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Правила употребления модальных глаголов


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Название документа Modal_verbs.doc

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Volgograd State Pedagogical University

Department of English Philology











V.K.Andreyeva, L.V.Kozyuchenko, E.V.Mescheryakova



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ODALITY








Volgograd

1998

ББК 81.432.1-91

В.К.Андреева, Л.В.Козюченко, Е.В.Мещерякова

Модальность: Учеб. пособие.– Волгоград, 1998. - 121 с.




Данное пособие посвящено одному из труднейших разделов грамматики английского языка - модальным глаголам. Авторы ставили своей целью представить этот сложный и актуальный в настоящее время материал по модальности в наиболее доступной форме. Основой создания пособия послужил практический опыт работы и основные отечественные и зарубежные издания по данной проблеме, выборка примеров была произведена из произведений современных английских и американских авторов.

Пособие состоит из двух разделов: теоретического обзора по модальности и четырех групп упражнений: презентативного характера, тренировочного, коммуникативных и контрольных. Может быть использовано на практических занятиях и во внеаудиторной деятельности.

Рекомендуется для студентов факультетов иностранных языков, учителей, учащихся старших классов, слушателей курсов иностранных языков и для желающих совершенствовать владение грамматикой английского языка.




Научный редактор: В.И.Карасик – докт.фил.наук., проф.

Рецензенты: Л.В.Смирнова – канд.пед.наук, доц.

Е.К.Черничкина – канд.пед.наук, доц.


© Составление. В.К.Андреева, Л.В.Козюченко, Е.В.Мещерякова,

1998.








Contents


Introduction 4

Recomendations 5


Section A

1. Modality ( general characterisctics) 11

2. Obligation and necessity

2.1. Must 12

2.2. Need 13

2.3. Should 13

2.4. Ought to 14

2.5. Have got to, Have to 15

2.6. To be to 15

2.7. Shall 16

3. Supposition, probability, deduction 17

4 Ability 20

5 Possibility 22

6. Volition and Prediction

6.1 Will 24

6.2 Shall 24

6.3 To be going 25

7. Commands, Requests, Invitations, Advice, Suggestions 27


Section B

Exercises

I. Presentation Ex. 1 – 22 34

II. Focused Practice Ex. 23 – 97 55

III. Communicative Practice Ex. 98 –120 96

IV.Correction Ex.121- 123 107

Test 1-3

Final Test.


Bibliography 119






Introduction


Modality has long been the black sheep of the classroom. Teachers either neglect or have no time for training it. This manual is an attempt to change the attitudes of both teachers and learners to modality.

Nowadays, a vast range of material on modality is produced suitable for all interests, age ranges and ability levels. The aim of the manual is to provide the reader with the most common used material. Modality is designed to help the learner acquire and practise in a systematic and comprehensive way the skills he needs to do his best in mastering the language.

The manual is intended for two main groups of readers:

1. Students.

By working systematically through the materials in modality they will acquire the necessary skills of using modals in speech and writing.

2. Teachers.

It is assumed that this group will already have attained a certain level of using modals. It is hoped that this manual will encourage experienced teachers to make more use of modal verbs and teach them to the students.

Modality consists of two major sections:

A Theoretical material;

B. Training exercises.

Section A provides the reader with the explanation of using modal verbs.

Section B includes exercises of different types, levels and stages: presentation, focused practice, communicative practice and correction. The reader is expected to choose the necessary type and number of exercises according to his ability and wish.

Modality is for young adults and adults from pre-intermediate to advanced level. May be used in class and out of class activity.









RECOMENDATIONS


ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТЬ ПО ОБУЧЕНИЮ ГРАММАТИКЕ

(ОБЩИЕ РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ ПО ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЮ ПОСОБИЯ)


Авторы данного пособия долгое время изучали проблему усовершенствования процесса освоения грамматики английского языка в отечественной методике преподавания. В настоящий период времени большой популярностью пользуется коммуникативный подход, предполагающий овладение языком через общение, коммуникацию. Сомнения не вызывает эффективность использования данного подхода, положительными характеристиками которого считается принцип индивидуализации, учет личностных субъективных и индивидуальных свойств учащихся для создания коммуникативной мотивации, развития индивидуального стиля учебной деятельности, учета и развития способностей. Налицо тот факт, что использование коммуникативного подхода дает лучший результат, чем “the more traditional teacher-dominated classroom”.

Однако существует и другая точка зрения на коммуникативный подход и преподавание грамматики английского языка (Celce-Murcia, M., Ricards, J.), которую мы разделяем “… in spite of its intuitive appeal and the anecdotal evidence which supports it (the communicative approach), there is equally appealing and convincing evidence that a communicative approach can lead to the development of a broken, ungrammatical, pidginized progress. Such students are said to have “fossilized” in their acqisition of the language”. К сожалению, обучение через чисто коммуникативный подход сказывается на правильности речи, уровень владения языком более примитивный, с точки зрения грамматики оставляет желать много лучшего.

Подтверждение правильности этого утверждения мы находим в практике преподавания, в тех жизненных ситуациях, которые наблюдаем в качестве учителей и методистов. Самым ярким примером является проблема, с которой сталкиваются учителя английского языка в школах с его углубленным изучением. Они искренне обижаются и недоумевают, ищут всевозможные причины, чтобы понять – почему иногда не поступают в вузы на факультеты иностранных языков некоторые из учащихся, считающиеся в школе блестящими учениками, отлично говорящие на иностранном языке, иногда прожившие в стране изучаемого языка значительный период, вплоть до года. Причина очень проста. Эти учащиеся, считающиеся блестящими в школе и довольно свободно излагающие свои мысли, умеющие коммуникатировать, свободно общаться, в недостаточной степени владеют грамматикой английского языка, затрудняются с выполнением письменных заданий, владеют сложными структурами в речи, но ошибаются в простейших. Фактически почти все свободно говорят на своем родном языке, но не свободно владеют всеми видами речевой деятельности, соответствующими речевым нормам. Для большей наглядности представим себе человека, торгующим на ближайшем углу каким-либо товаром. Он (на своем родном языке!) может свободно ориентироваться в любой ситуации, высказать свое мнение по тому или иному поводу. Но затруднится, если придется связно изложить эти же самые мысли в письменном виде (напр. для газеты) или вряд ли сделает без ошибок упражнения на русском языке (его родном!). То же самое зачастую происходит и с изучающими английский язык на основе коммуканивного подхода – нет проблем в общении, изложении своего мнения, суждения, но -возникают явные затруднения с уровнем владения языка. Higgs и Clifford приводят следующие варианты неправильной, в первую очередь с точки зрения грамматики , речи.

Visa Officer’s Replay to Applicant

Level 5. Under U.S. statutes, your affiliation with the communist Party renders you ineligible for a regular tourist visa. There exists, however, waiver procedures which may be invoked. These are the steps that you should initiate…

Level 4. According to U.S. lawss your affiliation wiz ze Communist Party makes you uneligible for a regular tourist visa. You may, however, request a waiver. Zis iss what you must do…

Level 3. Zee laaw sayz zat mambears of zee Communust Partee caanoht bee geeven a regoolair tooreest veesaa. Owehvair, egzeptions are zohmtaymes dunn. You must do zees…

Level 2. You cannot legulally get toolist visa. It is not light, because berong to Comminist Palty. But you can ask for a special permission. You to do this...

Level 1. You commyunist. No gyet vyisa. Got tryy agyain. Take thyis. Fyill in, plyeez.

В приведенном фрагменте мы видим, как меняется уровень владения языком, каким образом это сказывается на произношении, выборе слов, построении предложений, грамматике.

Чтобы достичь необходимого уровня владения языком, грамматикой, и в нашем случае, употреблением модальных глаголов во всех видах речевой деятельности, мы предлагаем другой подход, отличный от коммуникативного, построенный на основе теории деятельности, учитывающий специфику индивидуальности и роль личности в обучении. Мы считаем, что основным фактором в обучении является не только знаниевая ориентация, не объем информации, не то, какому объему материала мы смогли обучить, а то, каким образом это происходило, как осуществлялось обучение, насколько оно повлияло на личность обучаемого, его мышление, взгляды, мнения, убеждения, являлся ли обучаемый соавтором процесса обучения, насколько это обучение развило его в интеллектуальном плане и соответственно насколько эффективным оказалось (В.В.Сериков. А.В.Шевырев).

Эффективность обучения зависит также от частнометодических факторов преподавания иностранного языка и грамматики в частности: социального, семантического и дискурса (Celce-Murcia, M., Hilles, S).

Социальный фактор предполагает правильное использование соответсвующих грамматических структур в речи в зависимости от цели коммуникации, правильное употребление языковых оборотов речи и модальных глаголов при просьбах, приглашениях, запросах, отказах, выражении согласия или несогласия с выражением собственных чувств с учетом норм общественной жизни. Напр., отказ на просьбу, приглашение будет иным в зависимости от двух моментов: как хорошо индивидуумы знают друг друга и какие социальные роли они испольняют. Посмотрите, как отличаются друг от друга приведеные ниже 3 варианта отказа:

  1. Aww, I can’t. I’ve gotta work.

  2. Oh, I’m sorry; I’d love to, but I won’t be able to. I have to work.

  3. How nice of you to ask! I’d really be delighted, but I’m afraid I have to work that night.

В зависимости от социального фактора меняется стиль высказывания, используемые глаголы (категоричное “не могу”, более вежливое “не смогу”, очень вежливое “вынужден”.

Семантический фактор в первую очередь подразумевает значение. При обучении грамматическим структурам семантический фактор также включает время, место, уровень, количественность и вероятность. Напр., количественное различие в следующих предложениях несет на себе семантическую нагрузку:

1. There are a few good apples in the basket.

2. There are few good apples in the basket.

Первое предложение по своей сути, по смыслу положительно, заключает в себе положительное значение, второе , несомненно, негативно.

Фактор дискурса включает такие понятия как ситуативность, порядок слов и новизну информации. Напр.,

  1. He gave the flowers to Mary. (Мэри,а не Наташе).

  2. He gave Mary the flowers. (Цветы, а не конфеты).

Данный пример наглядно показывает, как меняется информация в зависимости от порядка слов в предложении.

Авторы пособия берут на себя смелость предложить для работы над модальными глаголами систему упражнений, основанную на теории деятельности (А.Л.Бердичевский, Т.В.Габай), её компонентах (мотивационном, содержательном, деятельностном, результативно-оценочном), учитывающую установки, мотивы, создание взглядов, убеждений, овладение определенным объемом информации, тренировку на основе использования правил мыслительной деятельности, развивающих мышление, создающих атмосферу радости и успеха в процессе работы.

В теории деятельности созданию положительных эмоций, атмосферы радости и успеха, особенностям функционирования мышления в зависимости от преобладания положительных или отрицательных чувств уделяется все больше и больше внимания (Р.Сперри, А.В.Шевырев). Научно доказано, что любая деятельность осуществляется успешнее, если в её процессе положительные эмоции преобладали над отрицательными. В самом начале возникают позитивные эмоции, положительный настрой на успех, и обучающая деятельность почти во всем удается, конечный результат также положителен. Положительные эмоции сказываются на особенностях работы человеческого мышления, его эффективность во многом указывает на прямую зависимость от положительного настроя.

Эффективность мыслительной деятельности зависит от множества правил (А.В.Шевырев). Обучение окажет более развивающее влияние на личность обучаемого и его мышление, если правила мыслительной деятельности будут использованы в деятельности учителя (правила «настойчивого», «постановки целей» – не прельщайтесь сиюминутной выгодой, «максимизации удовлетворения» – не получая удовлетворения от самого процесса деятельности, человек обычно снижает свои усилия и получает менее хороший результат, чем мог бы, «внушения» – следует давать обучаемым задания, нацеленные на удачу. Особенно успешно учителем может быть использовано правило «использования вопросов» в усвоении языкового материала. Содержание вопроса - некоторая информация об объекте, свойствах, связях и отношениях (ex. 119). Содержание вопроса содержит множество альтернатив, из которых необходимо произвести выбор (ex. 117, 120). Смысл вопроса включает в себя его содержание и запрос о недостающем знании, указание на ту область, в которой следует искать ответ (ex.116, 123). Пресуппозиция – компонент вопроса, включающий в себя утверждения прямо или косвенно относящиеся к объекту, находящиеся под вопросом (ex. 87, 91, 112, 113)

Прежде, чем проводить обучение по данному пособию учителю рекомендуется осуществить методический анализ нового грамматического материала по модальным глаголам с целью выделения в нем особенностей форм и значений как объектов условения, определить характер его связи с раннее пройденным грамматическим материалом и возможные трудности овладения им обучаемыми данной группы с учетом внутриязыковой и межъязыковой интерференции.

Упражнения разделены на 4 группы: presentation, focused practice, communicative practice and correction. На первом уровне (Section A) мы объясняем грамматический материал, возможен вариант рассказа или преъявления ситуации с использованием модальных глаголов для лучшего восприятия материала, а не традиционная работа над правилом. Здесь же выполняются упражнения (Section B) из раздела presentation, основная цель которых презентация нового грамматического явления (в качестве примеров приводятся предложения из оригинальных/аутентичных текстов), конроль понимания, создание модели по образцу.

Вторая группа упржнений нацелена в целом на тренировку, дальнейшее усвоение модальных глаголов. Этот раздел включает в себя ряд положительных моментов. Он устраняет основной недостаток коммуникативного метода (все говорят, общаются, но уровень владения языков примитивен), на этом уровне формируются основные навыки и в какой-то степени умения. Данный раздел основан на существенном различии в зарубежной и отечественной методике преподавания иностранных языков, а именно преимущество последней состоит в большей степени тренировки тех или иных явлений, большем количестве соответствующих упражнений, называемых drills, что в свою очередь ведет к лучшему владению грамматикой и языка в целом.

Третья группа упражнений, communicative practice, необходима для введения усвоенного грамматического материала в речь. Как известно уровень усвоения того или иного языкового явления считается достаточным лишь тогда, когда обучаемый свободно использует его в своей речи, логично мыслит, выражает свои мнения и суждения по любому вопросу, являющемуся предметом дискуссиии, высказывания. Стимулом для создания ситуаций общения может быть аутентичный материал типа объявлений, использование видео на занятиях, в качестве примера в пособии приводится ряд упражнений по использованию видео (ex. 109 – 112). Использовав на занятии эти видео-упражнения, преподаватель может создавать свои собственные на других видео фрагментах.

Упражнения четвертой группы, teacher's feedback and correction, даются для проведения завершающего этапа, проверки правильности и степени усвоения нового грамматического материала. Помимо этих упражнений учителю рекомендуется использовать коррекцию на всех уровнях овладения материалом для проверки правильного его усвоения, а не только как общий итог. Напр., в начале урока написать на доске несколько грамматически неправильных предложений, которые якобы или на самом деле слышала от учащихся на предыдущем занятии, и спросить обучаемых, что они думают об этом. Таким образом, осущесвляется проверка усвоенного ранее, делается общий обзор пройденного материала.

Мы надеемся, что ваша деятельность по обучению грамматике английского языка, овладению модальными глаголами будет успешной.

Е.В.Мещерякова,

канд.пед.наук,доцент

SECTION A


1. MODALITY


Modal verbs denote neither actions nor states but speaker’s attitude towards the action or state expressed by infinitive which always follows them and this action or state may be represented as necessary or unnecessary, possible/impossible, probable/ improbable, certain/ doubtful, etc. Consequently, modal verbs are generally to be found only in reported speech or thought. The only exceptions are past tense forms could, would, had, was and might which may be used not only in conversation but also in narration. Modal verbs are in more frequent use in English than in Russian, because some of their meanings are rendered into Russian only by modal words.


All modal expressions are less categorical than a plain declarative. For this reason modality is said to express a relation to reality, whereas unmodalized declarative treats the process as reality.


Modal auxiliaries have the following characteristics:

  1. they are followed by the infinitive without the particle “to” (except ought);

  2. no “s” form for the third person singular;

  3. no non-finite forms (infinitive, gerund, participle);

  4. they take negation directly – can’t, mustn’t;

  5. they take inversion without do– can I, must I?


Most of modal verbs have more than one meaning, and each of them is characterized by a specific usage:

  1. some of these meanings may occur in all kinds of sentences, others only in affirmative or negative or interrogative sentences;

  2. different meaning may be used with different forms of the infinitive;

  3. the equivalents of modal verbs cannot be regarded as overall (complete) synonyms of them, usually they may be synonyms in one meaning.

Modality is to be understood as a semantic category which covers such notions as possibility, probability, necessity, volition, obligation, permission, doubt, wish, regret desire, etc.

2. OBLIGATION AND NECESSITY

MUST, NEED, SHOULD, OUGHT TO, HAVE TO, TO BE TO, SHALL


2.1. MUST has the following meanings:


  1. Duty, obligation, necessity (from the speaker’s point of view). In this meaning must + indefinite infinitive occurs in affirmative and interrogative sentences:


No getting out of it. You must play the game to the end.

You must excuse his glove. It covers a deformity.


The Russian equivalents are: должен, нужно, надо, необходимо. The English ones: have (got) to, to be obliged, to be bound, to be compelled, to be to, to be necessary, etc.

Obligation in the past is expressed by had to, must has no past form:


He had to do it yesterday.


  1. Imperative meaning of order, instruction, advice and prohibition (должен, надо, нельзя). In this meaning must is used in affirmative and negative sentences:


You mustn’t call it that.

You must forgive me.


The following set phrases with must are frequently used:

  1. must needs (непременно должен)

He must needs do it.

  1. I must be goingМне пора уходить

I must be off

3) I must tell you that … I must say…The meaning of obligation in must is rather weakened. It’s a stereotyped phrase:

You must come and see me

You must come and stay with us.


Such sentences are a common way of expressing invitation.

2.2. NEED expresses necessity, is used in negative and interrogative sentences and when reference is made to the present or future need + indefinite infinitive is used:

You needn’t do it today.

Need I do it?


In interrogative sentences need implies that there is no necessity of fulfilling the action in question.

In negative sentences it is not always the verb need that is in the negative from, the negation may be found elsewhere in the sentence:

I don’t think we need do it.

I need hardly come here.


The Russian equivalents are: не нужно, не надо, не следует, можно не.

Need + perfect infinitive expresses an action which has been performed though it was unnecessary:

You needn’t have come here, it was late.

In reported speech it remains unchanged:

He said I needn’t do that work.


2.3. SHOULD has the meaning of obligation, advisability, desirability. It occurs in all kinds of sentences, generally should + indefinite infinitive refers an action to the future:

You should work at it.


