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Презентации для урока агглийского языка по теме Биосфера


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Название документа Biosphere & Vernadsky.doc

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The biosphere

The biosphere is the layer of the Earth in which all life exists. The term biosphere was coined in 1875 by the geologist, Eduard Suess, but it was Vladimir Vernadsky who recognised its ecological importance in 1929. He believed that all living organisms together with their environments make up the biosphere. These environments include the air (the atmosphere), land (the geosphere), rocks (the lithosphere) and water (the hydrosphere). The exact thickness of the biosphere on Earth is difficult to calculate, but most scientists would agree that it is from about 5000 metres above sea level to around 9000 metres below sea level. Thus, there is a 14-kilometre zone within which life exists.

The biosphere is important because it is all of life. Without the biosphere, Earth would be a lifeless planet like all the others in our solar system. Also, the biosphere could not exist without water. Water is essential for all living organisms on Earth and has played a very important role in the evolution of life on our planet. Life on Earth began approximately 3.5 billion years ago in the oceans. At that time, Earth was very different from what it is today.

The earliest forms of life were very simple organisms similar to modern bacteria. Over millions of years, more complex organisms evolved and in time, many different forms of life began to inhabit the land, the sky and the oceans. They all depended on each other to survive. The biosphere is like a ladder. This ladder is known as the food chain, and all life depends on the first step of the ladder which is made up of plants. Animals eat the plants; bigger animals eat the smaller animals, and so on. In this way, all organisms are closely connected to their environment.

The biosphere is what keeps us alive. It gives us our food, water and the air that we breathe. Everything we need in order to grow and survive comes directly from the biosphere, so it is important to protect it; however, humans have not always done that. Humans have had a huge impact on the biosphere. Sometimes this has been good, but at other times it has been very destructive. The growing human population on Earth means there is less room for other species and by destroying their habitats we have made many types of plants and animals extinct.

As scientists learn more about our world, they can help us to understand the biosphere, how it evolved, and even try to predict how the biosphere will respond to global change and human activities. Scientists are very concerned about the future, particularly how people will affect the environment in harmful ways. It is very important to try to prevent any permanent damage, or we will destroy ourselves.


Vladimir Vernadsky

Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky was a Russian scientist who was born on 12th March, 1863 in St Petersburg. His most important contributions to science were the development of the ideas of the biosphere (from the Greek word bios meaning life) and the noosphere (from the Greek word noos meaning mind).

He graduated from the Physics and Mathematics Department of St Petersburg University in 1885. From 1890 to 1911 he taught mineralogy and crystallography at the University of Moscow. In 1912 he was made a full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences where he was actively involved for 33 years, until his death in Moscow on 6th January, 1945.

Through his work in mineralogy, Vernadsky became interested in the distribution of chemical elements in the Earth's crust, hydrosphere and atmosphere - the field known as geochemistry. Vernadsky published many papers on the geochemistry of various elements, including the geochemistry of radioactive compounds.

Vernadsky was one of the first scientists to suggest the possibility of using radioactive elements as sources of energy, and he organised a special commission to look for uranium ores in Russia. In 1916, the first uranium deposits were discovered. But Vernadsky was aware of the danger of putting atomic energy into the hands of man. He said that scientists carried the huge responsibility of making sure their discoveries did not lead to destruction.

However, Vernadsky is probably best known for his development of the idea of the biosphere of the Earth and his ideas on the evolution of the biosphere into the noosphere.

He defined the boundaries of the biosphere by showing that the biosphere includes all the hydrosphere, part of the troposphere - the lowest layer of the atmosphere where most weather changes take place - and the upper part of the Earth's crust down to a depth of two or three kilometres, in short, everywhere that life exists. For Vernadsky, the biosphere had existed since the very beginning of the Earth's history and it was constantly evolving. Our present living world is the product of a long and complex evolution of the biosphere.

