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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the islands in the northwest of Europe. The Atlantic ocean is on the north of it and the North Sea to the east. The English Channel (21 miles) separates it from the continent. Great Britain is the largest island. The three main parts of it are Scotland, England and Wales. Northern Ireland is situated on the island called Ireland. The population of the is about 60 million and its capital is London. The United Kingdom is a highly developed country. Its main cities are London, Birmingham, Manchester and Glasgow. The United States of America (USA) is located in North America. It is one of the largest countries in the world. The population of the USA is about 250 million people. The USA has 50 states. Its capital is Washington D.C. (the District of Columbia). Its main cities are New York, Chicago, San Francisco, Los Angeles and Boston. It is a highly developed country. People of very many nationalities live in the USA. Canada is situated in North America. Three oceans surround it: the Atlantic, the Arctic and the Pacific. The capital of the country is Ottawa. About 30 million people live in Canada. It is a great industrial country. Its main cities are Ottawa, Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Commonwealth of Australia occupies the continent of Australia and a number of islands (the main one of which is Tasmania). It includes 6 states and 2 territories with a population of about 20 million people. Its capital is Canberra and the main cities are Sidney and Melbourne. New Zealand consists of several large and many smaller islands. Its population is about 4 million people. The capital is Wellington. The chief cities are Auckland, Dunedin and Nelson. It is a highly agricultural country.
SUMMARIZE THE TEXT USING THE CHART Country Geographical characteristics Population Capital Principal towns The UK In the north-west of Europe about 60 million London Manchester, Glasgow, London The USA In North America about 250 million Washington D.C New-York, Chicago, Los-Angeles Canada In North America about 30 million Ottawa Ottawa, Toronto Commonwealth of Australia The continent of Australia and a number of islands about 20 million Canberra Sydney, Melbourne New Zealand Several large and many smaller islands about 4 million Wellington Auckland, Nelson
The united Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Great Britain The official name for the country whose language we study is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. In everyday use, however, the word “Britain” is quite possible. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has several different names. Some people say “Great Britain”, or Britain, or “the United Kingdom”, or just “the U.K.” and “G.B.” Great Britain is an island that lies off the north west of Europe. It is the largest island of Europe. It is 500 km wide and nearly 1,000 km long. There is the Atlantic Ocean on the north of it and the North Sea on the east. The English Channel, which is about 21 miles separates the U.K. from the continent. Its closest continental neighbors are France and Belgium. Recently the channel Tunnel, which links France and England, has been built. There are four countries in the United Kingdom: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. England, Scotland and Wales are three main parts of Great Britain. Scotland is in the north. Edinburgh is Scotland’s capital, it is one of the most beautiful cities in Britain. Wales is in the west. The capital city of Wales is Cardiff. Ireland, which is also an island, lies off the west coast of Great Britain. Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic (Eire) are on this island. Belfast is the capital city in Northern Ireland and it is its capital.
Summarize the text using the chart countries geographical characteristics population capital principal towns England in the center 47 million London London Manchester Scotland in the north 7 million Edinburgh Glasgow Wales in the west 1.5 million Cardiff Swansea Newport Northern Ireland on the island called Ireland 3 million Belfast Belfast
Wales Wales is a country of hills and mountains, with deep rivers and valleys. Cardiff is the capital of Wales. The most important towns and cities are Swansea and Newport. Wales has been united with England for seven hundred years. Prince Charles became the Prince of Wales in 1969. Wales has its own Welsh language. About 20% of the people in Wales speak Welsh and children learn it in Welsh schools. Wales is famous for its production of coal and steel. Wales is an important centre for electronics and steel production. The main activities are sheep and cattle reading, and dairy farming. Wales attracts many tourists. There are three National Parks there. The most popular sport in Wales is rugby.
Tell about Wales using the chart Geographical characteristics: ... a country of hills and mountains with deep rivers and valleys Capital:… Cardiff Principal towns:… Cardiff, Swansea, Newport Principal industries:… coal and steel production Languages:… English and Welsh Sports:… rugby National emblem:… leek
Scotland In area Scotland is more than half as big as England. The principal cities are: its capital Edinburgh and the main industrial centre Glasgow. Scottish towns look very different from English towns. Scotland was an independent Kingdom, often at war with England until 1603. In 1603 King James VI of Scotland became the King of England too, as James I, and from that time the countries were under the same monarch. In 1707 the Act of Union incorporated Scotland with England in the United Kingdom. Although Scotland has its own language – Gaelic, most Scottish people speak English. The English language is spoken all over Scotland with a variety of regional accents, but all of these can be at once recognized as Scottish, with the sounds pronounced more nearly as written than in standard English. The sport of golf originated in Scotland.
