I ... just (begin) to get used to it but I ... (find) it rather monotonous! I ... (live) in a boarding-house in Bayswater as I ... (not, possess) enough money to stay in a hotel or a flat of my own. However, I... (enjoy) my stay here as I ... already (have) many opportunities to meet interesting people who ... (come) from all over the world. Like me, they ... (study) English or else they ... (work) with foreign firms that have branches or agencies here. Some of them ... (live) here for quite a long time but even they ... (not, all, speak) English very well. My friend Peter, for instance, who ... (come) from Basel, and ... (come) here a year ago, ... still (speak) with a strong Swiss accent. He says this is because he ... (work) long hours with an export-import firm where they ... (speak) little English. Although I ... (be) here only three months, I ... (pick) up enough English to be able to correct Peter frequently, but as I ... (learn) English at school here, I have an unfair advantage over Peter, who is a good fellow, and ... (be) most helpful in showing me about London during the first weeks of my stay.

Ex.99 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple , Present Progressive, Present Perfect, Future Simple, Future Progressive, Future Perfect, Future Perfect Progressive.

1.I ... (wait) for you at the hotel at midday tomorrow. 2. All the time you are toiling(трудиться) in the office next week, I... (enjoy) myself on the beach! 3."Don't worry," said the doctor, "your bones ... (mend-заживать) nicely in a few days." 4.I ... (finish) everything by the time you get back tomorrow. 5.I... (have) an operation then, so don't come until some weeks later. 6.1 wonder what I... (do) at this time tomorrow. 7.I hope you ... (work) at this time tomorrow. 8. Please show me the painting when you ... (complete) it. 9.I ... (live) here twenty years next September.10. When you ... (do) your homework, pay particular attention to neatness (аккуратность). 11. When you ... (live) in London as long as I, you will know its geography fairly well. 12 ... I (see) you next week? I'd like to know for certain.

Ex. 100 Ask questions

1)The contract had been signed by the end of last month.(What)2)The suitcase was being packed when she called.(Was)3)The letter is being translated from Russian into English at the moment by our translator.(By whom)4)The flat has been already sold.(Has)5)The house will be renovated next month.(When)6)The first telephone was invented by Alexander Bell in 1876.(When)(By whom).

Сопоставление Present Simple, Present Progressive, Present Perfect и Present Perfect Progressive

1. Present Simple (действие происходит вообще, не в момент разговора)

Не usually goes to the Institute.

Он обычно ходит в институт.

2. Present Progressive (действие еще про-
исходит в момент разговора)

Не is still going to the Institute.

Он все еще идет в институт.

3. Present Perfect (действие уже произошло к моменту разговора)

Не has gone to the Institute.

Он уже ушел в институт.

4. Present Perfect Progressive (действие уже продолжалось до момента разговора и
все еще происходит)

This has been going on for two hours. Это продолжается
уже 2 часа.

 Сопоставление Past Simple, Past Progressive, Past Perfect и Past Perfect Progressive

1. Past Simple (действие проис-
ходило в прошлом, не в момент разговора)

Не went to the Institute yesterday.

Он ходил в институт вчера.

2. Past Progressive (действие все еще происходило в определенный момент прошедшего времени)

Не was going to the Institute when I met him. Он шел в институт, когда я его встретил.

3. Past Perfect (действие уже
произошло к определенному моменту прошедшего времени)

Не had gone to the Institute before I came.

Он уже ушел в институт до того, как я
пришел.





Сопоставление Future Simple, Future Progressive, Future Perfect и Future Perfect Progressive





1. Future Simple (действие будет
происходить в будущем)

She will go to the Institute next year.

Она будет ходить в институт в будущем году.

2. Future Progressive (действие все еще
будет происходить в определенный
момент будущего)

Не will be going to the Institute when I
meet him.Он будет идти в институт, когда я его встречу.

3. Future Perfect (действие уже
произойдет к определенному моменту в будущем)

Не will have gone to the Institute before I come. Он уже уйдет в институт до того, как я приду.

4. Future Perfect Progressive (действие уже будет происходить до определенного момента в будущем и все еще будет продолжаться)

This will have been going on for 2 hours when you arrive. Это будет продолжаться уже в течение 2 часов, когда вы приедете.

 













EXERSISES.

Ex. 101 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple, Present Progressive, Past Simple, Past Progressive, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Progressive.

1.I ... still not (find) the stocking I lost last week.

2.      What... you (eat)? Your lips and chin are purple!

3.My family ... (live) in the same house for 3 years now.

4. ... you (finish) the book I lent you last week?

5. Who ... (sing) in the bath when I came in?

6. It started to rain while I... (weed) the rockery.

7.While I... (weed), Jack ... (mow) the lawn. He finished long before I did.

