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Present Perfect Tense And Usage With Examples
Present Perfect Recent Events The present perfect simple is used to describe recent events without a definite time. The idea of time or place in the speaker's mind makes the event recent. A time expression may emphasize recentness. I've left my shopping bag behind. I've just broken my watch. 2. We can also describe events that have not happened. I haven't found her phone number yet.
Indefinite Events The event may be connected with the present, because the result of the event is present. No definite time is given for the event. I've broken my arm, as you can see. I have cleaned the car. It is clean now. I have finished writing the shopping list, I can go shopping now.
Compared With Past Simple Events described using the past simple have definite times. I went to France last year. 2. The tense used can depend on the time expression. This is the first time I have eaten Japanese food.
Definite Places If we think of a definite place for an event, this may suggest a definite time. I left my shopping bag on the train. I took pictures of Blue Mosque.
Extended or Repeated Events Present Perfect Simple With verbs that describe states, the present perfect simple describes a state which lasts up to the present. I've lived in this house for five years. I haven’t seen her for two years.
Present Perfect Continuous The present perfect continuous can also describe a state which lasts up to the present moment. I've been living in this house for five years. There is little difference of meaning between simple and continuous in this case, or with How long questions. The verbs sit, lie, wait, stay prefer the present perfect continuous. How long have you been waiting?
Present Perfect Simple The present perfect simple can describe a repeated action in a period of time up to the present moment. I've never worn a tie to work, and I refuse to start now!
Contrasts Between Simple and Continuous With Examples
Not Completed Actions Use of the present perfect continuous can suggest that an action is not completed, or has recently finished. We've been walking for hours! Let's have a rest. I've been digging the garden. That's why I'm so dirty! He is out of breath, because he has been running.
Completed Actions Use of the present perfect simple can show that an action is complete. Giving the number of actions suggests completion. I've written ten pages of my homework assignment! He has seen five films this week. We have eaten ten sandwiches since we woke up. I have run two miles this morning.
The present perfect simple describes indefinite events. These events take place in a period of time leading up to the present moment, or the result of the event is still present. No definite time is given. The choice between the present perfect simple and the past simple can depend on how the speaker thinks.
Compare: A: 'What's the matter?' 'I've had an accident.' B: 'What's the matter?' 'I had an accident.' In the second example, the speaker thinks of the event as finished rather than still connected with the present.
Events described with the present perfect simple may be recent, or not. I have just finished polishing my shoes. I haven’t seen her for ages. She has dyed her hair yellow. ( The action is complete, it is yellow now and Evidence in the present.)
The present perfect continuous emphasises the length of time of an action. It suggests that the action is unfinished, or recently finished. The present perfect continuous is not used where the completion of an action is emphasised. I've been reading. (Completion is not emphasised) I've read this book. (Completion is emphasised) I have been running I have run two miles.
For For refers to a finished or unfinished period of time. He's been sitting there for ages. I waited for three hours. and for expresses the duration of an action. We’ve been here for three months.
Since Since refers to the point at which an unfinished period of time began. (a starting point) He's been sitting there since two o'clock. I’ve been here since March. He has eaten four hamburgers since he came here.
Ago Ago refers to the time of a finished event. And used with past simple. Jill arrived a week ago. We came here two hours ago. The plane took off five minutes ago.
Yet and Already They show that an action occurred or did not occur at an indefinite time in the past. ‘’Yet ‘’ is used in negatives and questions and appears at the end of a sentence. We haven’t had lunch yet. ‘’ Already ‘’ appears between the auxiliary and the main verb. They have already finished their project. ‘’already ‘’ may also be placed at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.
Other Time Expressions ‘’ up to now ‘’, ‘’ often ‘’ , ‘’ as soon as ‘’, ‘’ during the past few days’’, ‘’ lately’’, ‘’ recently’’ , ‘’ just’’ , ‘’ ever ‘’, ‘’ never ‘’ ,‘’ so far ‘’, ‘’ frequently ‘’ , ‘’ finally’’. He will call you as soon as he has finished his homework. During the past two days, I have read six chapters.
Exercises Choose the most suitable tense Did you see / Have you seen my bag anywhere? I can't find it. Have you seen 2. Larry is writing / has been writing / has written his novel for the last two years without getting further than Chapter One. Has been writing
From the minute he got up this morning, Gary asked / has asked / has been asking silly questions! Has been asking 4. Have you given / Did you give Helen my message when you have seen / saw her? Did you give / saw
Sorry, could you say that again? I didn't listen / haven't listened / haven't been listening to you. haven't been listening The police think that they found / have found your missing wallet, so call this number. have found
I don't think we'll go swimming after all because the weather changed / has changed / has been changing. has changed. How was your holiday in Italy? Did you visit / Have you visited lots of interesting places? Did you visit
Did you two meet / Have you two met before? Eric, this is Amanda. Have you two met Did you meet / Have you met anyone interesting at the reception ? Did you meet
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