Should + continuous infinitive is used when reference is made to the present:

You shouldn’t be working. I’ll tell one of the other assistants.

Should may be followed by perfect infinitive. In this case the meaning depends on whether the sentence is affirmative or negative. In affirmative sentences should + perfect infinitive shows that a desirable action was not carried out:

I should have gone to this tub first…


In negative sentences should + perfect infinitive shows that an undesirable action was carried out:

You shouldn’t have concealed it from us.

WORDS COMPATIBLE WITH SHOULD


Adjectives – appropriate, better, distasteful, fitting, funny, important, inevitable, keen, natural, necessary, right, sad, shameful, understandable, undesirable.

Verbs – agree, ask, decide, suggest, think.

Nouns – condition, basis, danger, idea, notion, suggestion:

It is … essential that on this point they should learn from each other.

I suggested that they should put it there.

I think you should allow me to pull mine first.

In the principle clause we may find interrogative and negative expressions: is it possible, isn’t it possible?

If the action in the subordinate clause precedes that of the principle clause, the perfect infinitive is used after should:

It was strange that he should not have mentioned it at all.

Было странно, что он вообще не упомянул об этом.


2.4. OUGHT has the meaning of moral obligation, advisability, desirability. In this meaning it is used in all kinds of sentences. It usually refers an action to the future and is followed by the indefinite infinitive: She ought to help him.

Ought she to help him?

She oughtn’t to help him.


The continuous infinitive is used if the action refers to the present:

You ought to be doing your lessons now.

In the negative sentences ought + perfect infinitive shows that an undesirable action was not fulfilled, in the affirmative sentences ought + perfect infinitive expresses that a desirable action was not carried out:

You oughtn’t to have interfered.

You ought to have told me about it.


Compared with other modal auxiliaries, ought occurs relatively infrequently, particularly in written language, it occurs more frequently in speech than in written language. If the speaker wants to emphasize the modality expressed by ought and should he will choose ought rather than should, but this destinction is lost in written language.

2.5. HAVE GOT TO and HAVE TO are not true modals, but no discussion of the modals of obligation and necessity would be complete without reference to them.


Have got to is similar to the modals on the following grounds:

  1. it has most of the formal defining modal properties;

  2. it doesn’t cover the same semantic range as have to.

Have not to is very similar semantically to must. It means “it is necessary for”:

The only thing you’ve got to remember


Have not got to means “it is not necessary for”, or less objectively, “it is not obligatory for”.

Have got to is acceptable only in indirect speech contexts.

Have to forms its negative and interrogative structures with do. It has the meaning of circumstantial necessity imposed from outside.

In all the meanings have to is followed by the non-perfect infinitive. The past tense of have to denotes an action which was realized under the pressure of circumstances. To express circumstantial necessity it occurs in affirmative and interrogative sentences:


and yet I had to admit she showed a certain courage…


In negative sentences have to expresses absence of necessity (не нужно):

banks…do not have to make provision for…


2.6. BE TO may be also referred to this semantic group of obligation. It expresses:

  1. an obligation arising out of an arrangement, or plan:

Doctor Fisher invites you to the Final Party. It is to be held in a week’s time.

  1. a purpose, a plan:

A knife is to cut with.

  1. a strict order or an instruction given either by the speaker or by some official authority:

You are to do it exactly the way you are told.

  1. strict prohibition (in negative form only):

You are not to do it.

  1. something that is destined to happen, that is inavoidable (суждено, предстоит):

I didn’t know at the time that she was to be my wife.

He was never to see her again.

Sometimes it may be translated by the Russian verb хотеть especially after the conjunction if:

If we are to get there on time, we must start at once.

Here are some set expressions with to be to:



What am I to do?

What is to become of me?

Where am I to go?


2.7. SHALL has the following meanings:


  1. Determination, resolution, obligation, compulsion from the part of the speaker. In this meaning shall + non-perfect infinitive occurs in affirmative and negative sentences with the second and third persons and reference to the future:

She shall do it by all means.


The Russian equivalents are обязательно, обязан, должен, непременно. In this meaning shall is not common and is restricted to formal style – it often occurs in proclamations, treats, pacts, contracts, charters, regulations expressing obligation, resolution, determination.


2) Promise, warning, threat (directed to the second or third persons). In this meaning shall + non-perfect infinitive is used in the second and third persons in affirmative and negative sentences:

You shall not have any cause for complaint (promise).

If you stay here you shall catch cold (warning).

You shall suffer for it (threat).


  1. Asking for instruction, order, wish, advice. This meaning is rather common. Shall + non-perfect infinitive is used in the first person and in the third person and refers to the future and present:

Shall I wait to telephone till after X-ray?

This meaning is used in interrogative sentences.

3. SUPPOSITION/PROBABILITY / DEDUCTION


Supposition implying high probability may be expressed by the modal verb must, followed by different forms of the infinitive: if reference is made to the present, the continuous infinitive is used, but if must is followed by the indefinite infinitive then the meaning of obligation is expressed:

He must be doing his lessons now (supposition).

Он, должно быть, делает уроки сейчас.

He must do his lessons now (obligation).

Он должен делать свои уроки сейчас.

If must is followed by the perfect infinitive it refers the action to the past:

The revolver which he must have carried in his pocket lay beside his head.

Must + perfect continuous infinitive expresses an action begun in the past and continued into the moment of speaking:

He must have been listening to the last orders in his mind.

However it is necessary to mention when must conveys supposition implying strong probability, its use is restricted in two aspects.

  1. It is not used to express future, modal words are used in such cases:

He will probably come tomorrow.

She will evidently know all about it.

  1. It is not used in the interrogative or negative form, only in the affirmative form.

The negative particle not is avoided with must expressing supposition. The negative meaning may be expressed by:

  1. must + the verb to fail:

He must have failed to come in time.

  1. must + unable:

He must have been unable to come in time.

  1. the negative pronouns nobody, nothing, no, no one and the adverb never: He must never have come in time.

He must have no choice to …

4) a verb or an adjective with a negative prefix (suffix):

He must have misunderstood you.

5)by modal words and expressions: probably, evidently obviously, certainly, surely, most likely, most probably, should, ought to, I’m certain, I’m sure, no doubt, undoubtedly, suppose, etc.

He probably (evidently) didn’t do it.

6)by can’t (couldn’t):

He couldn’t have done it.


The modal verbs should and ought to also render this meaning of supposition implying strong probability only in affirmative sentences and in combination with the indefinite infinitive. But this meaning is not common as the verb must is normally used in such cases:

This book should be very interesting if it were written by a famous writer.

That ought to broaden your horizons.


The meaning of supposition implying uncertainty (возможно, может быть) is also rendered by the modal verb may and by the modal words perhaps, maybe.


The verb may in this meaning occurs in affirmative and negative sentences and is followed by different forms of the infinitive depending on the time reference:

  1. with the indefinite infinitive it refers the action to the future:

She may come later.

  1. with the conditional infinitive the action is referred to the present:

She may be working at her article now.

  1. with the perfect infinitive it refers the action to the past:

She may have left for the library.

  1. with the perfect continuous infinitive may or might refer the action to the present or future:

He may (might) have been waiting for us all this time.


In past-time contexts (in reported speech) the from might is used in combination with all the forms of the infinitive:

She said he might come soon.

He thought she might be waiting for him.


In reported speech might + perfect infinitive expresses the priority of the action in the subordinate clause:

He said she might have fallen ill.


The modal verb can may belong to this semantic group as it has the meaning of uncertainty, doubt, and improbability. In this meaning it is used in interrogative sentences and with different forms of the infinitive:

Can it be true?

Can she be waiting for us now? (Present)

Can she have waited for us yesterday? (Past)

Can she have been waiting for us all this time?


Could is also used in such cases and implies more uncertainty:

Could she be working now?

The Russian equivalents are неужели, вряд ли, etc.

This meaning may be realized: in an indirect question

Do you think he can (could) have read this book?

Неужели вы думаете, что он прочитал

In negative sentences (не может быть, не мог, etc):

The news can’t (couldn’t) be true.

She can’t (couldn’t) be waiting for us.

She can’t (couldn’t) have been waiting for us all this time.

I don’t think it can (could) be so late now.

An indirect statement


About an action not taking place

Strong doubt, disbelief, etc. May be expressed by


  1. interrogative sentences:

Can it be that …(Неужели…?)


  1. by it can’t be followed by a negative subordinate clause or

  2. by can (could), can’t (couldn’t) in combination with the verb fail:

Can (could) he fail to know about it?


  1. a negative pronoun:

Can (could) nobody know about it?


  1. A verb/adjective with a negative prefix/suffix:

Can (could) he be unaware of it?

Не может быть, чтобы …, вряд ли не …


4. ABILITY


may be expressed by can and could.

Can in the meaning of ability is used in all kinds of sentences. The Russian equivalents are: мочь, быть в состоянии, в силах, уметь; the English ones: to be able, to be capable of, to know how:


Diane can partly finance a film.

Yes. I can understand how you feel.

I can remember the Bible myself.

You can’t feel comparison unless you can imagine another person’s suffering – can imagine being that other person.


When can expresses actual ability and possibility it is followed by the indefinite infinitive to refer the action to the present or future:


Their greed certainly isn’t limited by pride. You can see that for yourself tonight.

Ah, here is your dinner, so I can now begin my own.

Give me the salt. It can’t make the porridge any worse that it is.

We can call a cab if you need one.


The verb can has no future form, so to be able is used if it is necessary to emphasize future:


She won’t be able to say “no”.


Could is used to denote ability or possibility in the past (potential):


Then he looked at my suit and I could see that his eyebrows went up.

He could make out the names of them.

there’s an empty room on the second floor where you could rest undisturbed…

Why, he could fill all the shops with a caricature of your face and what would we care?


A realized action is expressed by to be able to, to manage to, to succeed in:


Mor was able quickly to install himself on her other side.

Desjardin had not been able to get the image of Carrie out of her mind all weekend.

He gave her a look of admiration, which he hoped she was able to interpret.

She would hardly be able to imagine that he would turn against her decisively at last.

When this subject failed, however, they had been unable to find another …


But negative could not is used both for general and particular ability:


He was so drunk that he couldn’t find the front door.

If I were Carrie, I couldn’t even face showing myself to the world.

He gave me an excellent lunch … but I couldn’t take full advantage of the meal because he talked about nothing but …

She could not explain her dread, her sense of premonition.

She could not reply, for the premonition was on her.

I watched it all and I couldn’t move.



Could + perfect infinitive shows that the action was not carried out in the past:


We couldn’t have known they would be there.

We could easily have opposed our marriage, or at least expressed disapproval.

Any of you could have done the same…

I could have presented Anna with all the Mozart records she wanted. I could have bought you and her.

He could have seen me if he had come to his daughter’s funeral.

5.POSSIBILITY



may be expressed by can, could, may and might.


In the meaning of possibility (иметь возможность) the verb can occurs in all kinds of sentences, is followed by the indefinite infinitive and refers the action to the present or future:


You can buy this book in your shop (it is on sale).

where you can find danger …




In past-time contexts could + indefinite infinitive is used:


You could buy this book in our shop yesterday.

“…I did not think you could have a son so old, she said:

Well, you see I can”, said Mor.

It (butterfly) could fly back, couldn’t it?




The combination of could + indefinite infinitive may also express unreality referred to the present or future:


You could buy it if you wanted.

You could articulate more distinctly (if you tried to)



The meaning of possibility due to circumstances is also expressed by the verb may + indefinite infinitive only in affirmative sentences:


You may see all these books in our library.

He may try to humiliate you in front of them.

“…but of course, as he is my son-in-law, he may imagine he has great expectations.

You are afraid that the value of the prizes may be reduced with another guest.

He has a soul all right”, I said, “ but I think it may be a damned one”.



The form might occurs in past-time contexts in accordance with the rules of the sequence of tenses:


He told me I might get all the sun I could.



Might (may) + perfect infinitive shows that the action was not carried out due to circumstances:


such a tragedy might have been averted if I had only had more foresight.

if he had been given enough time he might have learnt how to fight.

She might have been dead if her eyes had not been closed.

There are times,” she said, “when I wonder if I might have caused it.”

He may not have noticed”, she said.




May and have are almost interchangeable when they denote a certain possibility. But can is wider in its usage than may: can expresses possibility in all kinds of sentences with reference to any time. May occurs only in affirmative sentences with reference to the present: when possibility is uncertain may is used in affirmative and negative sentences:


if he can find a shop open

and perfectly ordinary people can stand at the stop.

Can you imagine her ever asking herself…

“…I might have been one of his employees who was accustomed to stand and to whom he was showing a small favour.

I want to fill in my name. It might get lost.


6. VOLITION AND PREDICTION

WILL and SHALL; TO BE GOING TO


The meaning of will and shall range from meaning associated with volition to meanings of prediction.



6.1. WILL


Its meanings are those of willingness, intention, predictability and prediction, all of which are closely related to concepts of futurity:


I mean I don’t think the bibliography should suffer because we can’t find a publisher who will do the whole thing (willingness).

I’ll put them in the post today (intention).

Your Lordship will know what her age was (predictability).

I think the bulk of this year’s students will go into industry

(prediction).




6.2. SHALL


In everyday spoken language, shall is restricted to the first person subjects, and this restriction is reflected in the meanings expressed by it. There are two meanings- intention which is synonymous with will

(intention); and one used frequently in interrogatives to consult the wishes of the addressee. There is weak futurity sense of prediction.


In the more formal spoken texts, and in written material, we find the meaning of obligation shall of legal language.


No, I don’t want one, you‘ll have it.

I shall save it up, we’ll share it (intention).

Shall I ring at 11 p.m.? (volition)

Addressee’s Volition

The construction shall I + agentive verb has the effect of consulting the addressee’s wishes. It roughly means – do you want me to…?

Shall I get a cup of coffee?


It is not questioning the addressee’s knowledge but his feelings. When shall can be replaced by must then shall means obligation, such examples usually have a third person subject.



6.3. TO BE GOING


The quasi-modal, be going to, covers much of the same semantic area as will and shall.

A crucial feature of the meaning of be going to, is that the future events or state referred to in the main predication is seen as happening very soon after the moment of speaking and as being related to the present:


I’m going to draw this, so that he can have a full picture.


Such examples have the following characteristics:

subject is animate,

verb is agentive,

going to can be paraphrased with intend;

be going to does not differ from will or shall,

and in many cases be going to can be replaced by will or shall with very little change of meaning:


I’m going to do my best to make you happy (I’ll do…)


Particularly will and shall lack the immediacy of be going to. Be going to implies immediacy, and can often be paraphrased with “about to”.

When be going to refers to the past, the implication is that the event referred to did not take place:


He was going to say more when movement among the trees ahead caught his attention.


In some examples be going to can be described as prediction, but unlike will and shall it has present orientation, it means, when a speaker makes a prediction about the future then some indication of the future event is present at the moment of speaking:

I think there is going to be a storm.

(The speaker can already see dark clouds)


Will cannot be substituted for be going to in such cases as it is essentially future oriented. The present orientation of be going to means that it often can be interpreted in terms of inference: the speaker’s prediction is based on the process of deduction.

However, it must be made clear that will and be going to are often interchangeable with only the faintest change of meaning:


It looks as though Carbon is just going to hold him

(=will just hold him)


Be going to is more colloquial than will.

Be going to can occur freely in conditional clauses:


if a prisoner is going to get after-care, he should know it as soon as he starts his sentence.

If you are going to arrive at a later hour than was intended, remember to telephone.


Will cannot be substituted in either of these examples, and can only occur in the subordinate clause of a real condition.

Be going to freely occurs with past-time marking, unlike would which is normally restricted to reported speech or to the expression of habitual activity in the past:


This girl he was going to marry was only fifteen and she was going to have a baby too.


Be going to can be used as a directive:

You are going to do this job for me without any more argument.


7.COMMANDS, REQUESTS, INVITATIONS, ADVICE, SUGGESTIONS.



7.1. COMMANDS


In modern English to express commands must or to be to + an infinitive is used:

They are to/must go by train.


The negative form is to be not/must not + infinitive:


They must not/are not to/go by air.


In written English shall is used to express very formal written regulations which normally remain in force for some time:


The Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer shall be elected annually (club regulations).

A record shall be kept of the number of students attending each class (college regulations).


Will is also used for the third person command:


When the alarm rings passengers will assemble at their boat stations (notice on board ship).


This is a formal, impersonal type of command, which implies that the order will be observed. It is used in written instructions by people who have some authority (captains of ships, officers of the services, headmasters of schools, trainers of sport teams, etc.):


The team will report to the gymnasium for weight-lifting training.


If we move will and place it before the subject, we turn a command into a request. For spoken commands it is possible to use you will:

You will not mention this evening to anyone.


But the more usual and polite way is to use must:

You must not mention this meeting to anyone.


Commands are often expressed as obligations by must:


You must not smoke in the petrol store.

Dogs must be kept on leads in this area.


Instructions or orders can be conveyed by to be + an infinitive:

You are to report for duty immediately.


Prohibitions may be expressed in written instructions by may not:

Candidates may not bring textbooks into the examination room.





7.2.REQUESTS


To express requests can/could/may/ might I/we are used, can is the most informal:


Can I have a piece of bread?


Can I/we, used by adults, sounds more confident than could I/we.

Could I/we is the most generally useful form:


Could I have a cup of tea?Could I have two books, please?


May/might are more formal than could, but they are possible in both spoken and written English:


May/might I have a copy of the letter?


Such requests are usually reported by ask for:


He asked for a copy of the letter.


But it could also be reported as:


He asked if he might have a copy of the letter.


In all these cases the verb have is used after the modals can/could/may/might. These are requests for permission; with certain verbs (see, speak (to), talk (to) they can be ordinary requests:


May/Could I see Mr.Black? = I would like to see Mr.Black.


Such requests are reported by ask to see/to speak to, etc.:


I asked to see Mr.Black.


Note: do not put a noun/pronoun after ask, this would change the meaning. In colloquial English ask for + name etc. Would also be possible, especially when reporting a telephone conversation:


Caller: Could I speak to the secretary, please?=

She asked for the secretary/to speak to the secretary.


Could/might I/we requests can be preceded by do you think/I wonder(ed)/was wondering if:


I wonder/was wondering if I could have tomorrow off?

Do you think I could speak to the secretary?




Could/will/would you ,etc.


Could you is a very useful request form:


Could you please help me?


The word possibly can be added to show that the speaker is asking for something extra:


Could you possibly lend me two thousand dollars?