8.My wound ... (ache) ever since it started to rain.
9. My ankle (лодыжка) is swollen: I... (think) I have sprained it.

10. I... (think) about it and I fancy I have found the answer.

11.    As it is raining, I... (not, go) out.

12. Ah, there you are! I hope you ... (not, wait) for me for a long time.

13 .   ... anyone here (lose) a silver pencil?

14.I ... (sleep) badly recently, doctor. What can I do about it?

15.I... (try) to finish this exercise for the last hour.

16. ... your friends (arrive) in South Africa yet?

17. Yes, they ... (arrive) there ten days ago.
18.I... (order) you to do it at once!

19. Go on, I... (listen) attentively.

20. What... you (do) when I came in a moment ago?

21. He ... (fish) a long time but hasn't caught even a minnow yet.

22. I ... (wait) for you for ages. Thank heavens you're here at last.

23. As I ... (go) down the street just now, I saw an odd(странный) scene.

24.I... (go) to see Uncle Charles quite a lot recently.

25.I ... (go) to see him again on Friday but I was kept late at the office.

26.Uncle Charles ... (make) money ever since he was a boy. He's enormously rich!

27.I'm feeling unwell so I... (not, eat) anything today.

28.I... (hope) nothing untoward has happened to you.

29.Our firm ... (make) biscuits ever since the reign of Charles II.

30.Our firm ... (make) the biscuits Wellington ate before the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.

31. ... you ever (see) any elephants when you were in Africa?

32... (work) rather hard and I feel tired.

33.    We ... (learn) several new idioms today.

34.    When I ... (do) my homework, I listen to the wireless before going to bed,,

35.I.. (know) him for a long time; in fact he is my oldest friend.

36.I shall have to walk as I... (miss) the last bus.

37. Your English ... (improve) since I started to teach you.

38 ... you (solve) that problem yet?

39 friend ... already (find) a good job in the city.

40 Why ... you not (speak) to him when he passed just now?

41.What a mess! What ... you (do), you naughty child?

42.    ... you (see) John this week?

43. What ... Caesar (say) when he crossed the Rubicon?

Test

Ex. 102 Раскройте скобки, ставя глаголы в соответствующем времени.

1. And now the trade of this town (develop) with extreme rapidity and the ambition of the inhibitions (grow) along with it.

2. Have you any idea what she (do) when I (ring) her up tomorrow?

3. We (know) him a long time before we (give) him a position in the accounts department.

4. I want the full programme you (show) in the afternoon of the 4th October. I want to see these pictures as your audiences (see) them the week before last. That (not be) possible here, but perhaps the identical programme (run) now in some other picture-house.

5.  He parted from them in the firm conviction that he (receive) far more information than he (impart).

6.  When your case (come) on the stroke of the appointed hour, it (be followed) a minute later by that of the chairman.

7.  He knew he (must) do it though he (not need) to worry about the consequences.

 8. When I was living in England I often (think) how unexcited these English always (be).

 9. I (stay), I am determined to stay here for the present, until the end of June at any rate.

 10."I thought there (may) be something for me," she said opening the envelope. "I (have) anonymous

 letters before now and there (be), not one of them that (not mean) something."

 11. Nothing satisfies him, he always (complain)!

 12. By that time you (learn) that nobody can really help you but yourself.

 13. Is it the same lady I (see) you with yesterday?
 14. I (notice) a number of improvements done in this town since I last was here.

 15. They (add) a new wing to the library since spring.

 16.I'm afraid he (not realize) the importance of this question.

 17. I (dream) that I (walk) in a marvelous garden when the telephone wakened me.

 18. He never (be) the same since his accident.

 19. He got there sooner than he (expect).

 20. He is still a very poor singer for all he (do) to rain his voice.

 21. I have sworn that I (not go) back till I (see) all he marvels of this oriental city.

 22. I (see) him last week and he told me he (quit) his b in the dispatch department and that he (act)

 as assistant director of the invoice department from the beginning of the month.

 23. By the end of summer the greater part of our к (be completed).

 24. What did you do when you (find) out you (lose) your wallet?

 25. Look! I believe it is Mrs. Stern who (cross) the street.

 26 … you ever (hear) of an honest thief?

 27.   These orphans (live) here ever since the cruelty of man (deprive) them of their homes.

 28. "What's the matter?" — "Someone (scribble) in my book!"

 29. Can you imagine that at 6.30 the two teams (fight) for 2 hours!

 30. Hardly he (glance) at the letter when he dashed it impatiently on the ground.

 31. The scientist died without realizing that he (make) a discovery which (revolutionize) the whole

 world.