Tell about Scotland using the chart Geographical characteristics: … more than half as big as England Capital:…Edinburgh Principal towns:… Glasgow, Edinburgh Principal industries:… wool production Languages:… English and Gaelic Sports:… golf National emblem:… thistle
The climate of the British Isles is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Winters are not so cold as they can be on the continent, but summers are not so warm as they usually are on the other side of the Channel. In other words Great Britain has a mild climate. England is famous for its beautiful lawns with flowers. They stay green all the year round. Many people say that England looks like a large well-kept park. The animal of the British Isles look like those of north-western Europe: foxes, squirrels, hares, etc. There are about 430 kinds of birds, many of them are song-birds. The most popular hobby of Englishmen is bird-watching. People mainly live in cities and towns. The country’s industry is highly developed and output of goods is larger than is needed for home use. Therefore, a great part of the industrial output is exported. The large industrial centre are Birmingham, Glasgow, Manchester, Nottingham, Liverpool. Britain has only 1% of the world’s population but is the fifth largest trading nation. It exports electrical and electronic equipment and chemicals and oil.
London is the capital. It is situated on the Thames. The most famous older buildings in London include Buckingham Palace (the Sovereign’s residence in London), the Houses of Parliament (an outstanding example of nineteenth-century Gothic Revival architecture), St. Paul’s Cathedral (the second largest church in Europe), Westminster Abbey (where Sovereigns are crowned), and the Tower of London. London is a leading art centre with many theatres, galleries, museums and concert halls. The Globe Theatre with which Shakespeare was closely associated, is being reconstructed in London. The first passenger-carrying Underground railway in the world was opened in London in 1863. Recently the Channel Tunnel which links France and England has been built.
Great Britain is a monarchy, but the Queen is not absolute but constitutional. Her powers are limited by Parliament. The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the Party that has a majority in the House of Commons. The largest political parties are the Conservatives, Labour and the Liberal Democrats. Elections, in which citizens over 18 may vote, are held every five years. Since 1973, Britain has been a member of the European Community.
People often say that the Englishman’s home is his castle. They mean that the home is very important and personal. Most people in Britain live in houses rather than flats. Most houses have a garden. An Englishman’s idea of a good breakfast is the following: cereal with milk, bacon and eggs or fish, hot buttered toast with jam or marmalade and a cup of coffee or strong tea with milk. English people drink a lot of tea. Some have tea for a breakfast, tea in the middle of the morning, tea after dinner, tea in the middle of the afternoon, tea at teatime and tea with supper. The English always drink tea out of cups or mugs, never out of glasses. Englishmen always eat bread with their soup. With meat and vegetables they never eat any bread.
English people like to spend their holidays on the coast. Lots of them go to holiday camps. Let us remember the famous Englishmen who contributed to the world of art: architect Christopher Wren; scientist Alexander Fleming (who discovered penicillin); artist Thomas Gainsborough, John Constable, William Turner; writers and poets William Shakespeare, George Byron, Walter Scott, Robert Louis Stevenson, Jonathan Swift, Oscar Wilde, George Bernard Shaw, Agatha Christie. Nine Noble Prizes for literature have been won by Britons including R. Kipling (1907), T.S. Eliot (1848) and W. Golding (1983). Sports and games are very popular in England. Football, tennis and cricket matches as well as boat and horse races always attract many people. Football is the most spectacular sport. Walking is the most popular activity.
Answer What-questions: What is the official name for the main country of the English language? What are the two large islands that lie to the north-west of Europe? What parts does the UK consist of? What is the national emblem of Wales? What is the national emblem of Scotland? What is the capital of the UK? What are the most famous universities in Great Britain? What places of interest in Britain do you know? What is the most spectacular sport in Britain? Great Britain is a monarchy, isn’t it?
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