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Автор: учитель английского языка Пакулова Евгения Константиновна
Flag of Great Britain The Union Flag, popularly known as the Union Jack, is the national flag of the United Kingdom. It is the British flag. The Union Flag - the flag of the United Kingdom (UK) England is represented by the flag of St. George In 1194 A.D., Richard I of England introduced the Cross of St. George, a red cross on a white ground, as the National Flag of England. At this point in the story on the United Kingdom, England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland were separate countries. However, this was soon to change.... In 1536, under Henry VIII, an Act of Union was passed making Wales, in effect a province of England.
Scotland is represented by the flag of St. Andrew (a diagonal white cross form (called a saltire) on a blue field) Scotland is represented by the flag of St. Andrew (a diagonal white cross form (called a saltire) on a blue field) The National Flag of Scotland the first Union Flag (1606) On 12 April 1606, the National Flags of Scotland and England were united for use at sea, thus making the first Union 'Jack'. Ashore however, the old flags of England and Scotland continued to be used by their respective countries. A royal decree declared that the ships of the Kingdom of Great Britain "shall bear on their maintops the red cross, commonly called St. George's cross, and the white cross, commonly called St. Andrew's cross.“ When the red cross of England was put onto the flag of Scotland, a white border was added around the red cross for reasons of heraldry. (The rules of heraldry demanded that two colours must never touch each other.)
The Making of the Union Flag On 1 January 1801, Ireland was united with Great Britain and it became necessary to have a new National Flag in which Ireland was represented. The cross St Patrick was combined with the Union Flag of St George and St Andrew, to create the Union Flag that has been flown ever since. The cross of St. Patrick was inserted so the position given to St. Andrew's Cross in one quarter was the same as that given to the Irish one in the diagonally opposite quarter; in heraldry this is known as "counterchanging“ England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland were now all joined together and called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The name was later changed to United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland when the greater part of Ireland left the United Kingdom in 1921. Ireland is represented by the cross of St. Patrick (a diagonal red cross on a white background.)
Buckingham Palace is the Queen's official and main royal London home, although the Queen regularly spends time at Windsor Castle and Balmoral in Scotland. The Queen's Homes Buckingham Palace Windsor Castle is an official residence of The Queen and the largest occupied castle in the world.
Tower of London This royal fortress, on the north banks of the River Thames, was built by William the Conqueror, following his successful invasion in 1066. It has been added to over the years by the various monarchs. The London Eye is the world’s biggest ferris wheel, and will carry 800 passengers at a time on a thirty-minute ride. From its highest point of 450 feet, it promises views of up to 25 miles. The dome of St Paul's Cathedral is the second biggest dome in the world, after St Peter's in Rome.
Public Houses (Pubs) The word pub is short for public house. There are over 60,000 pubs in the UK (53,000 in England and Wales, 5,200 in Scotland and 1,600 in Northern Ireland). One of the oldest pubs, Fighting Cocks in St. Albans, Herts, is located in a building that dates back to the eleventh century. Pubs are popular social meeting places Pubs are an important part of British life. People talk, eat, drink, meet their friends and relax there. Pubs often have two bars, one usually quieter than the other, many have a garden where people can sit in the summer. Children can go in pub gardens with their parents. The most popular kind of British beer is bitter, which is dark and served at room temperature (not hot, not cold). British beer is brewed from malt and hops.
There are two main kinds of buses in London: the red double-decker and the red single-decker. The red double decker buses are famous all over the world. You can see loads of them in London. The main places a bus goes to are shown on the front of the bus. Some double-deckers have automatic doors and you pay the driver when you go in. On single-deckers you sometimes buy your ticket from a machine in the bus. Most London buses have a conductor who will come round and collect fares.
London is a major centre for entertainment, shopping and dining. There are thousands of shops and many markets in London. Carnaby Street is a pedestrianised shopping street in London. Fashion / Designer boutiques The Knightsbridge area of London is home to the biggest department store not only in the city but in the whole of Britain. This is Harrods, which has about 330 departments. Its domed, terracotta building is lit up spectacularly at night. Covent Garden (Nearest Tube: Covent Garden ) Overflowing with street markets, curbside entertainment, trendy cafes, English pubs, and small boutiques.. Liberty is famous for selling beautiful fabrics. The shop looks like a Tudor house and has an elaborate clock outside.
St James's Park has a large lake with an island in the middle. It is famous for the variety of ducks and geese and other birds which live on the lake. If you look across the lake, you can see the government offices of Whitehall in the distance. St James's Park is surrounded by three Royal Palaces. Its elegant grounds are the setting for many ceremonial parades. Regent's Park is situated in northwest London. It was originally a royal hunting forest. It was landscaped by John Nash in the 1820s for the Royal Regent (later George the fourth). He surrounded it with elegant terraced houses, which you can still see today . Inside the park is boating lake where you can rent a boat and enjoy the beautifully cultivated flowers. The Park is also home to London Zoo. Green Park has a grand entrance facing Queen Victoria's memorial outside Buckingham Palace. This entrance is called Canada Gate. There is a memorial to Canadians who died in the two World Wars nearby. Green Park is known for its tree lined avenues such as the Broad Walk and the Queen's Walk, which dates back to 1730.
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