Vernadsky believed that the technological activities of mankind were a stage in this evolution. He believed that human reason and combined scientific efforts could overcome the negative results of technology and could lead to a safe future for everyone. This positive evolutionary stage of the biosphere of the Earth is for him the noosphere, the sphere of reason.

In his paper, Several Words on the Noosphere (1944, the last paper he published before his death), Vernadsky outlined the conditions that were required for the creation of the noosphere: equality for all people and an end to wars, poverty and hunger. Today, Vernadsky's vision of the world is more important than ever before.

Название документа Biosphere.doc

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Biosphere comes from the words “bio” and “sphere”, which translate from the Greek language as a life and sphere accordingly. Thus, the term “biosphere” means the layer of the Earth in which all life exists. The term biosphere was coined in 1875 by the geologist, Eduard Suess, but it was Vladimir Vernadsky who recognized its ecological importance in 1929.


Vladimir Vernadsky believed that all living organisms together with their environments make up the biosphere. The biosphere has four environments such as air, known as the atmosphere, land, known as the geosphere, rocks the lithosphere, known as, water, known as the hydrosphere. Biosphere is a 14-kilometre zone within which life exists.


The biosphere is like a ladder. This ladder is known as the food chain, and all life depends on the first step of the ladder which is made up of plants. Animals eat the plants; bigger animals eat the smaller animals, and so on (food chain). The food chain is important because it supports integrity of community. The continuous substance -power exchange between alive and lifeless substance of the nature is carried out owing to food communications.

The biosphere is important because it is all of life. Without the biosphere, Earth would be a lifeless planet like all the others in our solar system. The biosphere is what keeps us alive. It gives us our food, water and the air that we breathe. Everything we need in order to grow and survive comes directly from the biosphere, so it is important to protect it; however, humans have not always done that. Humans have had a huge impact on the biosphere. Sometimes this has been good, but at other times it has been very destructive. The growing human population on Earth means there is less room for other species and by destroying their habitats we have made many types of plants and animals extinct. As scientists learn more about our world, they can help us to understand the biosphere, how it evolved, and even tries to predict how the biosphere will respond to global change and human activities. Scientists are very concerned about the future, particularly how people will affect the environment in harmful ways.





The noosphere is the maximum evolutionary condition of biosphere when reasonable activity of the person becomes the defining factor of its development. The noosphere is a condition of biosphere, направленно преобразуемое in interests of mankind. The interrelation of laws of the nature with laws of a society is characteristic for a noosphere.

Human reason and combined scientific efforts could overcome the negative results of technology and could lead to a safe future for everyone. Transition of biosphere in a noosphere will occur during association of all people of a planet for the decision of the general, global problems of the present. Vernadsky in his paper, Several Words on the Noosphere Vernadsky outlined the conditions that were required for the creation of the noosphere: equality for all people and an end to wars, poverty and hunger. Today, Vernadsky's vision of the world is more important than ever before.
































Название документа Биосфера.ppt

Layer Term Was coined Geologist Recognize Importance Environment Geosphere Th...
To inhabit Ladder Food chain Made up of Closely Connect Breathe Huge impact D...
Complete the definitions below with the following words: Coin, extinct, inhab...
Read the text and decide if the following statements are true or false. The b...
Answer the following questions What is the biosphere? Why is it so important?...
Listen to the discussion between a teacher and some students about extinction...
Contribution Mineralogy Crystallography Involve Distribution Earth’s crust Ge...
Outline To be required of sth Creation of Equality Подчеркивать Требуется Соз...
Complete the sentences with the following words Source, commission, boundary,...
Read the text and choose the correct answer Vladimir Vernadsky taught at St P...
4. The biosphere is the layer of Earth where Only minerals are found. Living...
Listen to the class discussion about uranium. Then decide if the following st...
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Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:

№ слайда 1 Layer Term Was coined Geologist Recognize Importance Environment Geosphere Th
Описание слайда:

