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The History of Animals in Space Anna Strukova 312 platoon
Animals have been used in space science research since the beginning of the space age. Both Soviet/Russian the United States and space programs used animals to collect medical information and test the concepts used to put humans in space.
In 1948 a rhesus monkey named Albert was launched on a sub-orbital flight aboard a V2. Three more V2 flights took place in 1949 involving monkeys named Albert II, Albert III and Albert IV. Unfortunately none of these animals survived due to mechanical failures. In the 1950s the US developed a new, more reliable rocket called the Aerobee. The first launch of the Aerobee rocket carried a monkey named Albert V. Unfortunately this rocket also crashed after failure of its parachute system. Finally in September 1951 an Aerobee rocket carrying a rhesus monkey named Albert VI along with 11 mice survived a flight into space. Sadly Albert VI died two hours after landing. V2 rocket Aerobee rocket launch
In May 1952 two Phillipine macaque monkeys named Patricia and Michael were launched on the third Aerobee launch. The flight was a resounding success and both were recovered in good health - a big step forward for American space flight. In December 1958 the US launched a squirrel monkey named Gordo aboard a Jupiter rocket. The parachute system failed and unfortunately Gordo was lost. Gordo the squirrel monkey
After Gordo two monkeys were selected for the next biological flight, Able and Baker. Able and Baker were launched on a Jupiter rocket on May 28, 1959. The flight went flawlessly with the monkeys experiencing 9 minutes of weightlessness before returning safely. Able and Baker
Able died 4 days after the mission during surgery to remove an infected electrode. Baker lived until the ripe old age of 27, dying in 1984. She even celebrated her 21st birthday with 1000 guests being presented with a jelly cake made with strawberries and bananas. Baker the squirrel monkey
In January 1961 Ham the chimpanzee was launched into space. He had been trained to pull levers to receive banana pellets and avoid electric shocks. His flight demonstrated the ability to perform tasks in microgravity. Ham being greeted by the recovery ships commander after his flight A chimpanzee named Enos became the first chimp to orbit the Earth in November 1961. Enos paved the way for American John Glenn to orbit the Earth. Enos on launch day
While the US were using monkeys in their testing the Soviets had decided to use dogs. In July 1951 the Soviet Union launched two dogs Tsygan and Dezik into space on a R-1 rocket Both dogs survived the flight. Soviet Space Dog
On November 3, 1957 the Soviets launched Sputnik 2 carrying a dog named Laika. She became the first animal to orbit the Earth. Laika
Laika died just a few hours after launch due to stress and overheating Although she did not survive her flight proved that a living organism could be launched into orbit and survive microgravity. Laika in her capsule prior to launch
19 августа 1960 года полет . Продолжительность - двадцать пять часов. облетели вокруг Земного шара семнадцать раз. цель полета изучение невесомости, для возможности полета человека. Белка и Стрелка пролетела 700 тысяч километров. После возвращения на Землю собак поселили в институт авиационной медицины. Они принесли ещё много полезного для авиации. У них появилось потомство. И они прожили долго и счастливо.
Russia continued sending dogs into space. Belka and Strelka spent a day in orbit aboard Sputnik 5 on August 19, 1960 and were successfully returned to Earth. They became the first Earth born creatures to orbit the Earth and return alive. Strelka and Belka
In the Soviet Union the dogs Veterok and Ugolyok were launched aboard Kosmos 110 on February 22, 1966 and spent 22 days in orbit. This record breaking flight was not surpassed by humans until 1974. Veterok and Ugolyok on a Russian postal stamp in 1966
Félicette (cat) 1963 launch year The state of weightlessness lasted five minutes and two seconds. Search group through thirteen minutes found the capsule with the cat Felicette. The condition of the cat was stable.
Turtles черепаха As it does not require a large amount of oxygen could remain long without food They were immersed in a special natural lethargy. After returning to Earth, the turtles were active — a lot of movement, with appetite ate. The result - fulfilled their mission and in unharmed condition back to earth.
Quails перепела Quail is considered a bird of space, because it is one of a number of chicken was honored to be derived in space. First experiment: in 1978. On Board the ship "Kosmos-1129" quail eggs were first taken into earth's orbit. The experiment failed due to a hard landing. Second experiment: in 1999 .On orbit sent 60 quail eggs. 37 Chicks hatched and three of them were able to return alive to earth. The main result was the answer to the question – the origin of life is possible in space.
The first flight of the rat on a Veronique AGI 24 took place on 22 February 1961. During it, the rat was kept in extended position in the container using a special vest. After 40 minutes after the start, the rat was evacuated from the rocket, and the next day it is brought to Paris and was called "Hector". 15 October 1962 - the launch time of the Veronique AGI 37 with the rat Castor. The head part of the rocket was discovered only after an hour and 15 minutes. During this time castor died from overheating because the temperature in the container it was in upside down, exceeded 40°C. Pollux sent into space on 18 October 1962, suffered the same fate. He wasn’t find.
Throughout the 1990s during the various manned and unmanned space expeditions research continued on a wide variety of animals to study the effect of microgravity on biology including crickets, mice, rats, frogs, newts, fruit flies, snails, fish, insect eggs, quail eggs and more. An astronaut examines a newt aboard the Space Shuttle
After the Moon landing in July 1969 the role of animals in space was downgraded to biological research payloads. In spite of this, animals deserve to be remembered as the real pioneers of space flight. Buzz Aldrin on the Moon
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Данная презентация на английском языке об истории использования животных для развития советской и российской космонавтики выполнена курсанткой 3 курса 312 взвода Колледжа Полиции г. Москва Струковой Анной, которая заняла 2 место в конкурсе презентаций, посвящённых Дню космонавтики. Хочется обратить ваше внимание на новый способ озвучивания данной презентации при помощи диктофона.