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ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ МОСКОВСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ «ШАТУРСКИЙ ЭНЕРГЕТИЧЕСКИЙ ТЕХНИКУМ» Презентация к уроку английского языка на II курсе «Prehistory of computers». Выполнил преподаватель иностранного языка: Нестерова Елена Александровна Шатура
PREHISTORY Tools are any objects other than the parts of our own bodies that we use to help us in doing work. Technology is nothing more than the use of tools.
Inventing of the tools has aided our bodies rather than our minds. One helps us in lifting and moving objects. Others make it easier to cut and shape materials. It was not so long ago that we developed tools for aiding our minds as well. The machines that do this are computers and calculators, the so-called mind tools. The widespread use of machines for information processing is a modern development. But one can trace simple examples of information processing back to ancient times. Here are some of the more important forerunners of the computer.
The Abacus The abacus is the counting frame that was the most widely used device for doing arithmetic in ancient times. It consisted of a board with grooves in which pebbles could slide. That device is still in use nowadays.
Mechanical Calculators In the seventeenth century, calculators more sophisticated than the abacus started appearing. Although a number of people contributed to the development of the first calculator, it was Blaise Pascal (French mathematician and philosopher) who invented it.
Wilhelm von Leibniz’s (German mathematician and philosopher) participating in research was of great help to him. The first calculators were unreliable, since the mechanical technology of the time was not capable of manufacturing the parts with sufficient precision. As manufacturing techniques improved, mechanical calculators eventually were perfected; they were used widely until electronic calculators replaced in recent times.
Charles Babbage, the inventor of the nineteenth century computer When was the automatic computer invented? In 1930s? In 1940s? Thinking so you are off by hundred years. A computer that was modern in conception was designed in the 1830s. One should remember the name of Charles Babbage, the inventor of the nineteenth century computer. His studying of punched-card controlled machines gave rise for future innovations.
Найдите английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний: широкое использование обработка информации счетная рамка в древности ненадежный усовершенствовать участие в исследованиях
Правильные ответы: широкое использование - widespread use обработка информации - information processing счетная рамка - counting frame в древности - in ancient times ненадежный - unreliable усовершенствовать - to improve участие в исследованиях - participating in research
Выберите слово, подходящее по смыслу. Предложения переведите. A number of objects different from the parts of human bodies used to help in work are tools/computers. In the XIXth century the first computer started appearing/was designed. The manufacturing technology could not/had not to manufacture the parts precisely. Device/the use of tools means technology.
Правильные ответы: tools was designed had not the use of tools
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