Couldn’t expresses the speaker’s hopes for a more favourable answer than has just been indicated:


I can’t wait.-Couldn’t you wait a bit longer?


You couldn’t … could you? Can be used to express a not very hopeful request:


You couldn’t wait five minutes, could you?


Would you (please) has the same meaning as could you.

Will you is less polite and more authoritative.

Will/would you can be placed at the end of the phrase:


Close the door, will you?


But it is possible only in friendly relaxed situation. If used in other situations it would sound rude.


Will/would can also be used for the third person requests:

Would Mr.Black, passenger to Brighton, please come to the Enquiry Desk?

Will anyone who saw the accident please phone this number…? (polite announcement)


If you would is a useful request form. It is used in spoken English for routine-type requests which the speaker is quite sure will be obeyed:


If you’d fill up this form (in an office)


Just can be added to show that the action required is very easy:


If you’d just put your address on the blank.

I wish you would can be a request form:

I wish you’d give me a hand.


You might can express a very casual request, used only in friendly relaxed situations, otherwise it would sound rude:


You might post these letters for me.


With a certain intonation and a strong stress on the important word might can express a reproachful request:


You might help me.


With stress on help might implies: Why aren’t you helping me? You should be helping me.




7.3. INVITATIONS


Will you have/would you like + noun:


Will you have a cup of tea?

Would you like a coffee?


In indirect speech we use offer + indirect object + noun:


She offered me a coffee.


Will/would/could you? Would you like to?


Will you have lunch with me tomorrow?


It is informal, but would/could you, would you like to can be used in both informal and formal situations. These invitations would be reported by invite/ask + direct object + to + noun (or infinitive):


He invited me to lunch/to have lunch with him.



ANSWERS TO INVITATIONS


Offers of a drink/a cigarette etc. are usually answered:

Yes, please or No, thank you.


Invitations with would you/could you/would you like are usually answered:

I’d like to very much/I’d love to

or

I’d like to very much but I’m afraid I can’t.


Wouldn’t like would not be possible.


An invitation and answer might be reported:

He invited us to dinner.


When the speaker doesn’t really expect his offer/invitation to be excepted he can say:


You wouldn’t like another drink, would you?

You wouldn’t like to come with me, would you?



7.4. ADVICE FORMS


Must, ought to and should can be used for advice:


You must read this book. It’s interesting.

You should grow your own flowers.

You ought to plant fruit-trees.


You had better + bare infinitive:


You’d better go now.


Had better can be used with the third person:


He’d better stop taking those pills.


If I were you I should/would:


If I were you I’d buy a car.


I advise/would advise you + infinitive (or gerund):


I (would) advise you to apply at once.

I’d advise you applying at once.


May/might as well+ infinitive


This construction can express very unemphatic advice:


You may/might as well ask him=

It would do no harm to ask him.


This form can be used with the third person:

He may as well come with me.



7.5. SUGGESTIONS

Shall we:


Shall we invite Bill?


It can be answered: Yes, let’s.


First, second or third person suggestions with suggest or propose.

Suggest+ gerund, or suggest that + subject + should:



I suggest your selling it.

We suggest that you should sell it (formal)

I propose that the secretary sends in/should send in a report (formal)

I propose that a report (should) be sent in (formal)

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SECTION B


I.Presentation


Exercise 1


Comment on the meaning of the modal verb must and translate the sentences into Russian.


  1. I don’t forget we must talk to Felicity about her future.

  2. You must take some responsibility for the children.

  3. I must go I’m afraid.

  4. It was clear that nothing more must come of this.

  5. I have told you six times, and must I tell you again…

  6. It seemed to them that the sound must be audible on the landing above.

  7. You must give me a little more time.

  8. He thought it (window) must be Demoyte’s.

  9. Then there must be some way to avoid it.

  10. It must be Nan … no one else would ring like that.

  11. Well, no, you mustn’t really. We’ve already taken one thing off you

  12. this evening. Another time, Tim. No, listen, we must talk business.

  13. It must have been part of some joke.

I must see Miss Carter at once.

Why did you leave her for a single moment? You must have willed to lose her!

  1. It (bicycle) must be at home.

  2. The Riley had not gone. She must be somewhere here.

  3. I must finish this. I must work now.

  4. He must see Rain very soon.

  5. The whiskey must have gone to her head.

  6. which made Nan realize that her breath must be smelling strongly of alcohol.

  7. Your own good sense must tell now you must just stop.

  8. he had known vaguely that it (picture) must exist.

  9. You must try to find out your real feelings.

  10. Nothing emerged very clearly from the conversation, but enough to make Nan suspect that more must lie behind.

  11. I must go and look at the dinner.

  12. You must tell me all about Mr.Demoyte.

  13. A choice must be made about the clothes.

  14. that Bledyard must be reading his mind.

  15. I must wait and see that everything is all right”, said Mor.

  16. How beautiful!’ said Nan.’Miss Carter must have one (rose)’.

  17. It must be a wonderful thing to have a grown-up son’.

  18. But I really must have some air.

  19. I must be going too’.

  20. The hands must be another mark of strength in the picture.

  21. That must be Miss Carter’s room’, thought Mor.

  22. whichever way I move, something must be destroyed.

  23. We must wait a little longer.

  24. But you must leave this other matter to me.

  25. You must tell her at once!’ she said.

  26. If there was anything that could be done it must be done in the next minutes.

  27. Mor had refused, since he felt he must stay in his own home.

  28. He became aware that everyone in the room was looking at him. He thought at first it must be because of Rain’s departure.

  29. Then suddenly a sense of great urgency came over him. He must hurry. It was only six-thirty. Rain must be sleeping.

  30. I believe my father – and that must have given him great pleasure– made a lot of money out of it.’

  31. She must be sacrificed.

  32. She must see to them, …that was part of the deal.

  33. You really mustn’t fall asleep until you pull your cracker’.

  34. Not lovers’, he said, ‘you mustn’t call it that’.

  35. He must settle the more pressing problem first.



Exercise 2


Comment on the meaning of the modal verb must and translate the sentences into Russian.


  1. You must know him as you married his daughter.

  2. It was revolting’, I said to Anna-Louise. ‘Your father must be mad’.

  3. I sometimes feel that way myself, but my research must go on to its end’.

  4. Anna-Louise must have heard him for she turned.

  5. That must have disappointed him’, she said. ‘No further invitation came…’

  6. I realized he must have made inquiries about me from my employers.

  7. You mustn’t tell anyone I told you, but Mr.Kips in fact owns this store’.

  8. You mustn’t think I dislike such people.

  9. He must in his mind have been listening to the last orders he had been given.

  10. Oh, keep the appointment if you must’, she said.

  11. One must, I suppose, eat, and I went to a cafe and had a cup of tea and a cake.

  12. You must understand, please, for her sake’.

  13. I must admit that the last party was perhaps a little crude’.

  14. That is always a difficult decision’, he said, ‘but it’s one you must take together. It’s no affair of mine’.

  15. But what a mystery must have lain behind her love for me.


Exercise 3

Study these MUSTs. Make up your own sentences by analogy with those given below.

  1. Children must learn to assume responsibility.

  2. They must learn health habits.

  3. They must learn to value people’s work.

  4. They must learn how to get along with each other.

  5. They must learn how to get along with other people.

  6. They must learn how to respect the rights of others.

  7. They must learn how to respect each other.

  8. They must learn to be cooperative.

  9. Everybody must respect other people’s feelings.


Exercise 4

Paraphrase the meaning of the modal verb must.

1. I think he must have talked to some people.

  1. isolating this gene must become one of medicine’s number one priority.

3. ‘You must be crazy’.

  1. It was a big mahogany thing and it took the screen with it and it must have weighed three hundred pounds.

4. ‘I think this must be the first time she …’

  1. Many researchers have adopted the erroneous belief that where there has been one incident, there must be others.

  2. Suddenly she felt that she must burst into tears, scream, or rip the something out of her body whole and beating, crush it, kill it.

  3. I guess I was thinking Margaret must have taken Carrie to the park to worship God,’

  4. They must know what they’re doing about everything.



Exercise 5


Translate into Russian.

  1. Nobody must have noticed him leave.

  2. He must have left the door unlocked on purpose.

  3. He thought that he must have taken the wrong train.

  4. He must have failed to see his mistake, for he didn’t stop to correct it.

  5. They must have misunderstood our intentions.

  6. Such a possibility must have never occurred to him.

  7. He must have failed to prove his point.

  8. They must have missed the train. They had left too late.



Exercise 6


Compare the following pairs of situations.


  1. You must go now. (I want to go to bed).

What a pity you have to go now. (It’s time for your to catch your train).

2. We must begin before five (or we shan’t finish in time).

We have to begin before five (that’s the time arranged).

3. They must take it away. (I won’t have it here any longer).

They have to take it away. (They’ve been told to do so).

  1. He must stay the night. (I press him to do so).

He has to stay the night. (He can’t get back tonight).

5. He must move the furniture himself. (I shan’t help him).

He has to move the furniture himself. (He has got no one to help him).



Exercise 7


Pay attention to the usage of “have form” in the situations where must lacks the necessary verb forms. Translate the sentences into Russian.


  1. I’m having to read this very carefully.

  2. I’ve had to give up the idea.

  3. I told him I’d had to give up the idea.

  4. We may have to change our plans.

  5. It’s a pity to have to give up the idea.

  6. No one likes having to pay taxes.

  7. You’d have to do it if he insisted.

  8. You’d have had to do it if he’d insisted.


Exercise 8


Read the examples. Translate them into Russian.


To be to


  1. Doctor Fisher invites you to the Final Party. It was to be held in a week’s time.

  2. What else was there to do?

  3. If she was to make the dress, she had in mind; she would have to start tomorrow…

  4. For greed, Jones. The greed of the rich which you are never likely to know.

  5. He was about to speak to Tim Burke about the matter which was to be settled between them.

  6. He must keep his look upon her very steady if he was to go across.

  7. Bledyard’s lecture took place after supper and was to be given, as usual, in the Gymnasium.

  8. painters represent things that are to be found in the world.

  9. The dinner was to take place in the masters’ dining room.

  10. Dinner was to be at eight.

  11. The first of the official toasts was the toast to Demoyte, which was to be proposed by Sir Leopold and answered by Evie.

  12. Donald was shortly to sit for a Cambridge College entrance examination in chemistry.

  13. The sum of five hundred guineas, … was to be paid for a portrait.

  14. He was to blame.

  15. There was to be a ceremonial dinner.

  16. It was not to be found anywhere.

  17. They were to catch the 10.30 train to Waterloo, …

  18. where Rain’s Riley was to be seen.

  19. I believe we are both to lunch with Mr.Everard on Thursday.

  20. that at a quarter past three he was to meet the portrait painter, …

  21. that his next meeting with Miss Carter was not to be at Mr.Everard’s lunch party, …

  22. At this time in the evening the old Man was usually to be found wearing a frayed velvet jacket.

  23. Well, what am I to do about the dinner?” said Miss Handforth.

  24. Am I to be summed up by a slip of a girl?


To have to


  1. We have to use our house.

  2. She said she had to be in by eleven-thirty at the latest.

  3. She had to fight with all her spirit to hold it back.

  4. You have to understand that all this happened in no more than two minutes.

  5. Chris went red. “I’m leaving. I don’t have to listen to that.

  6. with the route which he had to follow.

  7. I don’t have to accept your … cheque.” “You don’t have to, Deane, but you will.”

  8. I thought of all these things rather than of the letter I had to write to.

  9. You have to make up your own mind about what we did, Helen.

  10. All we have to do is just to put up with his little whims.

  11. I had her buried in Saint Martin’s cemetery in Gibraltar ground … because she had to be put somewhere.

  12. and yet I had to admit she showed a certain courage at the end.

  13. Your have to make your own mind about what we did.

  14. All you have to do was see them in your mind.

  15. To get to the fire doors, you had to go down.

  16. We have to look after the dear man.

  17. I shall have to persuade Nan.

  18. but he had to be realistic enough to see that…

  19. He had to talk to stop himself from thinking…

  20. Mor himself had but to look at the boys and they fell silent.

  21. and it was about this time too that Mor had to settle down to the organization of reports.

  22. I shall have to go away in a moment.

  23. It was upon his strength, he knew, that he would have to rely to carry him through to what he must believe to be possible…

  24. And if I do that you’ll have not to climb the tower.

  25. I shall have to come too.

  26. I had to do my best. I had to try to think what to do.

  27. Who is she that she has to be consulted about everything that you do?

  28. He had to pause immediately when he got outside…

  29. Now he only wanted to get away, and not to have to hear… voice.

  30. So I had to come out and see who it was.

  31. I’ve got one or two things to do, and then I have to go and see Tim Burke…

  32. You’ll have to tell her when you get back.

  33. I’m afraid we have to go at once.

  34. Donald had to run hard to keep pace with her.

  35. We have to talk about heat waves.

  36. I suppose I’ll have to dress.

  37. And if we don’t get some extra money from somewhere we shall have to draw our horns in pretty sharply.

  38. Now I have to make a decision about my trousers.

  39. Mor noted, desperately, that to be together was not now quite enough of a salve for their happiness – they had to have novelties and distractions.

  40. He realized , … he would have to summon up not his good qualities but his bad ones.

  41. But he had to see her again.

  42. He had been so apologetic to Mor about this that the latter had virtually had to make up his mind for him …

  43. The technical terms which had to be translated were all connected I could see with weapons.

  44. When the one who inflicted it is dead, one has to strike back at others.

  45. so I had to put on chains at the Chattel St.Denis.

  46. I’ve got to go out this very minute…

  47. Someone’s got to take some responsibility for what the children do.


Exercise 9


Comment on the meaning of the modal equivalent to be to and translate the sentences into Russian.


  1. How was I to know?” cried Frank.

  2. Renny grinned: “If we are to be neighbours for life – if you are to marry into a family I’m attached to – we should be on friendly terms”.

  3. What’s to be done? We can’t sit around like this the whole day”.

  4. Forester was nowhere to be seen.

  5. Hot compresses were to be applied all night to the knee.

  6. The leaflets were to have been distributed in every working-class home.

  7. I just mention it because you said I was to give you all the detail I could.

  8. But it was always understood that he was to go into the business.

  9. I told you expressly that Miss Adeline was not to ride any more horse.

  10. The arrangement was that you were to give your views and I was to say what I thought of them.

  11. It’s been a great blow to me that you haven’t been able to follow me in my business as I followed my father. Three generations, that would have been. But it wasn’t to be.”

  12. If I did exceptionally well, and won a scholarship that would keep me over the first years at the Bar, I might pull through; if not, I did not know what was to become of me.


Exercise 10


Explain the difference in the meaning between the two sentences in the following pairs.


  1. A) The plane was not to take off at night as the weather was too bad.

B) The plane was to have taken off at night, but the weather was too bad.

  1. A) There was to be an interesting concert last night, but I didn’t feel well and had to stay at home.

B) There was to have been an interesting concert last night, but the singer fell ill and the concert had to be postponed.

  1. A) The order came that we were not to leave the village before dawn.

B) We were not to have left the village before dawn, but by the time the order came we were two miles away from it.


Exercise 11


Comment on the meaning of the modal verb can and the modal expression to be able to. Translate the sentences into Russian.


  1. Could you call me tonight?

  2. We could hear nothing but the wind and the noise of the roaring sea.

  3. If I had known you were going to come I could have prepared to meet you.

  4. The best thing you could have possibly done under the circumstances was to tell her the truth.

  5. I think you could try to make him change his behaviour.

  6. Could you switch on the light please? It has become dark in the room.

  7. He couldn’t have left without saying good-bye to everybody.

  8. Could she be so old?

  9. She couldn’t have misunderstood you.

  10. He could read and write at the age of 5.

  11. He couldn’t understand the story, as he didn’t know many of the new words.

  12. I can go out with you tonight.

  13. I could go out with you tonight if I were free.

  14. I said I could wait in the waiting room.

  15. You can’t wait in the waiting room. I haven’t done it yet.

  16. I think you could work harder.

  17. He could give her a lift today.

18.The sweaters were cheap so I was able to buy two.

19.I haven’t been able to talk to her recently.




Exercise 12


Explain the meaning of the modal verbs using other modal verbs or modal expressions.


  1. Can I ask you about it, Sue?

  2. She knew it wasn’t as all right as Helen had said. It couldn’t be.

  3. We can call a cab if you need one.

  4. Why can’t he telephone himself?

  5. You could tell her I found it in the stock room.

  6. It seemed to me that I could spend hours, even days, like that, just watching the elixir of death in the glass.

  7. How disappointed they would be if they could see him without clothes.

  8. It’s just to show the others that he can get you come.

  9. The presents I hand out when the dinner is over they could easily afford to give themselves.

  10. Give me the salt. It can’t make the porridge any worse that it is.

  11. If we could have a little sugar, …

  12. Will you go to the hospital and see that he’s all right? I can’t go. It would only be another shock for him.

  13. There was an old butler – I can’t remember his name.

  14. It is strange how one can be affected for a whole day by a dream.

  15. Ah, here is your dinner, so I can now begin my own.

  16. I am sure Mr.Kips could arrange him substantial credits.

  17. though she could easily have afforded to buy one of equal value for herself.

  18. Their greed certainly isn’t limited by pride. You can see that for yourself tonight.

  19. I could see she was reflecting on what I said.

  20. anyway he could do nothing because my father was paying him a very large retaining fee…

  21. She may simply have refused to believe that such a thing could happen to her.

  22. You can’t feel compassion unless you can imagine another person’s suffering - can imagine being that other person.

  23. he admitted he had been trying to see if he could write female characters.

  24. they can’t define because they’ve never experienced it.

  25. A man who cannot control women obviously cannot control other men.

  26. How could a woman – even a big woman – show that?

  27. but it was all she could think of.

  28. I can remember the Bible myself.

  29. Yes, I can understand how you feel .

  30. he can only be greedy for our humiliation, and that greed how could he ever exhaust?

  31. Who could possibly refuse one of your presents?

  32. Deane can partly finance a film.

  33. I am only a simple soldier, but I cannot see the difference between accepting caviare and accepting a cheque.

  34. The name is left blank on all the cheques. You can fill in what name you wish.



Exercise 13


Comment on the meaning of the modals can/could. Translate into Russian.


  1. You can’t sleep in Felicity’s bed!

  2. no one could come in, even with a key.

  3. you could go out of the back door before I let her in.

  4. Who could be ringing at this hour.

  5. I wish I could do something for you.

  6. Now that she could see his face again Nan felt her despair returning…

  7. and suddenly she wished desperately that she could stay with Tim Burke …

  8. If you could only come to me”, said Tim.

  9. Nan could see him out of the corner of her eye.

  10. She could hear Bill stepping on the flower-bed.

  11. if I could dissolve a pearl in it I would!

