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МУНИЦИПАЛЬНОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБЩЕОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ЛИЦЕЙ № 4 ЛИЦЕЙСКОЕ НАУЧНОЕ ОБЩЕСТВО « СИНЯЯ ПТИЦА» КОНКУРС ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИХ РАБОТ « ПЕРВЫЕ ШАГИ В НАУКУ» СЕКЦИЯ « ЯЗЫКОЗНАНИЕ» SUPERSTITIONS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND RUSSIA: ARE THEY DIFFERENT? ВЫПОЛНИЛ БУЛАВКИН ВЛАДИМИР 9 Ж КЛАСС МБОУ ЛИЦЕЙ № 4 РУКОВОДИТЕЛЬ ЧЕРНЫХ Н.И. УЧИТЕЛЬ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА ДАНКОВ 2014Г.
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION WHAT IS “SUPERSTITION” THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN AND BRITISH SUPERSTITION CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION The purpose is the analysis of superstitions, and revealing the most widespread superstitions and studying the origin of them. Hypothesis is the superstitions influence the life of a man This work is devoted to comparison and studying Russian and English superstitions and beliefs, and also to their value in daily human life. Theoretical and practical importance of this work is that material can be used at various lessons and lectures.
WHAT IS “SUPERSTITION” Superstition is a belief or notion, not based on reason or knowledge. Religious practices are most likely to be labeled "superstitious" when they include belief in extraordinary events (miracles), an afterlife, supernatural interventions, apparitions or the efficacy of prayer, charms, incantations and prognostications.
THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN AND BRITISH SUPERSTITIONS It is possible to see one’s own future in the tea leaves. When you make tea with tea leaves, you turn the tea cup upside down after having finished drinking it. Then wait until the water disappeared, look at the shape of the tea leaves. The first thing you see in the cup is a prediction of what will happen to you. In Russia, the most common is to use coffee instead of tea to known what will happen. Breaking a mirror gives 7 years of bad luck according to the Russian and British beliefs.
The horseshoe is possibly the most common good-luck symbol today. Some people put them on or above their front door. But the horseshoe needs to be the right way up. The luck runs out of the horseshoe if it is upside down. Spilling salt is said to cause a fight or argument during the day. Often people will throw salt over their shoulder after they spill it, in order to blind the devil, who sits at your left shoulder. These superstitions are the same as in Russia.
The number thirteen is unlucky. Friday the thirteenth is a very unlucky day. In England, there is no more ominous day, than Friday 13th. As for Russia, there have one more day that means bad luck. It’s Monday. You cannot borrow money on Monday otherwise, you won’t have it back. Lucky to find a clover plant with four leaves in Britain and a five-leaf flower in Russia. Legends claim that the four-leaf clover was the only thing Eve was able to bring with her when she was expelled from paradise.
In Britain, one of the best known days of the year is the 31th of October. The day of Halloween, a feast for the dead. If you hear foot steps behind you on this night, don't look back. It may be the dead following you. If you do look behind you and see the undead, you will die within the year. In Russia this festival is not so common as in Britain. But there is another one which is the most popular - The Old New Year. Girls and boys usually put on their fancy dresses and go from house to house with boiled rice with raisin and honey.
CONCLUSION During the carried out research of the British and Russian superstitions we have defined the word "superstition", made the comparative analysis of English and Russian superstitions, found differences and similarities, the most common superstitions. Our research work shows that the most popular superstitions in Great Britain are Friday 13th, a horseshoe and an umbrella. In Russia, the most popular beliefs are a black cat, a broken mirror and spilling salt. To Russia and the Great Britain such superstitions as broken mirror, the number thirteen, to spill salt is a bad luck. In addition, many wedding beliefs and superstitions are very similar in both countries.
THE SIMILARITIES OF SUPERSTITIONS IN RUSSIA AND IN ENGLAND The subject of superstition Russia England Broken mirror Bad luck Bad luck Friday, 13 Unlucky day Unlucky day Number “7” Lucky number Lucky number Horseshoe Good luck Good luck Spilling salt Quarrel Quarrel To broke a chicken bone To share happiness with a partner To share happiness with a partner Dog rolling on the floor Rain Rain Sit before going anywhere Lucky journey Lucky journey Sparrow flies into the room Death Death Dog’s barking death Death To meet a crow Bad luck Bad luck To have peacocks’ feathers death death Ladybird Good luck Good luck
THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN SUPERSTITIOUS Superstition Russia England Black cat Bad luck Good luck To open an umbrella indoors Tears 21 days of bad luck Monday A bad day - Clover plant with four leaves - Good luck A five-leaf flower of lilac Good luck - Shoes on the table - Bad luck To sit on the table Bad luck - To knock on the wood 3 times - Against evil eye To spit over the shoulder three times Against evil eye - A cat is sharpening its claws on a table leg Bad weather Fine weather To see a spider in the house To get a letter To get new clothes Uttering the word "Macbeth" in a theatre - Bad performance To drop a scenario on the floor Bad performance -