 32. I (take) to her the moment I saw her and very soon we (decide) to marry.

 33. I was afraid Diana (break) down when she (be informed) of Alan's accident.

34  After you (leave) I (must) apologize for your behavior.

 35. The militarization of science means the open abandonment of the high ideals by which scientists

 (be nurtured).

36.  I never (have) such a terrifying experience in my life!

37.  That clerk (lose) his place because he (prove) dishonest.

 38. She (have) dinner here if she comes tomorrow.

 39. Listen, somebody (knock) at the door! I (suppose) it's the chairwoman. She  usually (come) before nine.

 40. After she (speak) to the policeman she knew where she was.

Adding . Приложение.

 At the airport . В аэропорту

Terminal – аэровокзал Entrance – вход

 Flight – рейс самолета Exit – выход

Arrivals – прибытие

Departures – отправление Landing – посадка самолета

Information – справочное бюро Time of departure – время отправления

Check-in – регистрация Passport control – паспортный контроль

Gate – выход на посадку Customs – таможня

Luggage claim – выдача багажа Lost & (and) Found – бюро забытых вещей

Delay – опоздание, рейс откладывается Duty-free Shop – магазин беспошлинной торговли

Security – служба безопасности Toilet, WC – туалет

Phrases. Фразы

Hello! Here is my ticket / passport – Здравствуйте! Вот мой билет / паспорт

Here’s a hotel reservation – Вот бронирование гостиницы

I am here on business – Я здесь по делам

I’m here on a holiday / as a tourist – Я здесь в отпуске / как турист

The purpose of my visit is personal – Цель моего визита личная

I’m here for a week – Я здесь на неделю

I shall stay at a hotel/ at my friends – Я остановлюсь в гостинице / у друзей

This bag is my hand luggage - Эту сумку я хочу взять в самолет

Here is my customs declaration - Вот моя таможенная декларация

I have nothing to declare - Мне нечего декларировать

All these things are for my use - Это мои личные вещи

I have with me Russian roubles / US dollars /euros -У меня с собой российские рубли/$/евро

My luggage is missing - У меня пропал багаж

I need an interpreter - Мне нужен переводчик

Phone this number, please - Позвоните по этому телефону, пожалуйста

Where can I take the carriage for my luggage? - Где я могу взять тележку для багажа?

Where do passengers of flight … receive luggage? - Где выдача багажа пассажирам рейса…?

I cannot find my suitcase? - Я не нахожу своего чемодана

Unfortunately, nobody has met me - К сожалению, меня никто не встретил

How can I get to the city / the hotel? - Как мне добраться до города / гостиницы?

Where is an information service of the airport?-где находится справочная служба аэропорта?

Where is the indicator-board of departures/ arrivals?- Где находится табло вылета / прилета?

What an excess weight of luggage I have? - Какой у меня перевес багажа?

How much should I pay for excess weight of the luggage?- Сколько я должен заплатить за перевес?

What’s the boarding gates for the flight? - Где производится посадка на рейс?

At the airplane.В самолете

Emergency exit - Аварийный выход No smoking - Не курить

Fasten Seat Belts - Пристегнуть ремни Vacant - Свободно

Occupied – Занято Business-class - Бизнес-класс

Economy-class - Эконом-класс Aisle [ail] – Проход

Seat – Место Seat back - Спинка кресла

Air vent – Вентилятор Life jacket - Спасательный жилет

Phrases.Фразы

Please, give me a blanket / a pillow / a paper bag - Дайте, пожалуйста, плед / подушку / пакетик

Help me, please to fasten the belts / to tip up the seat - Помогите мне, пожалуйста,

пристегнуть ремни / откинуть кресло

Bring me, please juice / mineral water(with ice) / tea / coffee - Принесите, пожалуйста, сок /

 минеральную воду (со льдом) / чай / кофе

I am not well. Help me, please. - Мне плохо. Помогите, пожалуйста

At the hotel.В гостинице

B&B ( bed and breakfast) - ночлег и завтрак Reception - регистрация

Manager – администратор A double room - двухместный номер

Do not disturb - не беспокоить Fire exit - запасный выход

Service – обслуживание Money / Currency exchange - обмен денег / валюты

No vacancies - мест нет Room number - номер комнаты

Maid – горничная Halfboard - полупансион

Room service - обслуживание в номер Key - ключ

Shower –душ Bathroom - ванная

Balcony – балкон Conditioner - кондиционер

Bathrobe – халат Slippers - тапочки

Porter - носильщик

Phrases.Фразы

Do you have vacant rooms? - У вас есть свободные номера?

I have a reservation. - У меня забронирован номер

I’d like a single room. - Мне нужен одноместный номер

How much is it per night? - Сколько стоит номер в сутки?

