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Презентация к уроку английского языка
История Олимпийских игр Современные Олимпийские игры
Long ago ancient Greeks often waged wars. Small states suffered and lost much even if they did not take any side and stayed out of wars. The ruler of such a small state, Ellis, wanted to live in peace with all neighbours. He was a good diplomat because his negotiations were successful and Ellis was recognized a neutral state. To celebrate this achievement, he organized athletic games.
The games were held every four years in Olympia on the territory of Ellis. The first games, which later were called the Olympic Games, were held about a thousand years before our era.
Usually the Olympic Games began before the middle of the summer. Best athletes arrived from many Greek states to Olympia to compete in running, long jumps, throwing of discus and javelin and wrestling. In the course of time fist, fighting (boxing) and chariot races were also included in the Games. All athletes took an oath that they had been preparing well for the Games and promised to compete honestly and keep the rules of the sacred Olympics. The athletes took part in all kinds of competitions. Winners were called "olympionics", they were awarded olive wreaths and cups of olive oil. This tradition has survived. In our time, sportsmen often get cups and wreaths for winning the first place in sports competitions.
The olympionics of ancient Greece became very popular. Best craftsmen were chosen to make honourer cups; many poets wrote and recited in public poems about the best athletes. Sculptors made their statues which were put up at the birthplace of the winners.
The Olympic Games were accompanied by arts festivals. Poets recited their poems, singers sang hymns, dancers danced and orators pronounced speeches — all this in honour of the sacred Games.
Only men could take part in the Olympic Games. Women were not allowed even to watch the competitions at the stadium under the fear of death penalty.
There was a single exception, when a woman coached her son and accompanied him to the stadium in men's clothes. That brave woman was spared the penalty because her son excelled in many events.
Magnificent strong bodies inspired artists and sculptors. They painted wall pictures and made statues of marble and bronze, so now we can admire the corporal beauty of ancient and eternally young discus thrower, javelin bearer and others
The revival of the Olympic Games began long time afterwards, in 1892, when a young French teacher Pierre de Coubertin made a public speech before the Union of French sports clubs in Paris. At that time, many people in many countries practised various kinds of sports and games. They wanted to make friends and compete with sportsmen from other lands; Pierre de Coubertin understood the importance of sports, which unified peoples of the world and served the cause of peace like in ancient time.
On the 23rd of June 1894 the International Congress of amateur sportsmen made an important decision: to revive the Olympic Games and to establish the International Olympic Committee which would be responsible for the administration of the modern Olympic Games. The first Committee consisted of 12 members. Now 82 members of the International Olympic Committee control the affairs of all member countries, which joined the Olympic movement.
The Olympics have changed with the times. The first events for women were held in 1900. In 2000 in Sydney, for the first time, women competed in the same number of team sports as men. Many sports have been added.
Beginning in 1926 Winter Olympics were included. They were held in the same year as the Summer Games, but starting in 1994, the Winter Games are held two years after the Summer Games.
The opening and the closing of the Games are very spectacular ceremonies.
One of the most famous Olympic traditions is the lighting of the Olympic flame. It is brought from Greece to the capital of the Games by relay.
The Olympic flag has five coloured interlaced rings, representing the five parts of the world, on a white background.
The motto of the Olympic Games is "Citius, Altius, Fortius" that means "Faster, Higher, Stronger."
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