Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:
Done by the pupil of the 9th form school № 50 Kustova Daria The teacher is Semyonova O.N.
The aim is: the research of the influence of Scandinavian and Celtic tribes on the English language. The tasks are: 1.To study the literature on the theme; 2.To investigate the contact of the English language with other languages; 3.To research the influence of the Scandinavian and Celtic tribes on the English language; 4.To create a guide about the historical sights connected with Scandinavian and Celtic tribes.
The subject is: the English language. The object is: the influence of Scandinavian and Celtic tribes on the language. The hypotheses is: if different tribes settle on any land they will influence the native language of people living on it.
We used the following methods: 1. Analysis; 2. Comparing analysis; 3. Description; 4. Creation of a guide.
English belongs to the Anglo-Frisian group within the western branch of the Germanic languages. The main stages are: Old English, Middle English and Late English.
The English language was brought into contact with three main languages, the language of the Celts, the Romans, and the Scandinavian.
The conquest of the Celtic population of Britain have resulted in a corresponding mixture of their languages.
CELTIC LOAN-WORDS The influence of Celtic upon the English language is almost negligible. It is possible to distinguish two groups: 1. Those which were learned through everyday contact with the natives; 2. Those which were introduced by the Irish missionaries in the north.
CELTIC PLACE NAMES A large number of Celtic population survived in the west. So that is why there are a lot of Celtic-place names.
We find a lot of Celtic words in the names of hills and rivers.
At the end of the Old English period English underwent a contact with the Scandinavian. This period is known as the Viking Age.
For some centuries the Scandinavians had remained quietly in their northern home. But in the eighth century they began a series of attacks upon all the lands adjacent to the North Sea and the Baltic. Their activities began in plunder and ended in conquest.
The effect of the Viking settlements in England was that over a thousand words became part of Standard English.
In the Scandinavian attacts upon England three stages can be distinguished. The first was from 788 until 850 .
Scandinavian place names Some English places contain Scandinavian word “throb” (village): Linthorbe, Bishopsthoprbe.
There are over 500 Scandinavian place names in England are mainly in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire.
The second stage is the work of large armies and is marked by widespread plundering in all parts of the country and by extensive settlements.
The third stage covers the period of political adjustment and assimilation from 878 to 1042.
The similarity between the Old English and the Scandinavian makes it at times difficult to decide whether it is an English or borrowed word. But there are criteria by which we can recognize a borrowed word.
But occasionally meaning gives a fairly reliable test. Thus our word bloom (flower)”.
Scandinavian personal names A large number of names ending in son: Stevenson or Johnson characterize Scandinavian custom. They are found in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire.
English legal terminology underwent a complete reshaping after Scandinavian Conquest. Among nouns that came in are bank, birth, bull, calf (of leg), dirt, down (feathers), egg, fellow, leg, loan, race, reindeer, root, score, skill, skin, skirt, sky, want, window.
Conclusion In conclusion we’d like to say that the English language underwent great changes because different tribes settled on English land and influenced the language greatly. We fulfilled our tasks: 1.Studied the literature on the theme; 2.Investigated the contact of the English language with other languages; 3.Researched the influence of the Scandinavian and Celtic tribes on the English language; 4.Created a historical guide. We proved our hypotheses if different tribes settle on any land they will influence the native language of people living on it.
Thank you for attention!
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