I’d like to see the room. - Можно посмотреть номер?

It’s too expensive. - Это слишком дорого

I’ll take this room. Key, please. - Я беру этот номер. Ключ, пожалуйста.

I’ll stay here for one week. - Я остановлюсь на неделю.

I need a safe. - Мне нужен сейф.

When is breakfast here? - Когда здесь завтрак?

Please, wake me up at 7 a. m. - Разбудите меня в семь часов утра, пожалуйста.

Please, call a taxi for me at 10.00 p.m. - Закажите такси, пожалуйста, на 10 часов вечера.

The toilet is out of order. - Туалет плохо работает.

The TV is out of order. - Телевизор сломался.

I’m sick, I need a doctor. - Я болен, мне нужен врач.

We are leaving. Here is the key. - Мы уезжаем. Вот ключ от номера.

The bill, please - Счет, пожалуйста.

Can I pay by credit card? - Можно оплатить кредитной картой?

Give me, please, the key of my room / one more towel. - Дайте мне, пожалуйста, ключ от

 моего номера / еще одно полотенце.

Change bed-linen, please. - Смените, пожалуйста, постельное белье.

A switch has broken / A bulb has burnt out in my room. - У меня в номере сломался

выключатель / перегорела лампочка



At the restaurant. В ресторане

Restaurant – ресторан Pub - паб

Snack bar – закусочная Teashop, tea room - чайная

Bar – бар Breakfast - завтрак

Lunch, dinner – обед Supper - ужин

Menu – меню Vegetarian menu - вегетарианское меню

Wine list - карта вин Bill - счет

Waiter – официант A dish of the day - дежурное блюдо

Sandwiches – бутерброды A plate - тарелка

A cup - чашка A spoon - ложка

A fork – вилка A knife - нож

A glass – бокал A napkin – салфетка

Salt – соль Sugar - сахар

Pepper – перец Mustard - горчица

Ashtray – пепельница A toothpick - зубочистка

Salad –салат Appetizer – закуска

Herring – селедка Caviar - икра

Sausage - колбаса Wine - вино

Mineral water - вода минеральная Juice - сок

Bread – хлеб The first course - первое (блюдо)

Soup – суп Broth - бульон

The main course - второе (блюдо) Meat - мясо

Beef – говядина Pork - свинина

Lamb – баранина Chop - отбивная

Chicken – курица Veal - телятина

Fish – рыба Salmon - лосось

Fresh-water fish - речная рыба Eggs - яйца

Seafood – морепродукты Shrimps - креветки

Lobster –омар Oysters [‘oistƏs] - устрицы

Local dish - национальное блюдо Potatoes - картофель

Rice – рис Vegetables - овощи

Cucumbers – огурцы Tomatoes - помидоры

Sauce [so:s] – соус Dessert [de’sƏ:t] - десерт

Coffee – кофе Tea - чай

A cake – пирожное Sweets - конфеты

Jam – варенье Fruit - фрукты

Ice-cream – мороженое Hot - горячий

Cold – холодный Fresh - свежий

Boiled – вареный Fried - жареный

Smoked – копченый Salted - соленый

Spicy – острый No salt - без соли

Sweet – сладкий Sparkling - газированный

Still - не газированный A bottle - бутылка

Phrases.Фразы

A table for one / two, please - Мне нужен столик на одного / на двоих .

Give me a menu, please - Дайте меню, пожалуйста

Do you have a menu in Russian? - У вас есть меню на русском языке?

What do you recommended for dinner? - Что лучше взять на обед?

I would like to order … - Я хочу еще заказать …

Where is the toilet? - Где здесь туалет?

The bill, please - Счет, пожалуйста

Thank you, the meal was very good - Спасибо, все было очень вкусно



Shops and Shopping. Магазины и покупки.

Open – открыто Opening hours - часы работы

Close – закрыто Sale - распродажа

Ground floor - цокольный этаж Food - продукты

Men’s wear - мужская одежда Women’s wear - женская одежда

Customer services -обслуживание покупателей

Department store – универмаг Shopping centre - торговый центр

Supermarket – супермаркет Market - рынок

Basket – корзина Plastic bag - пакет

Shop assistant – продавец Customer - покупатель

Things – вещи Size - размер

Pay desk – касса Money - деньги

Change – сдача Coins - монеты

Credit card - кредитная карта Cheque - чек

Price – цена Discount – скидка

Clothes – одежда Shoes - обувь

Hats – шляпы Children clothes - товары для детей

Toys – игрушки China - посуда

Camera – фотоаппараты Household goods - хозтовары

Electric goods – электротовары Sports - спорттовары

Underwear - нижнее белье Souvenirs - сувениры

Jeweller’s - ювелирные изделия Perfumes - духи

Groceries – бакалея Confectionary - кондитерские изделия

Phrases.Фразы

Where is a shopping centre? – Где здесь торговый центр?