  12. He could remember nothing.

  13. Of course, nothing very terrible could happen.

  14. How could he have been such a fool.

  15. She could look handsome … at an evening party – but her coats and hats never looked quite right.

  16. The time it took to happen could have been no more than the doorway …

  17. I could drink myself to death if I chose.

  18. so that strange waters could gush foot.

  19. She didn’t answer because she couldn’t.

  20. She couldn’t stand up. She could only crawl into the living room.

  21. If only she could make something like that happen whenever she liked.

  22. She could still remember that day.

  23. I want to flatten him so that he can play Falstaff.

  24. Deane could no more play Falstaff than Britt Ekland could play Cleopatra.

  25. Yes. I can understand how you feel.





Exercise 14



Translate into Russian.


  1. I might be able to afford it myself.

  2. and when she was able to stand upright she ran away.

  3. She had never been able to make out Jimmy Carde.

  4. Only by adverting himself in the routine duties of the school was he able to find, not peace, but the means simply of continuing to exist.

  5. Concerning her personal appearance and presence Mor had been able to obtain only the vaguest account from Mr.Everard.

  6. It’s a great relief to be able to talk to you!

  7. She was not able to forget what she had seen …

  8. It was a little while before she had got sufficiently round the head and to be able to see into the next day.

  9. my husband has now a great happiness of being able to realize his lifelong ambition.

  10. Would you be able to write and go on writing?

  11. Prewett was unhappily quite unable to keep order …

  12. that he was not able to express his love for his son.

  13. This was mingled with what was almost a feeling of satisfaction at the prospect of being able to find her husband so palpably in the wrong.

  14. Mor had hoped to be able to educate his wife.

  15. Mor thought, he would be able to have one or two glasses of sherry with Demoyte before Nan arrived.

  16. and as he tried to arrive soon after five-thirty he was usually able to do so.

  17. We might be able to reach the bank of the river rather along.

  18. We passed through the white gate, and almost at once I was able to hail an hour later a small lorry.

  19. It was not long before he met a car which was able to give him a lift.

  20. When this subject failed, however, they had been unable to find another.

  21. In this particular role, Mor was sincere enough to realize he had been able to experience the pleasure of absolute power without remorse of conscience.

  22. Mor never ceased to be surprised at what Tim Burke was able to do.

  23. it seemed to Mor that Tim Burke had suddenly been able to communicate to him a new sort of confidence.

  24. he concluded, were good for conventional people, simply because they made them able to conceive of everything…

  25. Mor had never been able to dream of affording a car.

  26. In his own household Evvy was able to proceed unchecked…

  27. Rain hoped that the following day she would be able to construct a great deal more of the rest of her picture …

  28. He gave her a look of admiration which he hoped she was able to interpret.

  29. She won’t be able to say no!

  30. Sue tried to pull away … to allow Carrie at least the privacy of her dying, and was unable to.

  31. Of course one is able to understand the consternation.

  32. Desjardin had not been able to get the image of Carrie out of her mind all weekend.

  33. She didn’t despise me. Perhaps she hated me. No one will ever be able to despise me, Jones.

  34. She had been able to light the fireplace without ever stirring from her rocker by the window.

  35. She had been able to feel, actually feel, the Devil’s Power working in Carrie.

  36. Mor was able quickly to install himself on her other side.

  37. It looked as if they were able to get neither up nor down.

  38. But his anxiety about Rain was equally intense; and he might even then, have been able to speak decisively to Nan.

  39. Also, he had not been able to keep it out at his consciousness, she was wealthy.

  40. She would hardly be able to imagine that.



Exercise 15


Explain why the verb can is used in the past, not its equivalents.


  1. he felt deep love and tenderness for Demoyte and could hardly summon up any affection at all for poor Evvy.

  2. He could hardly think…

  3. Mor could scarcely believe his ears.

  4. only prayer – not money - could help her now.

  5. He was waiting at the door when we came out, and we couldn’t avoid him.

  6. I certainly couldn’t imagine him crying …

  7. I could see we had made a very bad mistake.

  8. He couldn’t see, but know the way without sight to the wooden door.

  9. he could hardly say no …

  10. Indeed he could hardly do it without being sentimental.

  11. She was trembling so much that she could hardly walk.

  12. His shaking hands could scarcely control the bolt.

  13. As she ran away through the rain she could hear his steps.

  14. she couldn’t make out why or what they said.

  15. You could smell the blood.

  16. I felt, like I was frozen in ice. My God was all I could think.

  17. Could you see her clearly?

  18. he could not remember having ever experienced before.

  19. I could hardly believe it.

  20. And now, could I ask just one thing.

  21. I don’t think I could live in England all the year.

  22. He wished that she could communicate this sense of futurity to him.

  23. Rain’s face he could hardly see.

  24. But now he could scarcely remember these things.

  25. Nothing today could have moved him to gaiety or laughter.




Exercise 16


Recast the sentences so as to use can (could) + Infinitive


  1. Is it possible that the news is true?

  2. I refuse to believe that he is so old.

  3. I don’t think it is possible that he has missed the train.

  4. Is it possible that he was late for the train?

  5. It’s next to impossible that he should recognize you.

  6. I don’t believe he recognized you.



Exercise 17


Make up a few sentences according to the following patterns.


  1. How stuffy it is in the classroom! Couldn’t you have aired it by this time?

  2. I’m sure he’s fallen ill again. He couldn’t have missed the lesson without a good reason.




Exercise 18


Comment on the meaning of modal verb may.


  1. Anything may have happened by then.

  2. I may have told Nan everything.

  3. _____ but Donald Mor had not come home, nor had any news been received which might provide the slightest clue to his whereabouts …

  4. If by freedom we mean absence of external restraints then we may call a man lucky for being free.

  5. then indeed we may call a free man virtuous.

  6. May I read you a letter?” he said.

  7. A person looks different when we know him – he may even look different as soon as we know one particular thing about him.

  8. For a moment he looked as if he might speak.

  9. He was extremely angry and upset and anxious to go to find Rain, wherever she might be

  10. One might think beforehand that it is impossible to depict a human face with sufficient reverence.

  11. Possibly”, said Mor, “But I might then build another part”.

  12. But if you were to concern yourself truly with others and lay yourself open to any hurt that might come.

  13. you certainly won’t be governing the country – and you may do yourself some good by getting out of this damned rut.

  14. Everything had happened that might overturn his love for Rain.

  15. He came to her as a real possibility that she might lose her husband.

  16. and destruction may well be less than I fear.

  17. Why do painters represent in pictures the faces of their fellow men? To this may be answered that …”

  18. And even if we could lift it, thought Mor, it may just fall to the ground …

  19. and he might, even then, have been able to speak decisively to Nan …

  20. Perhaps it may be the best thing. But we’ll see”.

  21. Time passed, the situation did not become clearer, and Mor began to conjecture that just this delay might be his fatal error.

  22. he feared that she might return while he was still in a state of indecision.

  23. Do you think one might just sip some sherry before our guests arrive?”

  24. She would certainly have something decent to say – only her delivery of it might be nervous and halting.

  25. a love affair with an attractive flighty little gypsy with a French upbringing who might be his daughter.

  26. You may lead a horse to the water but you can’t make him drink.

  27. You two may have to put up with each other, but I’m not bound to put up with either of you”.

  28. Heavens only know how far Rain might have got by this time.

  29. Freedom might be called a benefit of a sort of grace – though of course to seek it or to gain it might be a proof of merit.

  30. You never want to do anything that might draw attention to you .

  31. I really think it might be better to stop.

  32. It had occurred to Mor that since he was practically in Marsington he might call again on Tim Burke.

  33. He had no idea what exactly her thoughts and feelings might be.

  34. He had been anxious that morning in the case she might take it into her head.

  35. My only sadness is that I may lose you friendship when you’re an important man.

  36. Mr.Bledyard might come back and find us here.

  37. Mor was tormented by the thought … and might, for a while, be contributing to make her unhappy.

  38. I shall never see her again. You may meet her once more by accident in ten years time …

  39. She had said that it (sketch) might have betrayed that she was beginning to love him.

  40. I may be glad to accept it.

  41. So I thought you might be down at Mr.Demoyte’s house”.

  42. The person who was most genuinely afraid about what might have happened to Donald was Felicity.

  43. She might still be here, somewhere inside the school.

  44. He had a terrible feeling that if he left her now he might never see her again.

  45. Afterwards the capital goes to any child she may have had, but as she died childless it reverts to me.

  46. You probably know her better than I do, Jones, if you know her well enough to marry her, and you have relieved me of any responsibility I may once have had”.

  47. she thought it might have been his car.

  48. Of course, we might just walk away and leave him?

  49. It was a riot”, Mrs.Montgomery told me as though I might not have caught the point.

  50. I might have known it would be read.

  51. She may simply have refused to believe that such a thing could happen to her.

  52. She may have committed the Sin.

  53. She may have been listening to … music.

  54. But if I may ask you something?”

  55. I might even start the parties again if only to watch your greed growing

  56. you have seen a town that may be suffering from terminal cancer of the spirit.

  57. if he had been given enough time he might have learnt how to fight.

  58. I’m afraid something may be going to happen.

  59. it might be well to sum up what we know of Carrie White the person.

  60. All may very well end on a happy note.

  61. A name, which sounded as if it might be Palestinian or Italian, was somehow involved.







Exercise 19


Supply the correct tense form of to be allowed to


  1. The children _____stay home from school yesterday because of the weather.

  2. I _____ never _____stay up late when I was very young.

  3. She ______ only _____ go to parties in the last few months.

  4. He _____ just _____ go home after three hours at the police station.

  5. Since he was admitted to hospital, we (not) _____ visit him.

  6. His doctor (not) _____ him _____ take any exercise in the year before he died.



Exercise 20


May in clauses with a concessive meaning.


Although your job is very demanding, at least it isn’t boring =

Your job may be very demanding, but at least it isn’t boring

May + perfect infinitive is used for referring to past time:

The work may have been difficult, but at least it was interesting.


Rewrite the sentences, using may as in the example above.


  1. Although the method is cruel, it’s certainly effective.

  2. Although he is badly paid, his work is very rewarding.

  3. Although the book is long, you can hardly call it boring.

  4. Although the climb was exhausting, the view from the top made it well worth while.

  5. Although I was rude to him, I feel he had given me every justification.

  6. Although he acted unwisely, he was at least trying to do something constructive.

  7. Although his work has improved, it still isn’t good enough.

  8. Although old-age pensions have risen considerably, they haven’t kept pace with the cost of living.



Exercise 21


Which of the following examples could be described as pure future? What do shall or will add to the meaning in the other examples?


  1. Don’t worry! I’ll help you with your homework.

  2. My brother will talk with his mouth full.

  3. Pass the mustard, will you?

  4. Shall I open the door for you?

  5. I’ll see you at the party tonight.

  6. Shall we go for a walk?

  7. Trespassers will be prosecuted.

  8. Boys will be boys.

  9. Do you think Liverpool will win?

  10. You should do as I tell you!

  11. Summer will soon be over.



Exercise 22


Complete each short dialogue, using will together with one of the verbs in the list. The negative form will be needed in some cases.


Seat, bear, do, fit, hold, reach, suit, and work.


  1. Is your car very fast?

- Oh, yes! It _____ over 100 miles an hour.

  1. - Is that jug big enough?

- Oh, yes! It _____ at least a gallon.

  1. - What’s wrong with that machine?

- I don’t know. It simply _____

  1. - Why haven’t you opened the door?

  • This key _____ the lock.

5. - How big is the Royal Festival Hall?

  • Oh! It _____ up to 3 000 people.

6. - Is that ladder long enough?

  • Oh, yes! It _____ up to the roof.

7. - Shall we say 7.30?

  • Yes, that time _____ me perfectly.

8. - Is it safe to walk on the ice?

  • Oh, yes! It _____ your weight easily.

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2.Focused practice


Exercise 23


Combine the verb must with the proper form of the infinitive in brackets.

  1. Look! People are hurrying along the street with collars and umbrellas up. It must (to rain) _____ hard.

  2. You must (to follow) _____ my advice. There is no other way out for you.

  3. I saw an old woman sleeping soundly in Green Park. A shower was falling at the time, she must (to be) _____ drenched to the skin.

  4. All time we were out the two gentlemen smoked incessantly – which, I thought, if I might judge from the smell of their rough coats, they must (to do) _____ ever since the coats had first come home from the tailor’s.

  5. The hotel must (to do _____) a tremendous business’, old Jolyon thought. ‘A few years ago there had been none of these big hotels’. Then he thought of his son,’…If Jo were only with him. The boy must (to be) _____ forty by now’.

  6. She must (to be) _____ angry with you. She does not even look in your direction.

  7. She must (to get) _____ angry with me. She left without saying good-buy.

  8. Mary must (to fall) _____ ill. She looked so pale and tired last night.


Exercise 24


Recast the following sentences. Use must instead of modal words.

Model. 1. She is probably in her office now.

She must be in her office now.

2. Surely they have left already.

They must have left already.


  1. Her shoes evidently pinch her, she can hardly walk.

2. Surely he has gone over her report and touched up the weak places.

  1. No doubt you are run down, you look pale and unstrung.

  2. You probably want a good deal of exercise to put you in proper shape.

  3. She is obviously well up in chemistry.

  4. It was undoubtedly raining when you left.

  5. Surely the boy recognized you at once.


Exercise 25


Complete the sentences using must have…


1. The phone rang but I didn’t hear it. I must /be/ asleep

  1. That dress you bought is very good quality. It must /be /very expensive.

  2. I haven’t seen Jim for ages. He must/go/away.

  3. I wonder where my umbrella is. You must/ leave/ it on the train.

  4. She knew everything about our plans. She must/ listen/ to our conversation.

  5. When I woke up this morning, the light was on. I must/forget/to turn it off.



Exercise 26


Respond to the following statements using must to express supposition. Keep the conversation going.


Model. A: Where’s Kitty, I wonder? She’s kept us waiting for quite

while.

B: Something must have happened to her, I’m sure. It’s not

like her to be late. She’s always on time.


  1. How strange that Bill hasn’t yet turned up.

  2. Look, Jim is wet to the skin.

  3. I could hardly recognize Nick. He looks altogether a new man. He’s put on weight and is now the very picture of health.

  4. I don’t know what’s the matter with John. He looks as if he would go to pieces any moment.

  5. I rang Nell up again, but to no avail. No one answered my call.



Exercise 27


Put into the negative


  1. She must have witnessed the scene with Donald.

  2. She must have heard the bell before he did.

  3. Then he realized that what Felicity must have heard was ‘Don’t come back!’

  4. Nan must have found them.

  5. He must have supposed that Rain and her father lived in a house… of how she must have lived in the past, before he knew her.

  6. How he must have treasured her. (Rain’s father)

  7. I think he must have talked to some people…

  8. That must have disappointed him’, she said. ‘No further invitation came…’

  9. It seemed to Mor that she must have been there a long time.

  10. He must have been furious, but he had to pretend to be amused before the other guests.

  11. It must have been a real education in … biology, …

  12. Anna-Louise must have heard him for she turned.

  13. Diane, you must have felt quite at home taking my orders’.

  14. But one is tempted to believe that Mrs.White’s reaction must have been extreme.

  15. I have reason to believe from what happened later that she must have repeated my remark to Doctor Fisher.



Exercise 28


Change the following sentences making them opposite in meaning in every way possible.


  1. Everybody must have noticed that he was not used to speaking in

public.

  1. He must have written to them of his arrival in due time.

  2. He must have bolted the door forgetting that I was to come later.

  3. He must have a fair chance of winning; he is in good form.

  4. The man must have understood me for he nodded his head.

  5. He must have been quite conscious of having made a mistake.

  6. They must have given us the correct information about the road. I can see all the landmarks they have spoken of.

  7. The telegram must have certainly come in time.

  8. She must have been very careful. She did not spill a drop of milk.

  9. He must have done something about it, I see no changes in the design.

  10. The dog must have recognized his master. It did not bark as we approached the house.





Exercise 29


Complete the sentences with must, mustn’t or a suitable form of have to.


  1. We _____ hurry, or we’ll be late.

  2. Application forms _____ be returned to this office within 15 days.

  3. You _____ visit us again some time.

  4. I can never remember people’s phone number. I always _____ look them up.

  5. The car broke down, and we _____ have it towed to a garage.

  6. The situation has now become intolerable, and something _____ be done about it immediately.

  7. I realize how difficult the situation is, but you _____ try not to let it get you down.

  8. Visas where required _____ be obtained in advance of travel to the countries concerned.

  9. I’m sorry to _____ tell you this, but you leave me no alternative.

  10. It’s not fair! I always _____ do the dirty work!

  11. You really _____ try to be a little more tactful.

  12. No one likes _____ work at the weekend.

  13. Whichever party forms the next government _____ probably

reintroduce some sort of prices and incomes policy.

  1. Candidates _____ write in ink, and _____ write on one side of the paper only.

  2. The verdict of a jury _____ be unanimous: if its members are unable to reach agreement, the case _____ be retried before a new jury.

  3. We have made quite a lot of progress, but we _____ forget that several other problems still _____ cleared up before we can say that agreement is in sight.

  4. Fortunately, the crowd dispersed peaceably. If they hadn’t, the police might _____ use force.

  5. We _____ make the job sound too difficult, or he won’t take it on.

  6. He suddenly took a turn for the worse, and I _____ call the doctor in the middle of the night.






Exercise 30


Fill in the blanks with must or had (to).


  1. When I asked him why he was so late, he told me that he had missed

an earlir train and _____ wait for another one.

  1. The man warned us that the place was dangerous to bathe in and we

_____ look for a safer spot.

  1. His wife kept telling him that he _____ not sit up so late.

  2. The doctor told him he _____ give up smoking.

  3. The father said to the children that they _____ be careful while crossing the street.

  4. The bus was not going that direction, so he _____ change.

  5. It was not that the work _____ be finished soon, but we ourselves wanted to be through with it as soon as possible.

  6. I had so special desire to do it, but as I felt it _____ be done this way or another, I started on it, though reluctantly.

  7. I saw that I _____ speak louder to make myself heard.

  8. Telling himself that he _____ control himself, he did not answer anything.

  9. Martin knew that he _____ stand up to be introduced.

  10. For a moment she felt her heart _____ break.



Exercise 31


Complete the sentences, using must, mustn’t, have to or will have to.


