Эл. №ФС77-60625 от 20.01.2015
Презентация к уроку английского языка на тему "Карнавалы праздники"
Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:
The Venice Carnival origins are to be found in two ancient traditions: the Latin Saturnalia and the Greek Dionysian cults - major religious festivals involving the use of masks and symbolic representations. in the Saturnalia of ancient Rome the social order was overturned and slaves and free citizens poured into the city to celebrate with music and wild dancing; in the Greek Dionysia processions and plays were intended to unite the human being with nature in a superior harmony, free of social conventions established by man.
Venice has reinterpreted the ancient Greek and Roman festivals to meet the needs of the Venetian Republic ,which promoted the Carnival to give to the people, especially the lower classes, a time for fun and parties. The Venetian Carnival masks guaranteed total anonymity, a sort of levelling of the social divisions that sometimes allowed citizens to even make a public mockery of authority and aristocracy. These generous licenses represented an outlet for tensions and ill-feeling that was created in society because of the strict limits imposed by morality and the public order of the Republic of Venice.
Soon a close relationship started between theatre and carnival: in fact, as well as large outdoor parties, small performances and shows of various kinds were organized in private homes, theatres and cafes in Venice, which always transgressed into wild parties. In the elegant Venetian palaces lavish masked balls marked the beginning of a long and fascinating tradition of masked parties in Venice. the Venice Carnival in the eighteenth century became a real institution. Visited each year by thousands of visitors, the prestigious festival of Carnival in Venice at that time reached its zenith and international recognition: the comedy, masks, spectacular shows and the public gambling house made Venice 'The magnet of Europe'.
Since 1339 a ban was decreed on Venice Carnival masks and costumes at night. During Venice Carnival in the 15th century therefore it was forbidden to enter holy places wearing masks. Venice Carnival 18th century also forbade travelling to the casinos with masks and carnival costumes, due to the numerous incidents in which unknown gamblers were able to escape their creditors. With the fall of the Venetian Republic in 1797, a permanent ban of Venice Carnival costumes arrived, with the exception of private parties in Venetian palaces The last Carnival in Venice is dated at 1797 . The ability to completely hide one’s identity in traditional Venice Carnival costumes and fancy masks increasingly became the perfect place for theft and harassment of various kinds. These serious excesses forced the Venetian Republic to issue a series of decrees to limit abuses and fraudulent use of masks and costumes in Venice.
Only from 1967 the first parties were reorganized with parades of masks and costumes, bringing back to life traditions and the Venice Carnival history. In 1979 a program to engage the inhabitants of Venice in the Venetian festivities was drafted for the first time to return the Carnival of Venice to its origins... The new formula has become a success story that has been going on for thirty years. After nearly two hundred years, the Venice Carnival in Italywas brought back to life in the late seventies returning immediately to play a major role in the panorama of Italian and European festivals.
The heart of the Venice Carnival location is nowadays represented in St Mark’s Square with its huge stage, although many events take place in other areas to animate the entire city. Spontaneous parades liven up the city, sounds, dancing and lots of music allows tourists and inhabitants to rediscover the origins of the celebration of Carnival in Venice, creating a very popular event for the perfect combination of transgression, art, history and culture.
The Festa delle Marie at the Venice Carnival in Italy In 943 the feast was interrupted by Istrian pirates who kidnapped the brides and their rich dowry. The inhabitants of Venice reacted immediately reaching and killing the pirates near Caorle, freeing the girls and their rich dowry. To commemorate this victory, the Festa delle Marie became an annual event. Twelve beautiful girls, renamed Marie (perhaps because many of the abducted girls were called Mary or due to the name of the feast of the Purification of Mary) were richly dressed to parade on a boat through Venice and take part in religious services, dances, music and refreshments organized by the inhabitants of Venice.
In the mid-1500s, during the Carnival celebrations, a Turkish acrobat managed to get to the belfry of the St Mark bell tower from a boat anchored on the pier, walking only with the aid of a barbell on a rope. The Flight of the Angel in Venice comes from a variation of this acrobatic show: a man with wings hung from a rope with rings and was lowered at great speed. After the tragedy of 1759, when the acrobat crashed into a horrified crowd, the Flight of the Angel turned into the Flight of the Dove that replaces the human element with a large wooden dove that, descending from the bell tower of San Marco, shed flowers and confetti on the crowd. The event has been resumed in Venice Carnival modern form, and is one of the Venice Carnival traditions that start the celebrations. The history of the Flight of the Dove in Venice
Among the different Venice Carnival outfits, the Bauta has always had a leading role. Used often in theatre and festivals, the Venetian Bauta was also worn in daily life, to court or be courted in mutual anonymity Among the Carnival masks, Bauta is a typical Venetian mask
The favorite of women was the Moretta, a small oval mask in dark velvet, to be worn along with a small hat and sophisticated clothes. It is distinguished from other traditional Venice Carnival mask types for being 'mute': the mask was worn on the face whilst holding in the mouth a button attached to its underside.
Another great classic amongst Venetian costumes is the Gnaga, worn by men to portray female figures. The traditional Gnaga costume includes female clothing and a mask with the likeness of a female cat. During the festivities of the Carnival of Venice, the mask could be supplemented by a basket held under the arm, which usually contained a kitten.
With the widespread use of Venetian Carnival outfits and fascinating Venetian carnival masks, a true Carnival business was started and progressively developed in Venice. From the thirteenth century, the Venice Carnival history of masks began to be documented with news on their production, schools and construction techniques. In the same period the first tools for working clay, papier-mâché, plaster and gauze, traditionally used in the production of Venetian masks, started to appear. The craftsmen who made masks, called maschereri were real artists who created detailed and imaginative masks, with decorations, embroideries, beads, feathers and so on.
Castagnole 400g plain flour 50g sugar 80g butter 2 eggs a pinch of salt 1 teaspoon baking powder vanilla grated lemon peel oil for frying Icing sugar Castagnole, a simple and delicious recipe for Carnival, are prepared in a very short time: in a bowl, soften the butter and incorporate sugar and eggs. Stir, add the grated peel of a lemon, a pinch of salt, flour and yeast. With a spoon, make balls the size of a walnut and fry in hot oil. As soon as the ball takes on a golden colour, drain on paper towels. Serve the Carnival castagnole with a dusting of icing sugar. TASTE THE CARNIVAL
Venetian Air Row gently here, my gondolier, so softly wake the tide, That not an ear on earth may hear, but hers to whom we glide. Had Heaven but tongues to speak, as well as starry eyes to see, Oh! think what tales ‘twould have to tell of wandering youths like me! Now rest thee here, my gondolier, hush hush, for up I go, To climb yon light balcony’s height, while thou keep’st watch below. Ah! did we take for Heaven above but half such pains as we Take day and night for woman’s love, what angels we should be! Thomas Moore
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