I want to buy … - Я хочу купить …

I need … - Мне нужно …

I have … - У меня есть …

I’m just looking – Я просто смотрю.

How much is it? – Сколько стоит?

Give me, please … - Дайте мне …

Where is a fitting room? – Где здесь примерочная?

Where is a lift? – Где лифт?

Show me, please … - Покажите мне …

Could you help me? – Не поможете мне?

I’ll take it – Я это беру.

It’s too small/big for me – Это мне мало / велико.

My size is … - Мой размер …

I want the same but of other colour – Мне нужен другой цвет.

Can I use a credit card? – Я могу заплатить кредитной карточкой?

Can I change this thing? – Можно обменять эту вещь?

Where is the sale here? – Где здесь распродажа?

Shall I get my money back? – Мне вернут деньги?

At the chemist’s. В аптеке

Chemist’s, drugstore – Аптека Chemist’s shop open - Дежурная аптека

Where is the chemist’s / drugstore (амер.) here? - Где здесь аптека?

I need - Мне нужен …

Have you … - Есть у вас …?

Antibiotic - антибиотик

Iodine - йод

A bandage - бинт

An adhesive - лейкопластырь

A syringe - шприц

Painkiller - болеутоляющее

Medicine against an allergy - средство против аллергии

Febrifuge - жаропонижающее

Nose drops - капли в нос

Give me, please, something for … - Дайте мне, пожалуйста, что-нибудь от …

A headache [hedeik] - головной боли

A cold – простуды, насморка

A cough [kof] - кашля

Stomachache [stLmƏkeik] - боли в желудке

Can I get here a medicine according to the prescription? - У вас есть лекарство по этому рецепту?

How much must I pay? - Сколько с меня? (напишите, пожалуйста)

At the doctors. У врача

I’m not well - Я плохо себя чувствую.

I’m ill - Я заболел.

I need a doctor - Мне нужен врач.

Could you help me, please? - Помогите мне, пожалуйста.

I don’t speak English - Я не говорю по-английски.

Call an ambulance, please - Вызовите скорую помощь.

I have medical insurance [in’∫uƏrƏns] certificate - У меня есть медицинская страховка.

How could I take this medicine?(write it down, please) - Как принимать лекарство? (напишите пожалуйста)

before meal - до еды after meal - после еды

I have … - У меня ..

A fever - температура, жар

An ache [eik] in the throat - болит горло

A pain in the back - боль в спине

A high / low blood pressure [‘pre∫Ə] - повышенное / пониженное кровяное давление

Disordered stomach - расстройство желудка

Could I see a dentist? - Мне нужен зубной врач.

Could I have a blood test? - Мне нужно сделать анализ крови.

Taxi. Такси

Taxi stand / taxi rank - стоянка такси

I need a taxi - Мне нужно такси.

Are you free? - Вы свободны?

This address, please - Отвезите меня по этому адресу.

To the city centre, please - Отвезите меня в центр города.

Stop here, please - Остановитесь здесь.

Wait here, please - Подождите здесь.

A receipt [risit], please - Квитанцию, пожалуйста.

A post office. A telephone.Почта. Телефон

Postbox, mailbox - почтовый ящик Postal code - почтовый индекс

Letter – письмо To send a letter - послать письмо

A stamp – марка An envelop - конверт

A postcard - почтовая открытка A telegram - телеграмма

A register letter - заказное письмо To send by E-mail - послать по электронной почте

Express delivery - срочная доставка A sender - отправитель

An addressee – получатель An address - адрес

To send a fax - отправить факс Payphone - платный таксофон (монетный)

Phone card - телефонная карточка Card phone - карточный таксофон

Mobile phone - мобильный телефон Telephone directory - телефонный справочник

To dial - набрать номер Engaged / busy - линия занята

Reverse charge call - звонок за счет вызываемого абонента

Phrases.Фразы

Where is a telephone here? - Где здесь телефон?

I want to make a phone call to Russia - Мне нужно позвонить в Россию

Give me, please the phone number for - Мне нужен номер телефона в …

What dialing code for … - Какой код в …?

We have been cut off - Нас разъединили.