  1. Julie, trying to train her dog: You _____sit when I tell you!

  2. The teacher who is invigilating Stephen’s exam: You _____ try to talk to each other during the exam.

  3. The doctor to a nurse, about a patient with a bad heart: He _____ stay in bed for several weeks, and _____ talk too much.

  4. Mr.Wilson phones his wife at 6 p.m.: I’m afraid I’m going to be late – I _____ finish some letters.

  5. The immigration officer notices that a traveller hasn’t signed his new passport: You _____ sign it as soon as you get it.

  6. Mr.Wilson explains why he is taking a pill: I _____take these pills for my blood pressure.

  7. Mrs.Wilson is offering more cake to a guest at a tea party: You _____have some more cake.

  8. Stephen has hurt his knee playing football: The doctor says I _____ play for three weeks.


Exercise 32


Read the dialogue. Make up your own dialogue by analogy with this one.

Change of plan.

Dialogue (Mr.X and his wife,Y)


X. What am I to do? Everything is upset.

Y. What’s the matter? You are to go to Manchester tomorrow, aren’t you?

X. I was to go to Manchester, but now I’m to go to Devon.

Y. But you are to be in York on Friday, and the Robinsons are going to put you up.

X. I was to be in York, and they were to put me up.

Y. Why do you say, “Was to be”? You are going to York, aren’t you?

X. No, it’s all upset. Z. is ill and I’m to do his work.

Y. What are we to do? The servant was to have a holiday, and I was to stay with Aunt Jane.

X. How are we to change our arrangements at short notice?

Y. There’s the telephone! …Z is better, so the arrangements stand.


Exercise 33


Insert the verb to be (to) or to have (to) in the necessary tense form.


  1. I wondered what _____ to happen to us.

  2. It looks like raining. You _____ to take your raincoat.

  3. We agreed that the one who came first _____ to reserve seats for the rest of us.

  4. Nobody met me at the airfield as I _____to have arrived a day later and could not warn any of my friends of the charge.

  5. He always puts off doing what he _____ to do until it…to be done.

  6. We _____ to leave on Monday, but because of a two days’ delay with the visas we _____ to book tickets for a Wednesday.

  7. There is nothing strange in what he did. It _____ to be expected.

  8. You _____ not to tell him about it if you don’t want to.

  9. You _____not to tell him anything about it before you get further instructions.

  10. They hoped to spend the summer together, but that _____ not to be.

  11. _____ I to do it all by myself?

  12. When no food _____ to be had he seemed capable of doing without.



Exercise 34


Fill in the blanks with to be (to), to have (to) or must using the correct form of the infinitive.


  1. I did not know who _____ (to be) my travelling companion.

  2. According to the state plan, many new dwelling houses ______ (to build) this year.

  3. We _____(to work) hard to achieve good results.

  4. I _____ (to say) your behaviour has been far from straightforward.

  5. Mrs. Pearce. What _____ (to become) of the girl? … she (to pay) anything?

  6. This is serious; you _____ (not to joke) about it.


Exercise 35


Paraphrase the following using the modal verb need:


  1. I see no reason why we should argue.

  2. It was not necessary for her to carry the bags all by herself: there were porters at the station.

  3. It is so very necessary that you should go there at all?

  4. There is no use worrying about her; she is quite able to take care of herself.

  5. What’s the use of reproaching yourself?

  6. I don’t think there is any need to bother them.

  7. It was quite unnecessary for you to do the work instead of him.


Exercise 36

Insert didn’t need or needn’t have according to the sense.


  1. You _____ (to lock) the door. Didn’t you know mother was in?

  2. I _____ (to lock) the door because somebody esle had already done it.

  3. We _____ (to wait) for her. She rang us up to say she didn’t come.

  4. We _____ (to wait) for her because she never came.

  5. I _____ (to answer) the questions and it saved me a lot of time.

  6. I _____ (to answer) the questions. If I had known it, it would have saved me a lot of time.

  7. We _____ (to tell) him. He understood what had happened at first glance.

  8. You _____ (to tell) me, but since you have, I’ll do what I think proper.

  9. I _____ (to ring) the bell, because the door stood open when I came to it.

  10. I _____ (to ring) the bell. The man was deaf and didn’t hear it.




Exercise 37


  1. Using the chart below, identify the meaning expressed by the use of the modals in the following sentences.

  2. Where possible rewrite the sentences in the past.


  1. You don’t have to pay the whole amount in advance.

  2. That must be Charlie. He said he would be here about now.

  3. A separate cheque must accompany each application.

  4. You need to add some more sugar to that.

  5. You mustn’t walk on the grass!

  6. You’ll have to be there by 9.00, if you want to be sure of a seat.

  7. As a senior official, you must have great influence over the committee’s decisions on appointments.

  8. You needn’t wait for me.

  9. You don’t need smallpox vaccinations any more for anywhere.

  10. Books must be returned on before the date stamped below.

O - obligation

N - necessity

E - exemption

Ph – prohibition

Pb – probability



Exercise 38


Complete using must, mustn’t, needn’t.


  1. We haven’t got much time. We _____hurry.

  2. We’ve got plenty of time. We _____ hurry.

  3. Do you want me to wait for you?” “No, it’s okay. You _____ wait”.

  4. Tom gave me a letter to post. I _____forget to post it.

  5. You _____ come if you don’t want to but I hope you will.

  6. What sort of house do you want to buy? Something big?” “Well, it _____ be big – that’s not important. But it _____ have a nice garden – that’s essential.

  7. We have enough food at home so we _____ go shopping today.

  8. This book is very valuable. You _____ look after it very carefully and you _____ lose it.


Exercise 39


Complete the sentences with mustn’t or don’t/doesn’t have to.


  1. I don’t want anyone to know. You _____tell anyone what I said.

  2. I _____ wear a suit to work but I usually do.

  3. I can stay in bed tomorrow morning because I _____work.

  4. Whatever you do, you _____touch that switch. It’s very dangerous.

  5. You _____forget what I told you. It’s very important.

  6. She _____ get up early. She gets up early because she prefers to.

  7. We _____ leave yet. We’ve got plenty of time.


Exercise 40


Remember that the positive response to need is usually must, and the negative response to must is usually needn’t.

Need I get up so soon? Yes, I’m afraid you must.

Must I go by train? Oh, no, you needn’t.

Give short answers to.


  1. Will the weather clear up this afternoon? No, I’m afraid _____

  2. Do you think he would come if I asked him? No, I doubt whether

  3. Must you always make so much noise? No, I _____

  4. Need you have your paper lying all over the floor? Yes, _____

  5. Do you really think he used to live here? Yes, I _____

  6. Did you have any difficulty in finding my house?

  7. Must you throw pieces of inky paper everywhere?

  8. Oughtn’t you to be more careful? _____

  9. Need you bring your girl friend with you? Yes, _____

  10. Must you always wear that old coat? No, _____

  11. Must I take an umbrella? No, _____

  12. Need we change for dinner? Yes, you_____

  13. Oughtn’t you to answer this letter now? _____


Exercise 41


  1. Add comments to these sentences, using needn’t have.


  1. - The letter was so untidy, I wrote it out again.

- Really? You needn’t have written it out again.

  1. He was so worried about being late that he sent the letter by fax.

  2. She was so worried about not getting a seat that she bought a first-class ticket.

  3. We weren’t sure about sheets and towels, so we brought our own.

  4. The old people thought the room was dirty, so they cleaned it out themselves.

  5. I didn’t know you were coming home, so I cooked my own supper.


  1. Now rewrite the comments using didn’t need to.

  1. You didn’t need to write it out again.

  2. ______

  3. ______

  4. ______

  5. ______

6. ______


Exercise 42


When you arrive in Britain, there are plenty of regulations to worry about. There are things that are necessary, unnecessary or forbidden. Use You must…, You mustn’t …, You needn’t … to complete the following statements.


  1. _____ bring animals into Britain.

  2. _____ have a passport.

  3. _____ have a visa, if you want to stay a long time.

  4. _____ have a visa if you are from an EEC (Common Market) country.

  5. _____ declare any restricted goods at the customs.

  6. _____ take guns into Britain.

  7. _____drive on the left.

  8. _____ stop at pedestrian crossing unless someone is on them.

  9. _____ use the horn on your car except in an emergency.


Exercise 43


Explain the difference in meaning between the following sentences.


  1. a) Ann was to send this letter by airmail.

b) Ann was to have sent this letter by airmail.

c) Ann had to send this letter by airmail.

  1. a) Dora was to have handed in her work on Tuesday.

b) Dora was to hand in her work on Tuesday.

c) Dora had to hand in her work on Tuesday.


Exercise 44

Using a modal expression, explain what the following texts mean.

No through road for motor vehicles.

Motor vehicles must not use this road.

  1. Turn left only.

  2. Motel – open to non-residents for luncheons.

  3. Riding by permit only.

  4. No camping beyond this point.

  5. Admission free.

  6. Cold and influenza mixture – not recommended for children under 5 years.


Exercise 45


  1. Complete the chart below to show the use of should and ought to in each of the following sentences.


  1. Children under 14 should have parental permission to see this film.

  2. It’s twelve o’clock, and the President’s plane should be coming into view at any moment.

  3. He ought to have been more diplomatic in his approach.

  4. As you’ll be in Japan at New Year, you ought to visit Nora.

  5. If he is the leader, he should lead.

  6. The oil should be changed every 5 000 kilometers.

  7. This book should be made compulsory reading for anyone who has thought of going into business on their own.

  8. A child ought to be able to speak by the age of 3.

  9. Members ought to support the party whatever happens.

  10. People in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones.


Obligation Advisory New certainty


B. What advice would you give in the following situations?

A child runs across the street and is nearly run over.

You should stop and look both ways before crossing the road.


  1. Your friend is always having difficulty starting his car.

  2. A friend has complained of having headaches and not sleeping.

  3. There’s a very popular play which you and your friend want to see.

  4. The train a colleague plans to travel on is known to be crowded on every journey and she wants a seat.

  5. A friend who doesn’t like violence plans to see a film, which you know is very violent.

  6. A friend who is very lazy has criticized colleagues for their work. The friend is now under attack.

  7. Your friend is interested in India. There is a new book about India, which has been highly praised.

  8. Your child always gets up late and is late for school.

  9. A friend needs to pass an examination to get promotion in her job, but she goes out a lot and does little work for the exam.



Exercise 46


Recast the following sentences. Instead of modal words expressing supposition use should or ought + Infinitive .

Probably she is at home by now.

She should (ought) be at home by now.


  1. If you hurry up you will probably catch up with them.

  2. I suppose the weather will continue fine.

  3. I believe the book is still on sale, it came out only a few days ago.

  4. In all probability the match will be called off, it’s raining fast.

  5. Now that I’m snowed under with work I hope she won’t lay claims on my time.



Exercise 47


Use (a) should, (b) ought to, (c) simply must, (d) have to, (e) have simply got to in these sentences.


  1. _____ be paid a higher salary (but I’m not) (a)

  2. _____ do my work carefully (b)

  3. _____ get some exercise at the weekend – and I will! (c)

  4. _____ go to bed earlier but _____ (b)

  5. _____ buy these cigarettes; I can’t afford better ones (d)

  6. _____ smoke less. It’s costing far too much! ( c)

  7. _____ write to my family tomorrow ( c)

  8. _____ write to my family; I haven’t written for weeks (e)

  9. _____ shave every day (d)

  10. _____ get a shave; my face looks awful! (e)


Exercise 48


Fill in the blanks with either should or must.


1. a) You _____ have spoken to him already. I see you know everything.

b) You _____ have spoken to him of the matter. Why keep him in the

dark.

2. a) They _____ have studied the subject more thoroughly; they will

regret it later on.

b) They _____ have studied the subject thoroughly; they answered

every question.

3.a) You _____have ignored the traffic regulations. That’s why you

were fined.

b) You ____ have followed the traffic regulations, then you would not

have been fined.

  1. a) He _____have forgotten to sent them a telegram.

b) He _____have remembered to send them a telegram.

5. a) I _____ have taken Grandfather’s spectacles. I cannot see anything

through them.

b) I _____ have taken my opera-glasses. I don’t see anything.


Exercise 49


Use should or had (to) with the correct form of the infinitive in brackets.


  1. We (call) _____ on him yesterday, but we were too busy as we (attend) _____ an extra meeting.

  2. I (not to tell) _____ him the news; he was so much upset, but I really (to do) _____ so, for the circumstances demanded that.

  3. You (to see) _____him dance! You have missed a lot. I (to take) _____ you to the concert.

  4. It was very hard work but we (to do) _____ it.

  5. She (not to let) _____it pass like that, she (explained) _____ it to him that he was wrong.

  6. Although it was unpleasant to her, she (to tell) _____ him that he was wrong.


Exercise 50

Use should or need with the correct form of the infinitive in brackets.


  1. I am very sorry, I (not to bother) _____ you with this trifle.

  2. You (not to come) _____ so early, now you will have to wait.

  3. You (not to give) _____the child so much money. It will spoil him.

  4. You (not to return) _____the money so soon. I could have waited.

  5. You (not to help) _____ him with this work. He could have managed it himself.


Exercise 51

Fill in the blanks with ought, to be (to), to have (to).


  1. Don’t contradict her, you_____ to respect her age.

  2. She is not a bad sort, if somewhat capricious so you sometimes _____ to put up with her whims.

  3. The situation grew awkward. He felt that something _____ to be done, or else the party would break up; so he _____ to say a few conciliating words to put the guests at their ease.

  4. He was boiling with rage, but he _____ to control his feelings not to give himself away.

  5. I thought I _____ to do something to return their hospitality.

  6. Not a living thing _____ to be seen.

  7. Why do you ask my opinion? You have been in the business much longer, you _____ to know better.

  8. You are a father, you _____ not to neglect your duties to your children.

  9. According to the rules of the game a football player _____ not to touch the ball with his hands.

  10. Ring me up at 6. The situation _____ to clear up then.



Exercise 52


Rewrite these sentences using can, could or couldn’t where possible.

Do you see that man over there?

Can you see that man over there?

  1. I smell something burning.

  2. I understand what he said.

  3. Did you understand what he said?

  4. I don’t see anyone.

  5. I didn’t understand what he said.


Exercise 53

Rewrite the sentence, using the adverbs suggested, so that they refer to a parallel situation in the past time (i.e. potential, not actual performance). Any words in italics should be omitted in your answers.


  1. He can speak German fluently (when he was young).

He could speak German fluently when he was young.

  1. I can give him an answer (last week).

I could have given him an answer last week.


  1. He can drive a car (when he was eighteen).

  2. I find I can understand English better than I can speak it (when I first arrived in England).

  3. I can let you have the money tomorrow (yesterday).

  4. You can persuade him to come, if anybody can (last week).

  5. You can see that he is bored to death (at the party last night).

  6. I can’t get into the house (because I have forgotten my key).

  7. We can overhear every word our neighbours say (in the hotel we stayed at).

  8. The doctor can see you later today (yesterday).

  9. I can well understand how you feel about the situation (at the time).

  10. (When they asked my advice) I can suggest only one way of solving the problem.



Exercise 54

Change into the past.


  1. and then we can both go home.

  2. I really cannot imagine what conception you have of me at all!

  3. No, of course you can’t pay for it, … it costs me nothing. You’ll please me by keeping it.

  4. I really can’t endure it.

  5. What can I show you now?

  6. You can help me with the plates, Bill.

  7. I can remember being made to paint the same thing again and again.

  8. If there’s one thing I cannot stand it’s women making a fuss.

  9. You agreed to it and you can’t take it back now.

  10. You can see me home, said Felicity easily, but you can’t keep me at home.

  11. but Demoyte’s can be quite unpleasant enough on his own account.

  12. You can’t behave anyhow to people and expect them to love you just the same! Said Nan to Felicity.

  13. Well, I shall do what I can for you”, he said.

  14. That’s just what I think I can’t do”, said Mor. “It’s too risky. In my present situation at least I know exactly how much money I can reckon on.

  15. You can’t be too careful …

  16. You can’t send Felicity to college.

  17. Don’t be afraid. I can see from here that there’s no one in the studio.

  18. And I can think of one or two other people/

  19. You can imagine how delightful that prospect is.

  20. I can see that you are irritated by my trousers”, said Miss Carter.

  21. You two can amuse yourselves.

  22. I just wonder weather you can really see her.

  23. And I just don’t know that I can manage it for both of them.

  24. Thank you. Now you can all go.

  25. Mor thought, he wants to force us to talk so that he can observe us, the old fox.

  26. the fact that he can’t paint any more.

  27. You know I can’t see in the dark.

  28. I can see in the dark.

  29. She shan’t know what I’m like if I can’t help it.

  30. All we can do now is to go and find a garage…

  31. You can’t talk now.

  32. I really cannot think of anything that would have pleased me more.

  33. You can’t give an expensive thing like that to the boy!

  34. Then you can all have your tea and go.

  35. Can I trust you, I wonder?

  36. Are you sure you can manage?

  37. you can still mend them?

  38. I regret that I can’t stay to tell you just what I think.

  39. All I can say is that this is my situation…

  40. Anyway, they can fly for miles.

  41. We can’t lose each other all together.

  42. They are obviously paralyzed and can’t move.

  43. The others can deal with the ladder.

  44. We can’t undo it”, said Mor.

  45. I can’t come to the dinner if your wife is there”, she said.

  46. Then you can soon expect the falling leaves.

  47. I can’t give this blow to Nan.

  48. I can’t wait.

  49. I can’t”, she kept saying, “I can’t go to the dinner”.

  50. we can enjoy immortality only in the thoughts of others.


Exercise 55


  1. All of these sentences can be used to ask for permission. Rewrite each one using can.

Do you mind if I open this window just a little?

Can I open this …


  1. I’d like to ask you one more question.

  2. Is it all right if I give you a ring some time later?

  3. Is it okay if we go swimming?

  4. Do you mind if I sit down?

  5. I’d like an ice cream, please.

  6. Do you think I could go home now?

  7. I wonder if I could come back later.

  1. Make the requests more formal by changing can to may.

  2. Now make them more polite by changing can to could.


Exercise 56

Use can in the correct form followed by the appropriate infinitive.


  1. (to call) _____ you a little later? I’m afraid I shall be busy till seven.

  2. (to be) _____ it a joke?

  3. You (not to see)_____ him at the meeting. He was ill.

  4. (to cover) _____ we fifteen kilometres. The village is not yet seen.