Layer Term Was coined Geologist Recognize Importance Environment Geosphere Thickness Exact Calculate Above Below Solar system Essential Exist Existence Evolution Approximately Similar to Over Слой Термин Был введен Геолог Признавать, распознавать Важность Окружающая среда Геосфера Толщина Точный Вычислять Выше Ниже Солнечная система Важнейший, необходимый Существовать Существование Эволюция Примерно Похож на Через, более

№ слайда 2 To inhabit Ladder Food chain Made up of Closely Connect Breathe Huge impact D
Описание слайда:

To inhabit Ladder Food chain Made up of Closely Connect Breathe Huge impact Destructive Growing population Species Habitats Extinct Predict Respond Global change Human activities Are concerned Particularly Affect Prevent Permanent Населять Лестница Пищевая цепочка Сделан из Близко Связывать Дышать Огромное влияние Разрушительный Растущее население Виды Среда обитания Вымирающий Предположить Отвечать Мировые изменения Человеческая деятельность Уверены Особенно Повлиять Предотвратить Постоянный

№ слайда 3 Complete the definitions below with the following words: Coin, extinct, inhab
Описание слайда:

Complete the definitions below with the following words: Coin, extinct, inhabit, approximately, predict, evolve, impact, layer, permanent To…means to leave in a particular place. A (n)…animal or plant no longer exists/ To…means to change physically over a long period of time. A (n)…is an effect. To…a term means to use a word or phrase that no one has used before. A (n)…is a covering. …means lasting forever. …means not exactly. Scientists often…global change will destroy our Earth.

№ слайда 4 Read the text and decide if the following statements are true or false. The b
Описание слайда:

Read the text and decide if the following statements are true or false. The biosphere is made up of all living things and their environments. The biosphere is a 5 km layer around the Earth. The first living creatures on Earth were in the seas. The only thing the biosphere provides us with is food. Many types of plants and animals have disappeared. Scientists can already predict the future of the biosphere.

№ слайда 5 Answer the following questions What is the biosphere? Why is it so important?
Описание слайда:

Answer the following questions What is the biosphere? Why is it so important? What layers does it consist of? What is a food chain? What effect do we have on our planet?

№ слайда 6 Listen to the discussion between a teacher and some students about extinction
Описание слайда:

Listen to the discussion between a teacher and some students about extinction. Then fill in the gaps. The Tasmanian tiger looked like a dog with…head. It was called a tiger because it had…on its body. The…who arrived in Tasmania killed it. The Tasmanian tiger was a very …animal. The last one died in…in a zoo. The Tasmanian tiger was declared extinct in…

№ слайда 7 Contribution Mineralogy Crystallography Involve Distribution Earth’s crust Ge
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Contribution Mineralogy Crystallography Involve Distribution Earth’s crust Geochemistry Radioactive compounds Sources of energy Commission Uranium ores Uranium deposit Huge responsibility Define Boundaries Depth In short Mankind Вклад Минералогия Кристаллография Привлекать, вовлекать Распространение Земная кора Геохимия Радиоактивная структура Источники энергии Комиссия Урановая руда Месторождение урана Огромная действительность Определять, характеризовать Граница, предел Глубина Короче говоря Человечество

№ слайда 8 Outline To be required of sth Creation of Equality Подчеркивать Требуется Соз
Описание слайда:

Outline To be required of sth Creation of Equality Подчеркивать Требуется Создание чего-либо равенство

№ слайда 9 Complete the sentences with the following words Source, commission, boundary,
Описание слайда:

Complete the sentences with the following words Source, commission, boundary, ore, crust, deposits, contribution, doctrine, required Vernadsky’s particular beliefs led him to develop his unique… Rich mineral …were found in the area. Uranium …is mined in Australia. Vernadsky’s development of the idea of the biosphere was an important … to science. Oil is a …of energy. A…was organised to look into the position of the mine. The… between the two spheres has been defined. In the Earth’s…there are many minerals. What are the conditions …for a better future?