Надписи и указатели

At the city В городе Bank Банк

Square – Площадь Cash machine (dispenser) – Банкомат

City centre - Центр города Commission fee – Комиссионный сбор

Pedestrians only - Только для пешеходов Traveler’s cheques – Дорожные чеки

Keep left - Держитесь левой стороны Bank transfer – Банковский перевод

Keep right - Держитесь правой стороны Bank account – Банковский счет
Underground – Метро To draw money from the bank account - Снять деньги со счета

Taxi stand - Стоянка такси Payment - Выплата

No Trespassing - Проход запрещен To cash - Обналичить

Private ( Property ), no admittance - Посторонним вход воспрещён

Danger – Опасно для жизни! Money order – Денежный перевод

Press here – Нажмите кнопку In a train В поезде

Push - От себя Tickets – Билетные кассы

Pull- К себе Left-luggage – Камера хранения

Rent a car (car rental) - Прокат автомобилей Track - Путь

Monday – Friday only – Только по будням In a bus В автобусе

Admission – Входная плата Coach – Междугородный автобус

Admission free - Вход бесплатный Coach station – Автовокзал ( для междугор. авт)











EXERSISES.

Ex. 104 Fill in the gaps with the proper words.

Cooks, wakes, an hour, an early riser, ironing, lunch break, tired, a late riser, o’clock, oversleep.

1)  … is a period of time of sixty minutes.

2)  Smoothing clothes is … .

3)  The alarm clock … me up at seven o’clock.

4)  At one p. m. we have an hour’s … .

5)  When you have a late night you take a risk to … next morning.

6)  It is difficult to get up in the morning if you are … .

7)  The work is very hard and I’m awfully … .

8)  Jim usually leaves university at two … .

9)  She is … , so it is not a problem for her to get up at six in the morning.

10) Who … breakfast for you in the morning.

Word list

To keep to schedule/ to be behind schedule – идти по расписанию/опаздывать

To catch/to miss the train – успеть/опоздать на поезд

Half fare – льготная плата

Full fare – балет за полную стоимость

To go ashore – сойти на берег

To call a port – зайти в порт

To be/get seasick – страдать от морской болезни

To hitch-hike – добираться «автостопом»

Waiting-room – зал ожидания

Tire (Am.)/ tyre (Br.) – шина

Spare tire – запасное колесо

Rear/front tire – задняя/передняя шина

 To fill tires with air – накачать шины

Ex. 105 Fill in the sentences with the following words.

Behind schedule, missing, fare, in advance, hitch-hiking, lower, tire, gets seasick, go ashore, destination.

1)  I want a ticket to Glasgow. How much is the … ?

2)  Fred is leaving on Monday. His … is New York.

3)  Jane doesn’t like sea voyages, she always … .

4)  Where is my suitcase? I’m afraid it may be … .

5)  It’s very difficult to get a ticket in summer, you should book it … .

6)  The train is due to arrive at six, it’s a quarter past six. The train is … .

7)  If the ship calls at a port the passengers can … .

8)  … can be rather dangerous for young women.

9)  If the … is flat you’ll have to stop at the nearest service station and fill it with air.

10) Some people think the upper berth is less comfortable than the … one.

Ex. 106 Fill in the sentences with the verbs in the infinitive.

Speak, not buy, arrive, go, bring, see, get, take, have, make, translate, give, redecorate.

1)  As Barbara was short if time she decided … a taxi.

2)  My niece would like … a new baby doll and I promised … her one for her birthday.

3)  My granny learnt … French when she was living in Switzerland.

4)  Jerry wants … a two-week trip to the Caucasus in June.

5)  Melissa refused … to this party even though her friends insisted on it.

6)  My wife and I agreed … a new computer but decided … our kitchen instead.

7)  John forgot … me my copybook so I can’t hand in my exercises today.

8)  Liz hoped … at the airport at 3.40 but because of the traffic jams she managed … there only at 4.

9)  Alec hoped … all his classmates at the reunion.

10) Kathleen failed … the sentences at the exam and got a poor mark.



I Thanks Благодарность

Thank you (very much). Большое спасибо Thanks. Спасибо

Thank you for doing it. Спасибо за то, что вы это сделали. Thank you for coming. Спасибо за то, что вы пришли Thank you for telling me about it. Спасибо за то, что вы сказали мне об этом. Thank you for the trouble you've taken. Спасибо за беспокойство, которое вы взяли на себя.

Thank you for a wonderful evening. Спасибо за чудесный вечер

Thank you in advance Заранее благодарен вам.

It was very kind of you to do it С вашей стороны было очень любезно сделать это.

I am very much obliged. Я вам очень признателен

I am very grateful to you. Я вам очень благодарен You' ve done me a great favour Вы мне сделали большое одолжение

Replies Ответы

You' re welcome. Пожалуйста (к вашим услугам). Don't mention it. Not at all. Не стоит благодарности.

No trouble at all. Никакого беспокойства.

The pleasure was all mine. Это вы мне доставили удовольствие.