  5. He (not to forget) _____ your address; he has visited you several times.

  6. If you had let us know, we (to send) _____our car for you.

  7. I should be very much obliged to you if you (to lend) _____me your dictionary for a couple of days.

  8. I don’t believe her, she (to fail) _____to recognize me.

  9. He said he (to manage) _____ the task by himself.

  10. Why didn’t you ask me? I (to do) _____ it for you.


Exercise 57


Read this information about Ken.

Ken doesn’t know any Spanish.

Ken was ill on Friday night.

Ken doesn’t know anything about machines.

Ken can’t drive.

Ken was free on Monday afternoon.


A lot of people wanted Ken to do different things last week but they couldn’t contact him. So he didn’t do any of these things. You have to say whether he could have done or couldn’t have done these things (if he had known).


  1. His aunt wanted him to drive her to the station.

  2. Ann wanted him to come to the party on Friday night.

  3. Jim wanted him to play tennis on Monday afternoon.

  4. Sue wanted him to translate a Spanish article into English.

  5. Jack wanted Ken to lend him 20 dollars.

  6. Ken’s mother wanted him to repair her washing machine.


Exercise 58


Read each sentence as it stands, then change the form of the Infinitive.


  1. You can’t possibly hear him.

  2. Can you climb that tree?

  3. Could you really bathe in this cold weather?

  4. The meeting can’t be cancelled.

  5. Can you be quiet for a moment?


Exercise 59


Replace the words in italics with a suitable form of to able to (NB not to be able to = to be unable to).


  1. If we don’t book seats soon, it won’t be possible for us to get into the theatre.

  2. In two months’ time, we shall be in a position of to give you the examination results.

  3. By pretending to be ignorant of the rules, he managed to escape being punished.

  4. Luckily, we retraced our steps and succeeded in finding our way again.

  5. It has been impossible for me to get to the bank yet, so I haven’t any money.

  6. May I borrow this piece of material? I’d like to have the opportunity of showing it to my wife.

  7. They bought their new first house last year: previously, it had been impossible for them to get a loan.

  8. They went to see their MP, taking with them a petition for which they had managed to get 25 000 signatures.


Exercise 60


Replace will be able to with can where possible in the sentences below.


  1. She’ll be able to drive by the end of next week.

  2. We’ll be able to go to the seaside tomorrow.

  3. She’ll be able to drive you home tomorrow.

  4. I’ll be able to play chess soon.

  5. I’ll be able to play a game of chess with you tomorrow.

  6. You’ll be able to use my computer after a bit of practice.


Exercise 61


Supply suitable forms of to be able to in these sentences.


  1. Our teacher says we _____ speak English fluently in a few months.

  2. I’ve been trying for hours, but so far I (not) _____ get through on the phone.

  3. If he had asked me earlier, I _____ help him.

  4. I’m sure she would have helped you if she _____

  5. I think I _____ play table tennis better after a bit of practice.

  6. He has managed to live in England for years without _____ speak English.

  7. I’m practicing hard because I want to _____ pass my driving test first time.

  8. If I _____ sing, I would have loved to be an opera singer.


Exercise 62


Complete a sentence with could, was/were able to or couldn’t.


  1. He had hurt his leg, so he _____ walk very well.

  2. She wasn’t at home when I phoned but I _____ contact her at her office.

  3. I looked very carefully and I _____see a figure in the distance.

  4. They didn’t have any tomatoes in the first shop I went to, but I _____ get some in the next shop.

  5. My grandmother loved music. She _____ play the piano very well.

  6. The boy fell into the river but fortunately we _____ rescue him.

  7. The fire spread quickly but everyone _____ escape.

  8. I looked everywhere for the book but I _____ find it.


Exercise 63

Supply can, can’t could, couldn’t , was/were able to, managed to.


  1. A good 1500-metre runner _____ run the race in under four minutes.

  2. Bill is so unfit he _____ run at all!

  3. Our baby is only nine months and he _____ already stand up.

  4. When I was younger, I _____ speak Italian much better than I _____ now.

  5. _____she speak German very well? – No, she _____ speak German at all.

  6. He _____draw or paint at all when he was a boy, but now he’s a famous artist.

  7. After weeks of training, I _____ swim a length of the baths underwater.

  8. It took a long time, but in the end Tony _____ save enough to buy his own hi-fi.

  9. Did you buy any fresh fish in the market? – No, I _____ get any.

  10. For days the rescuers looked for the lost climbers in the snow. On the fourth day they saw them and _____ reach them without too much trouble.


Exercise 64

Supply must be, can’t be or mustn’t be.


  1. The meeting is at 10 o’clock sharp and you _____ late.

  2. You _____ at the station ten minutes before the departure of the train.

  3. The children _____ tired already! We’ve only been walking for ten minutes.

  4. The children _____thirsty. They haven’t had a drink for hours.

  5. Did you hear that? It _____ someone walking about in our garden.

  6. I don’t recognize the handwriting on this envelope. It _____ from anyone we know.

  7. Your handwriting _____ clear, otherwise no one will be able to read it.

  8. You _____ a nuisance when you’re a guest in someone’s house.

  9. Don’t panic! We _____ late for the train. It doesn’t leave till 10.05.

  10. We _____ late for the train or we’ll miss our connection.


Exercise 65

Supply must have been, can’t/couldn’t have been, have to/had to (be), didn’t have to.


  1. He knows a lot about flying planes. He _____ a pilot when he was young.

  2. Vera _____ at the supermarket this morning. I didn’t see her there.

  3. John _____ at the bank till 10, he only arrived here five minutes ago.

  4. When _____ she _____ at the hospital? – Early this morning.

  5. We had enough foreign currency left at the end of the holiday, so I _____ buy anymore.

  6. Monica knew exactly what to do. I _____ tell her twice.

  7. There are so many nice things for tea, I think you _____ expecting us.

  8. There _____ an accident on South Street because the road is closed off.

  9. You _____ waiting long. After all, I’m only five minutes late.

  10. I left a message on your answer phone last night. You _____ out.

  11. The fire alarm went and we _____ out of the building in two minutes.


Exercise 66

Complete the responses to the statements, using must or can’t to suggest what seems to be most likely explanation.


  1. His fiancée writes to him every day. She must _____

  2. I don’t seem to have my key with me. I must have _____

  3. No one thought he would be offered the job, but he was. The person who interviewed him must have _____

  4. He has no idea what the book is about. He can’t have _____

  5. She didn’t reply to his letter. She can’t have

  6. He wears glasses all the time. His eyesight can’t _____

  7. They haven’t been on speaking terms recently. They must have _____

  8. He said he would ring, but he hasn’t. He must have _____

  9. The last bus has already gone. It must _____ than I thought.


Exercise 67

Paraphrase, using the modal verb may

  1. But where are Mike and Ann? We agreed to meet here at nine sharp.

  • Perhaps they went to your place to collect you.

  1. - Who called me, I wonder?

  • Perhaps it was Helen, but I’m not sure.

  1. - Why didn’t the children come to the first meeting of the English Speaking Club, I wonder?

  • Possibly they came yesterday. Perhaps they confused the day.

4. - Why didn’t Peter and Nick join us?

  • Perhaps they didn’t see us in the crowd.

  1. - Why didn’t Boris wish Kate many happy returns of the day?

  • Possibly he sent her a postcard.

6. - It seems Jane got angry with me.

  • Possibly she misunderstood you.

7. - I can’t find my exercise book. Where can it be?

- Perhaps you gave it to Alice.


Exercise 68

Insert may or might according to the sense.


  1. I’m so glad the child is safely back. What with your careless driving he _____ have easily been injured?

  2. I shan’t have a moment’s peace until the child is back. He _____ have met with an accident.

  3. He isn’t back yet. He _____ have lost the way.

  4. You oughtn’t to have driven that car so fast. You _____ have had a serious accident.

  5. Sorry you didn’t tell him about our meeting in time. He _____ have come.


Exercise 69


Use may in the correct form followed by the appropriate infinitive.


  1. I (ask) _____ you to explain the rule once more?

  2. She asked me if she (to switch off) _____ the radio.

  3. I’m afraid it (not to stop) _____raining by the evening.

  4. We wish your journey (to be) _____ successful.

  5. My neighbour lent me her opera glasses that I fully (to enjoy) _____ the ballet.

  6. No matter how bad the weather (to be) _____ she never missed her everyday stroll after dinner.

  7. Don’t be angry with her. She (to do) _____ it by mistake.

  8. If nothing prevents them, they (to arrive) _____ ahead of time.

  9. It (to be taken) _____ for a joke if his face had not been so serious.

  10. You should not feel offended; they (not to notice) _____ you.

  11. Tell him he (to warn) _____ me and (not to put) _____ me in such an awkward position.

  12. He (to have) _____ to walk a long distance, he looks tired.


Exercise 70


Turn these certain statements into possible/less than certain statements.

He is at home now.

He may/might/could be at home now.


  1. He will be at home tomorrow.

  2. He was at home yesterday.

  3. He leaves at nine.

  4. He has left.

  5. She left last night.

  6. She will have left by nine.

  7. He is working today.

  8. He will be working today.

  9. He was working today.

  10. He has been working all day.


Exercise 71


Fill in the blanks with can or may in the correct form.


  1. _____ I see you tonight?

  2. _____ I find you there to-night?

  3. You _____read this article. You have enough knowledge.

  4. You _____ take this book; I don’t need it.

  5. _____ I be of any service to you?

  6. What _____ he want here?

  7. Buy this dictionary. You _____ want it one day.

  8. What _____ have made them so late? – Something _____ have happened to the car.

  9. _____I ask you to do me a favour?

  10. _____you do me a favour?

  11. They _____have something of the kind, but I hardly believe it.

  12. I don’t think they _____ have said anything of the kind.

  13. I _____ not imagine her teaching children, she used to be so impatient; but who knows, time changes people; she _____ have become quite different.

  14. You never _____ tell; everything _____ turn out quite all right.

  15. I am sure you _____ have done it much better. You did not try.

  16. If she _____ not call on me, she _____ have called me up at least.


Exercise 72

Insert may or can according to the sense. If both are possible state the difference in meaning.


  1. He _____ drive much better now.

  2. He _____ be very amiable when he wants to.

  3. He _____ run very quickly.

  4. A cat _____ climb.

  5. You _____ take a nap after dinner.

  6. There’s a bell and a knocker; you _____ ring or knock.

  7. We _____ write inquiry or enquiry.

  8. _____ you climb that tree?

  9. A house in London _____cost a lot of money.

  10. The road _____be blocked.

  11. You never _____ tell; everything _____ turn quite all right.

  12. Children _____ sometimes be very tiring.


Exercise 73

Explain the difference in meaning between a and b


1.a) Tom could pass the examination.

b)Tom was able to pass the examination.

2.a) He may have been injured.

b) He might have been injured.

3.a) He may not be right.

b) He can’t be right.

Exercise 74


Replace the underlined words using may, might or could. (Note that all the sentences refer to present or future possibility.)


  1. Perhaps you will find you have made a mistake.

  2. It is just conceivable that we shall get an answer tomorrow.

  3. Accept his offer now. It is just possible that he will change his mind later.

  4. We shall possibly find we can’t get accommodation, as we haven’t booked rooms.

  5. Ask your bank manager. He will perhaps be able to advise you better than I can.

  6. Let’s not wait any longer. It’s possible that he won’t turn up at all.

  7. It is not impossible that the Government’s policy will prove to be little short of disastrous.

  8. It is quite possible that getting the two sides to agree will not be as easy as some people imagine.


Exercise 75

Future possibility


He should pass = I think he’ll pass but it’s not certain.

He may (not) pass = There’s a reasonable possibility that he will pass.

He might (not) pass = There’s some possibility that he will/won’t pass.


Stephen is taking exams next term, and Mr. and Mrs.Wilson are talking to his headmaster at a teacher-parent meeting. Complete his comments with should, may (not) or might (not).


He’s doing quite well in English, and he _____ pass without any difficulty. He _____ even pass with distinction if he tries very hard. His Maths is not so good – he _____ even fail, though I don’t think that’s very likely. His Chemistry teacher isn’t too happy with him, and says Stephen _____ pass. He doesn’t seem to show any interest in the subject, and only got 42 out of 100 in a practice exam last week. You don’t need to worry about Physics – he _____ pass easily. His French is getting better – he _____ get a distinction, but he _____ at least pass.


Exercise 76

Rewrite the statements and questions in reported speech.


  1. You may leave work early this evening if you want to”, the manager told me.

  2. You can put off making a decision form a week, but no longer”, his interviewer told him.

  3. Could I see your passports, please?” the Customs officer asked us.

  4. May I ask you a rather personal question?” the teacher asked the student.

  5. You can borrow my notes provided you take care of them”, I told my friends.

  6. Might I see that photograph you’re holding?” the police inspector asked his colleagues.

  7. Cars may be parked at the rear of the building”, the notice stated.

  8. Might I interrupt you for a moment?” the chairman asked the speaker politely.

  9. May I join you?” he asked his friend.

  10. The travel allowance may not be used for any form of capital expenditure or investment outside the Sterling Area”, the regulations stated.


Exercise 77

Make up several two-line dialogues patterned on those given below.

  1. You may stretch your legs a little.

  • That’s all right.

  1. - You mustn’t sit like this. Will have cramp in soles.

  • Not me.

  1. - May I take you out.

  • I’ll be delighted.


Exercise 78

Paraphrase the following dialogues, contrasting may, might + perfect infinitive


  1. - I can’t find my raincoat. Where can it be?

  • Perhaps you left it the bus.

  • No, probably my mother has put it on.

2. - Who called me, I wonder.

  • Perhaps it was Helen. I didn’t catch the voice.

  • No, probably it was Ann. She promised to call me.

3. - How did Bob manage to make such a good translation without a

dictionary?

  • Possibly he has been working hard.

  • No, he obviously was using his dictionary after all!

4. - Why is Alice crying?

  • Maybe she was hurt by your remark.

  • No, she got a bad mark, I believe.

5. - I can’t find my atlas. Maybe it’s on the shelf.

  • No, I think I gave it to Jim. Probably he has it.


Exercise 79

Paraphrase the given sentences using the modal verbs can, may, must.


  1. It is quite possible that the performance is over as there are many people leaving the theatre.

  2. The performance was evidently over as many people were leaving the theatre.

  3. A) I don’t believe that he said it.

B) Is it possible that he should have said it?

  1. A) I think they knew everything about it.

B) I am sure they knew everything about it.

  1. I am almost sure that she did not do anything of the kind.

  2. A) Is it possible that they should have refused to help you?

B) It is possible that they have refused to help him.

C) It is possible that they should have refused to help you.

  1. A) Is it possible that they have already left?

  1. Is it impossible that they should already have left?

  2. It is possible that they have already left.

  1. My students are certainly at a lecture now.

  2. The message was evidently delivered in time as we received an immediate answer.

  3. Is it possible that you should not remember our talk?


Exercise 80


Respond to the statements or questions with a sentence suggesting a possible explanation, using may, might or could + perfect infinitive or the verbs given.


  1. Why isn’t he here? (may, miss)

  2. No one is waiting at the bus stop. (may, miss)

  3. He didn’t come to the party last night (might, not want)

  4. No one has answered the door. (might, go out)

  5. How on earth did the thief get in? (could break)

  6. How did they know about our plans? (could, guess)

  7. They should have been here long before now. (may, lose)

  8. I can’t understand why he didn’t look me up while he was down here. (may, not have)

  9. It’s strange that he hasn’t said any more about his plans to emigrate. (might, change)


Exercise 81


Write short dialogues using for the questions the phrases given in a) and for the answers the phrases given in b) or c). Then perform the dialogues.

B - Alice, can I use your ruler?

A - Yes, do please. Here you are.

B - Alice, excuse me, may I use your pen?

A - I’m sorry, you can’t. I need it myself at the moment.


  1. for the requests (asking permission):

  1. use your friend’s textbook

  2. draw with your friend’s crayons

  3. take your friend’s ball-pointed pen

  4. ring the teacher up in the evening

  5. try on your friend’s hat

  6. try on your friend’s gloves

  7. see what your friend has written

  8. listen to what your friend has recorded


  1. for the positive answers

  1. Yes, you may (can)

  2. Of course. Certainly.

  3. Sure.

  4. Do please.

  5. You may (can) if you wish.

  6. Yes, if you want to


  1. for the negative answers

  1. No, you may not (can’t) – to express abrupt refusal

  2. I’m sorry, but you may not.

  3. Unfortunately you can’t.


Exercise 82

Give negative replies to the questions below. Keep the conversation going.

May I take this book?

  1. No, you may not. It’s not for your age.

  2. No, you must not. You aren’t allowed to take it from the shelf.

  3. No, please don’t. I haven’t finished it yet.


  1. May I drive faster?

  2. May I take your bicycle?

  3. Can we change the time of our meeting?

  4. May we put it off till Monday?

  5. Can Nick play the piano?

  6. May I bring a friend with me this afternoon?


Exercise 83

Compose questions to the given replies.


  1. No, you must not. She is asleep.

  2. He must not come at such a late hour.

  3. No, don’t please. She is worried as it is.

  4. By no means. You must not allow your boy to leave hospital so soon.

  5. Don’t put it on, this sweater is not a thing to wear on a day like this.

  6. No, you may not.


Exercise 84

Paraphrase the following sentences using the proper modal verb.


  1. Obviously she’s doing fine there.

She must be doing fine there.

  1. She’s likely to have got there ahead of us.

She may have got there ahead of us.

  1. Is it possible that he refused to help you?

Can (could) he refuse to help you?

  1. It is widely unlikely that this picture was a success with the public.

This picture can’t (couldn’t) have been a success with the public.


  1. I am sure you prefer hiking to travelling by car.

  2. Is it possible that you’ve put off the trip because of the weather?

  3. Is it all likely that you preferred a restful day round the house to the bustle of a country trip?

  4. It is next to impossible that you decided to stay at home on such a day.

  5. Perhaps you were at a loose end and went to the pictures.

  6. It’s impossible that this film appealed to you.


Exercise 85

Explain the difference in meaning between.


A . 1. They should have gone to Sochi by sea. It was easy to get accommodation.

  1. They may have gone there by sea. Perhaps they made reservations in proper time.

  2. They can’t have gone to Sochi by sea. The season is in full swing and it is impossible to book a passage.

  3. They couldn’t have gone to Sochi by sea! She’s a poor sailor.

B. 1. He might be in his office.

2. He could be in his office.

  1. 1. He had to do a lot of things during the three days he stayed in the house.

  1. He was to write his part of the book by the end of April.

  2. He was to have graduated in early spring.


Exercise 86

Comment on the sentences given below. Explain the points of difference.