№ слайда 10 Read the text and choose the correct answer Vladimir Vernadsky taught at St P
Описание слайда:

Read the text and choose the correct answer Vladimir Vernadsky taught at St Petersburg University. Moscow University. The Russian Academy of Science. Both St Petersburg University and Moscow University. 2. Vernadsky’s work in mineralogy led to His work in publishing. Discovery of the Earth’s hydrosphere. His interest in geochemistry. A new field of geochemistry. 3. He was one of the first to suggest using Atomic energy. Minerals. The biosphere. Various elements.

№ слайда 11 4. The biosphere is the layer of Earth where Only minerals are found. Living
Описание слайда:

4. The biosphere is the layer of Earth where Only minerals are found. Living things are found. Only the troposphere is. Its history began. 5. According to Vernadsky, The noosphere is in the atmosphere. The biosphere developed from the noosphere. The biosphere creates a negative environment. The noosphere would create a better world.

№ слайда 12 Listen to the class discussion about uranium. Then decide if the following st
Описание слайда:

Listen to the class discussion about uranium. Then decide if the following statements are true or false: Uranium has been in the Earth’s crust for a very long time. Uranium entered a star that had exploded. Uranium is lighter than oxygen. Uranium is the source of energy. A small amount of uranium can produce a great deal of oil. Less carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere when we use nuclear power.

№ слайда 13
Описание слайда:

Название документа домашнее задание к биосфереSpeak about the idea of the biosphere.doc

Поделитесь материалом с коллегами:

Speak about the idea of the biosphere.

Talk about:

  • What the term biosphere means

(biosphere comes from the words…and…)

  • Which environments are contained within it

( the biosphere has four environments such as air, known as…land, known as…Rocks, known as… water, known as…)

  • The importance of the food chain

(the food chain is important because…)

  • Human impact on the biosphere

(the biosphere is important because…)

  • The importance of the biosphere

  • What noosphere is

  • Do you believe it is possible for Earth to develop the noosphere?

(the development of noosphere is (im) possible because…)


Speak about the idea of the biosphere.

Talk about:

  • What the term biosphere means

(biosphere comes from the words…and…)

  • Which environments are contained within it

( the biosphere has four environments such as air, known as…land, known as…Rocks, known as… water, known as…)

  • The importance of the food chain

(the food chain is important because…)

  • Human impact on the biosphere

(the biosphere is important because…)

  • The importance of the biosphere

  • What noosphere is

  • Do you believe it is possible for Earth to develop the noosphere?

(the development of noosphere is (im) possible because…)


Speak about the idea of the biosphere.

Talk about:

  • What the term biosphere means

(biosphere comes from the words…and…)

  • Which environments are contained within it

( the biosphere has four environments such as air, known as…land, known as…Rocks, known as… water, known as…)

  • The importance of the food chain

(the food chain is important because…)

  • Human impact on the biosphere

(the biosphere is important because…)

  • The importance of the biosphere

  • What noosphere is

  • Do you believe it is possible for Earth to develop the noosphere?

(the development of noosphere is (im) possible because…)



Название документа инструкция для урока.docx

Поделитесь материалом с коллегами:

Instructions for the lesson

  1. Read and copy the words (slide 1, 2)

  2. Write the missing words (slide 3)

  3. Read the text “The biosphere” and decide if the statements true or false (slide 4)

  4. Answer the questions 1-5 from slide 5 in written form

  5. Read and copy the words (slide 7, 8)

  6. Write the missing words (slide 9, 10)

  7. Read the text about Vladimir Vernadsky and choose the right answer (slide 10, 11)




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В представленной работе содержится текст о биосфере и о Владимире Вернадском и его вкладе в науку. Также, к данной теме подобраны видеофрагменты, которые можно использовать для введения темы и презентация с заданиями для обсуждения теста, словами, которые понадобятся учащимся для понимания текста и беседы по предложенной теме

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Дата добавления 26.10.2015
Раздел Иностранные языки
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