II. Apologies Извинения

1.  I'm sorry Извините, простите

2.  Excuse me.

3.  I bed your pardon.

4.  Pardon (me).

5.   Excuse my disturbing you. Простите, что я вас беспокою

6.   Excuse my troubling you. Простите за беспокойство

7.  I must apologize to you. Я должен извиниться перед вами

8.  Apologize to Ann for me. Извинитесь перед Энн за меня

9.   Sorry? I' ve kept you waiting Простите, что заставил вас ждать

10. I didh't mean to hurt you. Я не хотел сделать вам больно

11. Don't be cross with me. Не сердитесь на меня

12. Forgive me, please Простите меня, пожалуйста

13. Sorry to interrupt you Простите, что перебиваю вас

Replies Ответы That's all right Все в порядке

No trouble at all. Никакого беспокойства.

Never mind Ничего

Forget it Забудьте это

You needn't apologize. It's my fault. Вам нет нужды извиняться. Это моя вина

No harm done Вы не сделали никакого вреда

No offence taken Я не обиделся

III What We Say When Meeting People Что мы говорим при встрече с людьми

How are you? Как вы?

How are you getting on? Как дела? How are you getting on with…? Как у вас дела с… ?

What' s the matter ? Что случилось?

What' s the matter with Pete? Что случилось с Питом?

I'm glad to meet you. Рад познакомиться с вами.

It' s long time since we met last. Прошло много времени с тех пор как мы встречались. I was missing you (badly). Я (очень) скучал по тебе (вас).

I haven't seen you for ages. Я не видел вас сто лет.

I don't see much of you. Я редко вас вижу.

Replies Ответы.

Positive Replies Положительные ответы

1.  Quite well Вполне хорошо.

2.  Everything is all right Все в порядке.

3.  Not too well Не слишком хорошо.

4.  So-so Так себе.

5.  Middling Средне. .

6.  Nothing to boast of Хвастаться нечем

IV. Invitation. Arrangements Приглашение. Договоренность.

1. Нave you anything special (on) Sunday) ? Вы заняты чем-нибудь особенным в воскресенье?

2. Are you engaged ? Вы заняты?

3. What are you plans for…? Каковы ваши планы на…?

4. May I invite you to the party? Можно пригласить вас на вечер?

5. May I invite you for dance? Можно пригласить вас на танец?

6. Shall we dance? Потанцуем?

7. May I see you home? Можно проводить вас до дома?

8. Will it be all right with you? Вас это устроит?

 Replies Ответы. Positive Replies Положительные ответы

1. All right Хорошо.

2. With pleasure С удовольствием.

3. I don't mind Не возражаю

4. That' s fine Прекрасно.

5. That' s good idea Хорошая идея.

6. Not a bad idea Неплохая мысль.

7. I' Il be delighted Я буду рад (доволен).

8. That suits me very well Меня это очень устраивает.

9. That' s settled. (Settled) Решено.

10. I don't care. Мне все равно.

Negative Replies Отрицательные ответы

1.  I'm afraid I can't Боюсь что не смогу 2. I'm afraid I'm busy Боюсь, что занят (а)

V. Congratulations and Wishes Поздравления и пожелания

Congratulations! Поздравляю!

Please accept my heartiest and sincerest wishes Примите мои самые сердечные пожелания

My best congratulations to you on… Мои поздравления с …

Many happy returns of the day! С днем рождения!

A happy New Year! С новым годом!

Best wishes to you! Наилучшие пожелания к…

My best wishes to you! Мои наилучшие пожелания вам!

May all the dreams come true. Пусть сбудутся все ваши мечты

I wish you all the happiness in the world. Желаю вам огромного счастья

I wish you good luck. Доброй удачи вам!

I wish you every success Желаю вам всяческих успехов (во всем)

I wish you success in passing your examination Желаю успешной сдачи экзамена

VI. Knowlenge of Languages Знание языков

What does this word mean? Что означает это слово?

Speak slowly,please Говорите медленно пожалуйста

Is my pronunciation correct? Мое произношение правильное?

I can read English a little bit Я могу читать по-английски немного

I read with the help of a dictionary Я читаю с помощью словаря

Please, say it again Повторите пожалуйста

Spell the word, please Назовите слово по буквам пожалуйста

We need an interpreter Нам нужен переводчик

She speaks broken English Она говорит на ломанном английском

His English is poor Он слабо знает английский

His vocabulary is rather rich Его словарный запас довольно богатый

Can you speak a bit louder? Вы можете говорить немного громче?