  1. Bob must have failed the exam. He had been working by fits and starts.

Bob can’t have failed the examination. He’s quite at home in England.

  1. Jane can’t have been detained at school. We left together an hour ago.

Jane may have been detained at school. She often has to stay after classes.

Jane couldn’t have been detained at school. I believe I was the last to leave.

Jane ought to have been detained at school. The teacher wanted the class to help him prepare things for the party.


Exercise 87


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THE UNDERGROUND CITIES OF CAPPADOCIA

In Cappadocia, in Central Turkey, there are two huge systems of underground tunnels and rooms. They were made by the people who lived in the region long ago, to hide when their enemies came. They often had to live in these rooms for long periods.

The city of Derinkuyu goes down for 85 metres, and has seven storeys. At Kaymakli, 10 kilometres away, only five storeys have been discovered, but it is thought that it was much larger. These cities had everything necessary to live for a long time underground: kitchens, water tanks, ventilation channels, storage rooms, wine barrels, and many separate rooms and halls connected by tunnels. In times of danger, these tunnels could be closed by big round stones.


How do you think life was for these people, when they had to spend long periods in hiding? Which of these things do you think were necessary or unnecessary, possible or impossible for these people? Give your opinion, using

may/might (not)

must + have

couldn’t



1. They must have had to control the use of water carefully.

2. They _____ had to go above ground sometimes, to get more food.

  1. They _____ been able to lead a normal life.

  2. They _____ been able to enter and leave the city by secret entrances.

  3. They _____ been able to get rid of waste easily.

  4. They _____ had to spend long periods without ever going above ground.

  5. They _____ been able to bury their dead in the cities.

  6. Their women _____ had to give birth underground.

  7. Their children _____ been able to play easily.

  8. The people _____ had to do a lot of things in the dark.



Exercise 88

Explain what meaning lies behind the use of will (‘ll) in the following sentences.


  1. It’s no good phoning him at his office. He’ll be on his way home now.

  2. Why will you ask such stupid questions?

  3. Will you clear away the dinner things?

  4. If you clear away the dinner things, I’ll make the coffee.

  5. The luggage boot will never take all those cases!

  6. You’ll do as you’re told.

  7. The meeting will begin at 6.30.

  8. He can be quite obstinate, but he’ll generally see sense in the end.

  9. The queen will not be present at the opening of Parliament this year.

  10. Don’t worry! I’ll let you know by tomorrow, without fail.

  11. Ah! Here we are! This will be the restaurant they recommended to us.

  12. This table’s too small for a dinner party. It’ll only seat four in comfort.


Exercise 89


Explain what meaning lies behind the use of will (‘ll)/would in the following sentences. Translate into English.


  1. Don’t phone now – they’ll be having dinner.

  2. There’s somebody coming up the stairs. –That’ll be Mary.

  3. Can somebody help me? - I will.

  4. There’s the doorbell. – I’ll go.

  5. I will stop smoking.

  6. I’ll break your neck.

  7. The door won’t open.

  8. He’s strange – he’ll sit for hours without saying anything.

  9. When nobody’s looking, she’ll go into the kitchen and steal biscuits.

  10. He’ll often say something and then forget what it was he said.

  11. He would never let anybody know what he was doing.

  12. You will keep forgetting things.

  13. She will use the most expensive way to post mail!

  14. That’ll be Marilyn. She said she would ring at six.

  15. A.The phone rang about six. But I was too late to answer it.

B. That will/would have been Marilyn. She wanted to speak to you.

  1. That picture would have looked nice in your room.

Exercise 90


Computers will be able to do everything for us!

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Stephen’s grandmother is not very impressed by all this talk of computers, so he tries to explain their possibilities to her. Complete the spaces with will, ‘ll or won’t.


Stephen: Just think, in a few year’s time, you _____ have to use money

at all. You _____ be able to use a card everywhere, and a central computer will take care of everything. In fact you probably _____ have to go out of your house at all! For example, you _____ have to go to the library to get out a book. You _____ be able to link your computer to a “central library”, and read anything you want on your screen.


Gran: OK, Stephan, but what shall I do if I want to read in bed? I

_____ be able to take the computer with me, _____ I! I think I’d rather have books!


Stephan: Oh Gran, I _____ never be able to convince you , _____ I?


What else is certain, probable or possible in the future, thanks to computers?

Rewrite the sentences. Use each of the following once: will, won’t, shouldn’t may followed by be able to/have to .


  1. Perhaps it will be possible for us to translate instantly be pressing a button.

We _____________________________________________________

  1. Then it won’t be necessary for people to study languages at school.

Then people ______________________________________________

  1. Accurate weather forecast will be easy for meteorologists.

Meteorologists _________________ forecast the weather accurately.

  1. Perhaps it will even be possible for scientists to control the world’s climate.

Scientists _____even ________________ control the world’s climate.

  1. Probably it won’t be necessary for students to buy so many books.

Students ________________ buy so many books.



Exercise 91


Complete the sentences following the model. Will should be used in the conditional clause to express volition.

I shall be grateful to you if you will attend the meeting of our club.


  1. We shall enjoy it immensely if …

  2. Mary will have no reason to worry if …

  3. I shall read the book with pleasure if …

  4. No one will object to our doing the work if …

  5. She will never turn down this offer if …


Exercise 92

Replace the words in italics by will or would + present infinitive.


  1. My children love watching television. They sit for hours without saying a word.

  2. He’s very absent-minded. He often buys things and then leaves the shop without paying.

  3. My wife persistently leaves things where other people can fall over them!

  4. When we lived in the north, the water pipes used to freeze every winter, and we had to call in a plumber.

  5. The chairman’s main fault was that he persistently interrupted the speakers before they had finished.

  6. I tried to refuse his invitation, but he repeatedly insisted on my coming.

  7. Why do you persist in being so difficult?

  8. My headmaster had great authority. Whenever he spoke, everyone used to listen attentively.

  9. No wonder the house is cold! You always go out and leave the door open!

  10. In the nineteenth century, people used to go to church on Sunday as a matter of course.


Exercise 93

Put certain, almost certain, fairly certain or very uncertain beside these sentences.


  1. The phone’s ringing. It’s Roland.

  2. The phone’s ringing. It might be Roland.

  3. A car is parking outside our house. That will be the Kennedys.

  4. A car is parking outside our house. That must be the Kennedys.

  5. From your description, the person you met would have been my cousin Jeff.

  6. From your description, the person you met can’t have been my cousin Jeff.

  7. If I have understood you correctly, Jeff should be my second cousin.

  8. Are you saying it mightn’t be possible for me to get a visa to visit the USA?

  9. If he spent five years in America, he must speak English, I suppose.


Exercise 94

Comment on the modal meaning expressed in every sentence.


He’ll be here by now.

He must be there by now.

He is bound to be there.

He has to be there by now.

He’s likely to be there.

He should be there by now.

He could be there by now.

He might be there by now.


Exercise 95

Look at the sentences and comment on the modal meaning.


  1. You can borrow the car, I don’t need it.

  2. He can’t still be at the office, it’s after 9 o’clock.

  3. I can’t hear you very well, the line’s bad.

  4. That won’t be the postman at the door, he’s been already.

  5. Will you give me a hand with it? It’s so heavy.

  6. John’s awful. He simply won’t admit that he’s made a mistake.

  7. A. What’s that scratching noise?

B. Don’t worry. It’ll be the cat trying to get in.

8. He’ll be at the airport by now

9. No, you may not leave before the end.

10. We may be in for a rough crossing, there’s a storm coming.

11. He might change his mind, if we keep on at him.

12. You mustn’t give up yet, try just once more.

13. He always looks so exhausted, he must have a very demanding job.

14. If you hurry up, we could be there by 6 o’clock.

15. You should drive more slowly round there, it’s a dangerous corner.

16. You should have no trouble passing, it’s your best subject.


Exercise 96

Give the appropriate form of the past for each of the verbal groups containing modals in the sentences below.


  1. They will not wait for us more than ten minutes.

They _____ for us more than ten minutes yesterday.

  1. He must be mistaken about the daughter’s age.

He must _____ about his daughter’s age.

  1. You can’t be listening to what I’m saying.

You _____ to what I _____

  1. Ben should take two tablets every day.

Ben _____ two tablets yesterday.

  1. Lying in our tent, we can hear the wind down from the heights.

Lying in our tent, we _____ the wind howling down from the heights.

  1. With their fast patrol-boats, the police can capture drug-traffickers operating in the Strait yesterday.

  2. There may be a hold-up on the motorway this afternoon.

There _____ a hold-up on the motorway this afternoon.

  1. I must have this baby vaccinating today.

I _____ the baby _____ yesterday.

  1. He will telephone us immediately if he can.

He _____ us immediately if he _____

  1. They oughtn’t to be talking while the pianist is playing.

They _____ while the pianist was playing.


Exercise 97

Supply the modal which corresponds to the paraphrase in each case. In some cases more than one form in is acceptable.


  1. I _____ let you know as soon as I have any news (willingness, promise)

  2. We _____ get away until the end of August (it will not be possible for us to get away).

  3. If she _____ (is not able to) do it by herself, she _____ (it is possible that) have to ask you for help.

  4. There _____ be a fire somewhere (it is necessary the case that _____); I _____ smell (burning). (I smell it right now).

  5. This _____ be enough for three (prediction).

  6. Five bars of Chocolate _____ be enough for five children, don’t you think? Well, it depends on the children (probability, reasonable inference).

  7. Prices _____ to go up while everyone is on holiday (it is certain that).

  8. Surely that _____ be the President’s wife (it’s not possible that).

  9. You _____ not feed the animal at the Zoo (you are under the obligation not to …)

  10. You _____ not tip the waiter (it is not necessary that you tip the waiter).






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3. Communicative practice


Exercise 98


  1. Rewrite the following instructions and slogans using must, need or have to.

No bathing or canoeing when red flag is flying.

You mustn’t bathe or canoe when a red flag is flying.


  1. No children under 18 admitted.

  2. Keep your dog on a lead.

  3. Cheques accepted only with a bankcard.

  4. With Visa, waiting is unnecessary.

  5. Seventy-five tokens get the coffeepot!


  1. With a friend, plan to set up a club and design the rules

for membership. Think in terms of obligation, necessity, prohibition and exemption.


Exercise 99


Respond to the statements by giving advice or making a recommendation using should, ought to, or ‘d better, with a suitable infinitive form.

- I’ve got toothache. – You’d better go to the dentist.

- He failed his exam. – He should have worked harder.


  1. John’s terribly overweight.

2. You are always late for work!

  1. Our train leaves in a few minutes.

  2. Peter was involved in an accident with his car.

  3. Someone’s stolen my wallet!

  4. The rain is coming through the roof.

  5. Our tent was always getting blown down when we were on holiday.

  6. Mary got terribly sunburnt yesterday.

  7. We’re spending our holidays in Spain next summer.

  8. This suit of mine is just about done for!


Exercise 100

Make up several two-lined dialogues patterned on those given below.


  1. The mountain climber may have to fight forces stronger than man.

  • He may.

  1. He must have taken up mountaineering long ago.

  • Exactly so.

  1. - Could he have given up mountain climbing?

  • I believe he could.

  1. They ought to be in the mountains already.

  • Undoubtedly.


Exercise 101

Make bits of dialogue around the following sentences.


  1. You could have been more friendly.

  2. You might have been more considerate.

  3. You shouldn’t have been so rude to him.

Exercise 102


Read and practice. Make up your own dialogue by analogy with this one.


You won’t believe what George did yesterday.

  1. What did he do?

  1. He moved his piano by himself.

  2. You’re kidding! He shouldn’t have moved his piano himself.

  1. Of course he shouldn’t have. He could (might) have broken his back!


  1. go hiking by himself in the mountains

get lost

  1. eat all the ice-cream in the refrigerator

get sick

  1. ride her bicycle downtown

get hurt

  1. swim to the other side of the lake

drown

  1. shout back at the boss

get fired


Exercise 103


Read and practice. Make up your own dialogue by analogy with this one.


  1. I owe you an apology.

  2. What for?

  1. You must have been very angry with me yesterday.

  2. I don’t understand. Why should I have been angry with you?

  1. Don’t you remember? We had planned to see a movie yesterday, but I completely forgot!

  2. Don’t worry about it. In fact, I owe you an apology.

  1. You do? Why?

  2. I couldn’t have seen a movie with you anyway. I had to take care of my little brother yesterday and I completely forgot to tell you.

A. That’s O.K. Maybe we can see a movie next time.

  1. play tennis, go to the doctor

  2. go swimming, visit a friend in the hospital

  3. have lunch, go to an important meeting


Exercise 104

Read the dialogue given below. Make your own dialogues after this pattern.


  1. A. It’ll rain tomorrow, you’ll see.

B.It may not. It could stay fine.


  1. A. Give Ann a ring. She should be home by now.

B. She can’t be. The traffic’s too bad. She’ll be stuck in a traffic jam.


  1. A. I will not stay here any longer. I am sick and tired of sitting in the corridor. Rain or no rain, I am off.

B. Yes, really, it’s no use waiting any longer. The rain won’t stop.


IY. A. Why! You are still fumbling with the key!

B. The door will not unlock, try as I might.


Exercise 105


Your friends have just bought a house, you are with them planning where to put everything. Make suggestions to help them. First make a list of the furniture, etc., and then think of the rooms that are available. It may help you to draw a plan of the house.

That bookcase will fit well against that wall.

That carpet would look nice in the dining room…


Exercise 106


React to the following using all the possible kinds of modals.


Your boy-friend/girl-friend said she couldn’t come out with you this evening because of work. But you’ve just seen him or her coming out of a cinema in hand with another girl/boy.

Exercise 107


React to the following using all kinds of modal verbs. You think your boy/girl friend acted wrong and betrayed you. You are throwing tantrums, reproaching him. Then you calm down. Use the necessary modals of obligation and necessity. Use more polite modals of supposition, probability and deduction.


Exercise 108


You came home rather late and your Mum and Dad are taking their irritation out on you. They say: How could you…, if you only …, it was necessary… and so on. You answer.


Exercise 109


Choose the suitable video sequence. See it twice. First, listen attentively. For the second time, turn the sound off, sound it yourself using where possible the modals. You may use the following script. Episode “The wedding” from “Grapevine” level 2.


a) Get me to church!

Mr. Webster Belinda… Belinda!

Belinda What?

Mr. Webster Are you ready?

Belinda What?

Mr. Webster It’s ten to eleven, Belinda. He is to be here in a minute.

Belinda What?

Mr. Webster Uncle Roland … with the car … Ooh, you look lovely. Very nice.

Belinda Thanks, Dad.



Mr. Webster Oh dear, oh dear, he isn’t here.

Belinda Oh, Dad… We’ll be late.

Mr. Webster We won’t be late. Roland’s always on time. Well, nearly always.

Belinda It’s his rotten car.

Mr. Webster Uncle Roland won’t be late. Not for your wedding, dear.

Belinda Oh, here he is! He might have come earlier!


Belinda Oh! My flowers! I haven’t got my flowers!

Mr. Webster Oh, no… Where are they? I’ll get them.

Belinda Upstairs, in the bathroom. They must be there.



b) Waiting at the church


Clive Well, everybody’s here now.

Mark Except Belinda.

Clive Calm down, Mark. She’ll be here in a minute. Who is to bring her?

Mark Her Uncle Roland. You know, he’s the one that’s got the wedding car business.

Clive Oh, right.

Mark Have you got the ring?

Clive Yes, it’s in my pocket. Hold on … It isn’t there any more. That’s funny. It was in this pocket… or was it this one?

Mark Oh, come on, Clive!

Clive It must be here somewhere… Oh, there’s a hole.

Mark That ring was two hundred pounds …

Clive I’m sorry, I’m sorry, Mark. I’ll find it.


Terry Smile!

Mark Hello, Terry. Er… Clive, this is Belinda’s brother, Terry. He’s taking the photographs. Now, what are you going

to do, Clive?

Clive Er… I’ll go and get another one… I’ll buy one.

Mark But there isn’t time!

Clive I’ll … er … I’ll hurry! Er, Mark…

Mark Yes?

Clive Have you got any money?



Mark Look at the time!

Terry They are to be here soon.

Mark Are they? This is ridiculous! I haven’t got a ring, I haven’t got a best man, and I haven’t got a bride! How could it have happened! How can it be so!



Exercise 110


Look though the video sequence with the sound off. You will see what the actors are doing. But you hear nothing. Sound the sequence. It is from “Father of the Bride”. In the episode the daughter meets the parents after holidays, they are having a festive dinner. She is telling them the shocking news about her going to be married and having been engaged. Her Mum is elated. Her Dad is being irritated. You’ll see the sequence twice. First think it over. The second time for your speech. Characters: Daughter, Father, Mother (also possible to play the roles of 2 children - Brother and Sister).


Exercise 111


You’ll see the sequence with the sound on from the film “True Lies”. The wife learns that her husband is a spy when they are kidnapped by their enemies. What other words could she use reproaching her husband? You are to continue her monologue. What could she say? First see the sequence then you’ll be given 3 minutes for preparing the monologue.



Exercise 112


You’ll see the sequence from “Grease” with the sound on.


Part A. All of a sudden a boy meets a girl he made friends with on their holidays. They happen to study at the same school. First he is delighted, gentle, modest and cordial. His boy friends laughed at him and his speech changes. He becomes impudent, impertinent and coarse. What are your remarks concerning his behaviour?

Part B. The girl changes her modest childish clothes and puts on tight shocky ones to punish the boy and show him what is what. Her figure in new clothes turns out to be beautiful and sexy. All around her are extremely surprised. What do they say? Prepare a monologue on each part (10-20 sentences). Use the modal verbs.



Exercise 113


You have read in the newspaper some marriage advertisements. You are discussing them with your friend.


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Exercise 114


You are going to be married soon. You are discussing with your friend preparations for the wedding, your plans for honeymoon.


Exercise 115


You have been married for some time. You are speaking with your friend about your husband’s/wife’s character. You think he/she could be a little different. What changes are possible/impossible?


Exercise 116


Look at the photo of a girl. It was taken more then twenty years ago. Examine her delicately intelligent face. It is extraordinary graceful. Can you read a person’s character from the face?



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What could have happened to the girl for such a long period of time? And what about nowadays? What are your suggestions? Use the modal verbs.



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xercise 117


Look at this photo. You can see a young couple. Try to foresee their way of life. What could have happened to them? Analyze their characters. Use different degrees of probability.



Mention the possible facts you are sure, you are less sure, you are almost not sure. You only suppose.



