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Present Perfect Recent Events The present perfect simple is used to describe recent events without a definite time. The idea of time or place in the speaker's mind makes the event recent. A time expression may emphasize recentness. I've left my shopping bag behind. I've just broken my watch. 2. We can also describe events that have not happened. I haven't found her phone number yet.
Indefinite Events The event may be connected with the present, because the result of the event is present. No definite time is given for the event. I've broken my arm, as you can see. I have cleaned the car. It is clean now. I have finished writing the shopping list, I can go shopping now.
Present Perfect Continuous The present perfect continuous can also describe a state which lasts up to the present moment. I've been living in this house for five years. There is little difference of meaning between simple and continuous in this case, or with How long questions. The verbs sit, lie, wait, stay prefer the present perfect continuous. How long have you been waiting?
Not Completed Actions Use of the present perfect continuous can suggest that an action is not completed, or has recently finished. We've been walking for hours! Let's have a rest. I've been digging the garden. That's why I'm so dirty! He is out of breath, because he has been running.
Completed Actions Use of the present perfect simple can show that an action is complete. Giving the number of actions suggests completion. I've written ten pages of my homework assignment! He has seen five films this week. We have eaten ten sandwiches since we woke up. I have run two miles this morning.
The present perfect simple describes indefinite events. These events take place in a period of time leading up to the present moment, or the result of the event is still present. No definite time is given. The choice between the present perfect simple and the past simple can depend on how the speaker thinks.
The present perfect continuous emphasises the length of time of an action. It suggests that the action is unfinished, or recently finished. The present perfect continuous is not used where the completion of an action is emphasised. I've been reading. (Completion is not emphasised) I've read this book. (Completion is emphasised) I have been running I have run two miles.
Yet and Already They show that an action occurred or did not occur at an indefinite time in the past. ‘’Yet ‘’ is used in negatives and questions and appears at the end of a sentence. We haven’t had lunch yet. ‘’ Already ‘’ appears between the auxiliary and the main verb. They have already finished their project. ‘’already ‘’ may also be placed at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.
Other Time Expressions ‘’ up to now ‘’, ‘’ often ‘’ , ‘’ as soon as ‘’, ‘’ during the past few days’’, ‘’ lately’’, ‘’ recently’’ , ‘’ just’’ , ‘’ ever ‘’, ‘’ never ‘’ ,‘’ so far ‘’, ‘’ frequently ‘’ , ‘’ finally’’. He will call you as soon as he has finished his homework. During the past two days, I have read six chapters.
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