Don' t speak so fast. Не говорите так быстро

I didn' t quite catch what you said Я не вполне уловил, что вы сказали

Look up the new word in a dictionary. Посмотрите новое слово в словаре

I would like to read the book in the original Я бы хотел прочесть книгу в оригинале

I'd like to take English lessons Я бы хотела брать уроки английского языка

VII. Special Cases of Replies Особые случаи ответов

By all means Обязательно

To my regret К моему сожалению

It's nothing to speak of Не о чем говорить

It's high time to Давно пора

So much the better Тем лучше

Don't worry Не беспокойтесь

At all costs Чего бы это ни стоило

Don't be in a hurry Не торопитесь

With pleasure С удовольствием

Let's hope for the best Давайте надеяться на лучшее

O. K. Хорошо, ладно

Take it easy Не волнуйтесь (не переживайте)

I see Понятно

I can't make up my mind Я не могу решить

Look like that Похоже на то

 Watch you language Выбирайте выражения

Good for you! Молодец!

 Mind your own business! Не вмешивайтесь

I take it for granted. Я считаю это само собой разумеющимся

Pull yourself together Возьмите себя в руки

I am inclined to think… Я склонен думать что…

Leave me alone Оставьте меня в покое

It's a pity Жаль

Leave it to me Предоставьте это мне

VIII. Disagreement. Denial. Doubt. Несогласие. Отрицание.

I don't agree with you Я не согласен с вами

I don't agree to your opinion Я не согласен с вашим мнением

On the contrary! Наоборот!

Nothing of the kind Ничего подобного!

I am afraid you are wrong Боюсь, что вы не правы

I shouldn' t say so Я бы не сказал этого!

One never can tell Я не уверен

One never knows Никогда нельзя сказать с уверенностью

 IX. Surprise and Unexpectedness Удивление и неожиданность

Really?   Да? Действительно?

Is that really so?  В самом деле?

Well, it is a surprise!  Вот это сюрприз!

You don’t say so!         Да ну! Что вы говорите!

What a coincidence! [kou’ insidns]  Какое совпадение!

The world we live in! Ну и ну! Ну и дела (творятся в мире)!

Believe it or not. Хотите верьте, хотите нет.

Just fancy! (разг.) Можете себе представить!

That beats everything! Ну, знаете! Такого я еще не слышал (не видел)!

It’s news to me. Это новость для меня.

Oh, dear! / Dear me! Ну и ну!

Do you really mean it? Вы это действительно имеете в виду?

X. Encourangement. Sympathy. Regret. Comfort

Ободрение. Симпатия. Сожаление. Утешение

Cheer up! Не унывайте!

Go ahead.  Продолжайте. (Действуйте.)

Don’t worry.  Не беспокойтесь.

Pull yourself together. Возьмите себя в руки.

Take it easy! / Don’t take it Не принимайте это близко

very much to heart [ ha:t]!  к сердцу

Don’t get upset (about it).  Не расстраивайтесь (из-за этого)

Let’s hope for the best. Будем надеяться на лучшее.

Everything will come round. Все обойдется.

Things happen. Всякое бывает.

XI. Worry. Anxiety. Trouble Беспокойство. Волнение. Хлопоты

I am worried. Я обеспокоен.

I am (very much) upset. Я очень расстроен.

Things are bad with me. Дела у меня обстоят очень плохо.

I am in fix (разг.). Я в затруднительном положении.

That’s the trouble. Вот в чем беда проблема.

We won’t manage it. Мы не сумеем сделать (устроить) это.

I feel uneasy. Я чувствую себя неловко.

It’s quite a job (разг.). Эта работа не из легких.

I’m unwell. Мне нехорошо.

What troubles you? Что вас беспокоит?











Литература.


    1. Коренева В.А., Багранова Н.В. Практика английского языка. Учебное пособие.- СПб., 2002г.

    2. Блох М.Я. Теоретическая грамматика английского языка. Учебник- М.: Высшая школа, 2002г.

    3. Губарева Т.Ю. Грамматика английского языка в таблицах и схемах. Учебное пособие.- М.: Дрофа, 2005г.



Интернет- ресурсы.


4. Википедия. Практическая грамматика английского языка.

[ Электронный ресурс].- режим доступа: http:// www.native-english.ru.

5. Википедия. [ Электронный ресурс].- режим доступа: www.

homeenglish.ru.





















































91


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Данное методическое пособие предназначено для студентов учреждений начального и среднего профессионального образования. Практикум по грамматике английского языка  является составной частью учебно-методического комплекса, разработанного в соответствии с  рабочей программой дисциплины «Иностранный язык».

Выполнение грамматических упражнений на практических занятиях, а также в качестве самостоятельной работы студентов при изучении дисциплины «Английский язык» позволит оценить их знания, приобретенные в ходе теоретического освоения этой учебной дисциплины. Целью предлагаемых студентам  заданий  является определение степени и прочности усвоения грамматических навыков и умений на английском языке.

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