Exercise 118


You are speaking about your future wife/husband. Use the modals of supposition, probability and deduction. What kind of person can he/she be?



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Exercise 120


This is a very old photo. The date is 19.12.1930.What can you say about the people in the photo. Speak about the present, the future, the war years, nowadays.



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IV. Correction



Exercise 120


As you know, different modals can often mean more or less the same thing. On the other hand, one modal can often have several possible meanings. Two possible paragraphs are given after each sentence below. Decide which is the correct one.


  1. Little children can be very noisy.

  1. Noise is a POSSIBILITY when little children are around.

  2. Making noise is a SKILL that little children have.

  1. The plane must arrive soon.

  1. I ORDER the plane to arrive soon.

  2. I am CERTAIN that the plane will arrive soon.

  1. Customers may leave their cars in the car park behind the shop.

  1. Customers have PERMISSION to leave their cars in the car park behind the shop.

  2. There is a POSSIBILITY that customers will leave their cars in the car park behind the shop.

  1. Lady Clara could have committed the crime.

  1. There is a POSSIBILITY that Lady Clara committed the crime.

  2. Lady Clara had the SKILL to commit the crime.

  1. Paul has a class until eight o’clock, so he may not get here in time for the start of the film.

  1. He does not have PERMISSION to get here in time for the start of the film.

  2. There’s a POSSIBILITY he won’t get here in time for the start of the film.

  1. No one can drive faster than 30 miles an hour in towns.

  1. No one has the SKILL to drive faster than 30 miles an hour in towns.

  2. No one has PERMISSION to drive faster than 30 miles an hour in towns.

  1. I couldn’t walk until I was a year and a half old.

  1. I didn’t have PERMISSION to walk until I was a year and a half old.

  2. I didn’t learn the SKILL of walking until I was a year and a half old.

  1. Stephen should pass the exams.

  1. It is PROBABLE that Stephen will pass his exams.

  2. Stephen has an OBLIGATION to pass his exams.

  1. Will you answer the phone?

  1. Are you going, in the FUTURE, to answer the phone?

  2. I REQUEST that you answer the phone.

  1. You should wear glasses.

  1. My ADVICE is that you wear glasses.

  2. There is a PROBABILITY that you wear glasses.

  1. I couldn’t start my car this morning.

  1. I didn’t have PERMISSION to start my car this morning.

  2. I didn’t MANAGE to start my car this morning.


Exercise 121


Translate into English.


1. Я должен попасть туда до восьми.

2. Ей необходимо помыть всю посуду.

3. Ты, должно быть, сделал всю работу. Я вижу. Ты не знаешь, чем заняться.

  1. Когда она вернулась, я думаю, она, должно быть, заметила, что его не было.

  2. Ты действительно не должен заснуть до тех пор,пока не сделаешь это.

  3. У меня есть причина поверить, что она, должно быть, повторила мое замечание доктору Фишеру.

  4. Но вам следует знать мистера Кипса.

  5. Вы не должны уходить.

  6. Вы должны навестить нас.

  7. Мне нужно уйти.

  8. Он, должно быть, очень одинокий человек.

  9. Вы должны извинить, что он в перчатке. Она скрывает его уродство.

  10. Вы должны играть до конца. У вас нет выбора.

  11. Как вы должны презирать себя!

  12. Я должен (вынужден) допустить что последний вечер был неуспешным.

  13. Вы должны простить ему.

  14. Когда разговор произошел, он, должно быть, узнал обо всем.

  15. Он, должно быть, читает книгу сейчас.



Exercise 122


Find the error in each of the following sentences and correct it.


  1. Karen thought that a computer dating service must to be a more reliable way of meeting eligible men.

  2. When she first heard about the service, she didn’t was able to decide if she wanted to sign up.

  3. After she signed up, she had to deciding which man she wanted to contract.

  4. She could have went out with ten different men.

  5. She must is going to meet someone she likes eventually.

  6. She cans refuse a date with any of these men if she wants to.

  7. She had to give a lot of information about herself when she filled out the application.

  8. She should have wrote only the truth about herself when she filled out the application.

  9. She couldn’t have meeting any men if she hadn’t signed up for this service.

  10. Caroline should might meet someone that she really likes through the computer dating service.




Exercise 123


Have a look at these mistakes by foreign students, and explain to them what is wrong (using the modals in brackets).


  1. A. When I must to come? (must/should/can’t)

B. You _____ use to after must, and in questions the modal _____ go before the subject. You _____ have said: “ _____?”

  1. A. Yesterday I must go to the dentist. (can/can’t/had/to/should)

B. Must _____be used with a past time adverbial. It _____only refer to the present or future. What you _____ have said was: “_____”

  1. A. Now I am on holiday. I am happy because I mustn’t go to school. (needn’t/shouldn’t/should/should)

B. You _____ have used mustn’t here. People _____ think that you meant “I am not allowed to go to school”. If you mean, “It’s not necessary”, you _____ say: “I _____ go to school”.

  1. A. “It’s getting cloudy. It can rain later, perhaps». (can/can’t/ought to may)

B. What you _____ have said, instead of can, is _____. If you are talking of the possibility that a specific event will happen in the future, you _____ use “can”. You _____ only use “can” for general events that happen from time to time.

  1. A. Don’t worry, I do it for you! (can/can’t/’ll/should)

B.When you offer or promise to do something, you _____ use the present simple, although you ______ in some other languages. “I do it for you” _____ only mean “I always do it for you”. You _____ have said: “Don’t worry, I _____”.



TEST 1

  1. Use (where possible) modal verbs


1. Do you think he has made a mistake?

  1. Is it possible that Ann has gone to see Mary?

  2. The streets are wet; perhaps it rained last night.

  3. Perhaps they have lost their way in the forest.

  4. The line is busy; someone is probably using the telephone now.

  5. This pen won’t write, perhaps it has run out of ink.


  1. Translate into Russian.


  1. The light is always out in her room at 10 o’clock, she must go to bed early.

  2. Bob is sick; he must be sick again.

  3. She ought to go by plane, shouldn’t she?

  4. She could read Latin when she was ten.

  5. It might rain before evening. Perhaps I ought to take my umbrella.

  6. He may have missed his train.

  7. If Miss Dike had lived in Drake’s time, she might have crossed the Atlantic with him.


  1. Paraphrase.


  1. You could have done it if you had tried.

  2. The last train has gone; it will be necessary for you to walk home.

  3. She finds it necessary to wear glasses now.

  4. It is probably almost ten o’clock.

  5. That man is probably an American.

  6. This is probably the house we’ve been looking for.


IY. Put the following in the past tense.


1. She can come (whenever she wanted to).

  1. He can eat anything (when the doctor gave him permission).

  2. I can reach London (yesterday).

  3. I can help you with your homework (when you were in difficulties yesterday)

  4. We can finish it (before it was wanted)

Y. Disagree.


  1. You ought to do at least five homeworks a week.

  2. I suppose you must be home early tonight.

  3. You couldn’t understand a word.

  4. She needn’t come tomorrow.

  5. It can’t possibly happen to me.

  6. He must work hard at it.

  7. My husband needn’t stay at home.

  8. Cabbage ought to be boiled.

  9. The captain could go ashore when he liked.


YI. Translate into English.


  1. Неужели она не купила эту книгу?

  2. Должно быть, он опоздает, как всегда.

  3. Он сумел хорошо прополоть сад после дождя.

  4. Она смогла сдать экзамен в июне.

  5. Мы смогли сесть на 2.30 поезд.

  6. Как жаль, что мне приходится уходить. Я могу опоздать.

  7. Ему приходится остаться на ночь, ему не куда идти.

  8. Ты должна купить все сама. Я не буду тебе помогать.

  9. Он вынужден передвигать мебель сам, никто не может помочь ему.




TEST 2 (VARIANT 1)


  1. Translate into English.


  1. Неужели он не знает об этом&

  2. Я видел, что он спешит.

  3. Ты мог бы, по крайней мере, предложить свою помощь.

  4. Думаю, ты мог бы и поусерднее заниматься в прошлом семестре.

  5. Он, очевидно, не смог этого сделать.

  6. Эту книгу можно найти в любой библиотеке.

  7. Ему не было необходимости писать письмо. Я ужу послал телеграмму туда.

  8. Последнее время я совсем не могу спать.

  9. Я удивлен, что ты сказал ей об этом.

  10. Он должен быть дома к этому времени.

  11. Вы не сумели бы сделать это вчера.

  12. О, как вы пожалеете о своих словах!

  13. Что он может делать так долго? Наверное, он просто уснул.

  14. Ты же знаешь, он может заснуть где угодно и в любое время.

  15. Неужели ты забыл о нашей встрече?

  1. Compare may not, mustn’t, can’t, to be to expressing prohibition.


TEST 2 (VARIANT 2)


  1. Translate into English.


  1. Они, по-видимому, скоро прибудут.

  2. Если мы хотим остаться друзьями, ты должен рассказать мне правду.

  3. Возможно, он не сможет прийти завтра.

  4. Должно быть, у него не было возможности это сделать.

  5. А как она узнает, что нравится тебе?

  6. Не может быть, чтобы телеграмма не дошла до них до сих пор.

  7. К тому времени лишь немногих прохожих можно было видеть на мокрых улицах.

  8. Не может быть, чтобы он не знал об этом.

  9. Она смогла объяснять эту тайну.

  10. Ты мог бы сам это сделать вместо того, чтобы просить других помочь тебе.

  11. Нельзя же без конца говорить об одном и том же!

12.Зачем нам помогать ему?

13.Что-то неладное с замком, он никак не открывается.

14.Вы должны были приготовить домашнее задание как следует.

Тогда бы вам не пришлось задавать подобных вопросов.


II. Compare must, to have to, to be to, should, ought to expressing necessity and obligation.


TEST 2 (VARIANT 3)



  1. Translate into English.

  1. Странно, что он опаздывает.

  2. Принимая во внимание всю работу, которую вы проделали, вы, вероятно, закончите её к пятнице.

  3. Неужели вы думаете, что он вернулся так скоро?

  4. Он смог прочитать книгу за один день.

  5. Я сказал вам не оставлять её ни на минуту, пока меня не будет. Вам нельзя доверять.

  6. Не может быть, чтобы они не получили мое письмо.

  7. Вы этого не сделаете. Запомни это!

  8. Магазин, должно быть, еще открыт. Если вы поторопитесь, вы успеете купить хлеб.

  9. Он сказал, что ему придется уехать через несколько дней, но мы и слушать не хотели.

  10. Вы прекрасно знали, что это бесполезно, и все же это делали.

  11. Незачем вам было делать это вчера. Вы могли бы сделать это сегодня.

  12. Ему даже не нужно было называть своей фамилии, его и так все хорошо знали.


  1. Compare may (might), can (could), must, should, ought to, will (would) expressing supposition.




TEST 3


I.Use where possible modal verbs.


  1. It is possible that Bob has a bad mistake.

  2. Perhaps she left for the country, nobody answers the doorbell.

  3. The line is engaged, she is probably speaking on the telephone.

  4. He hasn’t bought the book, perhaps he has run out of money.

  5. It is possible that she didn’t buy that nice dress.


II.Paraphrase, use modal verbs.


  1. It was important for you to come in time for the beginning of the meeting, but you were half an hour later.

  2. We have missed the last train, it is necessary for us to stay at the station for the night.

  3. She finds it necessary to translate the whole article.

  4. It is probably about 7 o’clock.

  5. It is important for everybody to finish school.


  1. Change into the past.


  1. It is difficult, but I can do it.

  2. She can read English books, she knows the language.

  3. I can finish the work alone, it is easy.

  4. It is a long distance but I can cover it within a day.

  5. I can help you I have enough spare time.


IY. Disagree.


  1. Shall we write this composition today?

  2. We needn’t come tomorrow.

  3. I must be at home early.

  4. He can stay at the hotel.

  5. She must be tired.


Y. Translate.


  1. Мы сумели хорошо заработать.

  2. Они смогли сдать экзамен вовремя.

  3. Я не знала, что мне придется уйти.

  4. Он вынужден вставать рано, он должен быть на работе в 8.

  5. Тебе следовало бы остаться дома.


FINAL TEST


  1. Paraphrase to show the meaning of the modals.

  1. I believe we are both to lunch with Mr.Everard on Thursday.

  2. I ought to be working …

  3. If he had been a small child Mor might have taken him in his arms to erase the words.

  4. We may have missed the turning.

  5. Mr.Bledyard might have come back and find us here.

  6. That must be Miss Carter’s room”, thought Mor.

  7. It must have been a fiction, about being tired.

  8. She must have been fed up with Demoyte.

  9. Felicity must have her change.

  10. I must just ring my wife to tell her what time I’ll be back.

  11. It must be a wonderful thing to have a grown-up son.

  12. She must have witnessed the scene with Donald.

  13. You must take some responsibility for the children.

  14. He thought that Bledyard must be reading his mind.


  1. Translate into Russian, explaining the meaning of the modals.


  1. Can I eat the rest of this?

  2. The school tower could be climbed.

  3. It can’t have gone very far.

  4. You can’t send Felicity to college.

  5. His enormous hand could cup the back of her head in his palm.

  6. You two can amuse yourselves.

  7. Could you please get me all his books?

  8. Thank you. Now you can all go.

  9. He could have been richer if he had wished.

  10. You know I can’t see in the dark.

  11. Rigden clearly could make nothing of the line in question.

  12. You can’t give an expensive thing like that to the boy!

  13. She was now calculating how soon she could decently rise to go.

  14. He could think of no comment on the book.

  15. He knew that Nan could go on in this tone for hours and keep quite calm.

  16. How could he have been such a fool?

  17. I expect I could find some sort of river for you.

  18. He could smell the fresh smell of her cotton dress.

  19. Demoyte took the view that if a boy could look after his Latin prose his character would look after itself.

  20. And when she was able to stand upright she ran away.



  1. Use where possible modal verbs instead of their equivalents.


  1. It was not long before he met a car which was able to give him a lift.

  2. He passed through the white gate, and almost at once was able to hail an hour later a small lorry.

  3. She had never been able to make out of Jimmy Carde.

  4. Mor had hoped to be able to educate his wife.

  5. Mor thought, he would be able to have one or two glasses of sherry with Demoyte before Nan arrived.

  6. And as he tried to arrive soon, after five-thirty he was usually able to do so.

  7. It seemed to Mor that Tim Burke had suddenly been able to communicate to him a new sort of confidence.

  8. Mor had never been able to dream of affording a car.

  9. When this subject failed, however, they had been unable to find another.

  10. In this particular role, Mor was sincere enough to realize he had been able to experience the pleasures of absolute power without remorse of conscience.

  11. He gave her a look of admiration, which he hoped she was able to interpret.

  12. And if I do that you’ll have not to climb the tower.

  13. He had to pause immediately when he got outside.

  14. So I had to come out and see who it was.

  15. I suppose I’ll have to dress.

  16. Donald had to run hard to keep pace with her.

  17. I shall have to persuade Nan.

  18. Well, what am I to do about the dinner?

  19. Am I to be summed up by a slip of a girl?

  20. There was to be a ceremonial.


IY. Change into the negative. Is the meaning the same?


  1. You must tell me all about Mr.Demoyte.

  2. He decided that they must have passed the turning.

  3. She must have got into the river.

  4. He must have made a report successfully.

  5. It’s a free period”, said Mor, “but I ought to go and do some correcting”.

  6. He got up. He ought to have gone into school long ago…

  7. I think we ought to be starting for home.

  8. I ought to be working.

  9. There’s someone I ought to see.

  10. Probably he ought to have told Miss Carter not to bathe.

  11. She ought to go to a university.


  1. Change into the past.


  1. I can pay for it, I have enough money.

  2. He can help me to translate the article.

  3. We can have lunch together.

  4. He can almost hear her counting.

  5. We can talk about it, we have some spare time.

  6. I can’t see in the dark.

  7. They can send their daughter to college.

  8. The cat can’t have gone very far.

  9. I can’t take it back.

  10. We can both work at it.




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BIBLIOGRAPHY


1. Бердичевский А.Л. Оптимизация системы обучения

иностранному языку в педагогическом вузе/Научно-

теоретическое пособие.М.:Высш.шк.б 1989.

  1. Вайсбейн И.М., З.Я.Тураева. Modal Verbs in Spoken English. М.-

Л.: Изд-во «Просвещение», 1966.

  1. Габай Т.В. Педагогичская психология//Учебное пособие.М.: Изд-во Моск.ун-та, 1995.

  2. Практикум по методике преподавания иностранных языков:

Учеб. пособие для студентов пед. Ин-тов по спец. № 2103 “Иностр.яз”/К.И.Саломатов, С.Ф.Шатилов, И.П.Андреева и др.; Под общ. Ред. К.И.Саломатова, С.Ф.Шатилова. – М.: Просвещение, 1985.

  1. Рязанова Н.К., Смолина.М.В. Наклонения английского глагола. М.: Изд-во «Просвещение», 1977.

  2. Сериков В.В. Личностный подход в образовании: концепция и технологии: Монография. – Волгоград: Перемена, 1994

  3. Шевырев А.В.Технология творческого решения проблем (эвристический подход) или книга для тех,кто хочет думать своей головой. Кн.1,2.- Белгород: «Крестьянское дело»Б 1995.

  4. Alexander, L.G. Longman English Grammar Practice. Longman Group UK Limited, 1995.

  5. Allen, W.S. Living English Structure. London: Longman, 1965.

  6. Celce-Murcia,M. And Hilles,S. Teaching and Resources in Teaching Grammar. Oxford University Press, 1988.

  7. Graver, B.D. Advanced English Practice. Oxford University Press, 1975.

  8. Krutikov, Y.A., Kusmina I.S., and Rabinovich, Kh.V. Exercises in Modern English Grammar. Moscow: Higher School Publishing House, 1971.

  9. Leech, G., and Svartik, J. A Communicative Grammar of English.Longman Group, 1983.

  10. Matyushkina-Guerke, T.I., Ivanova, L.L., and Kuzmichyova. Practical Grammar in Patterns. 3d edition/Moscow: Vys aja skola, 1979.

  11. Molinsky, J.S., and Bliss, B. Side By Side. English through Guided Conversations. Prentice Hall Regents, Englewwod Cliffs, NJ 07632, 1983.

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  15. Watkins, M. Practise your Modal Verbs. Longman Group UK Limited, 1992.

  16. West, M. Improve your English.Longmans, 1965.

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Учебное издание

Валентина Константиновна Андреева

Лидия Владимировна Козюченко

Елена Владиленовна Мещерякова


МОДАЛЬНОСТЬ: учеб. пособие



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