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Lomonosov Moscow State University is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia. It was founded on January 25, 1755 by Mikhail Lomonosov. MSU was renamed after Lomonosov in 1940 and was then known as Lomonosov University. It also claims to house the tallest educational building in the world. Its current rector is Viktor Sadovnichiy.
The history of the university: Ivan Shuvalov and Mikhail Lomonosov promoted the idea of a university, and Russian Empress Elizabeth decreed its establishment on January 25 [O.S. January 12] 1755. The first lectures took place on April 26. Russians still celebrate January 25 as Students' Day. Saint Petersburg State University and Moscow State University engage in friendly rivalry over the title of Russia's oldest university. While Moscow State University dates from 1755, its St. Petersburg competitor has operated continuously as a "university" since 1819, and sees itself as the successor of the university established on January 24, 1724, by a decree of Peter the Great. The university originally occupied the Principal Medicine Store on Red Square from 1755 to 1787; Catherine the Great transferred it to a Neoclassical building on the other side of Mokhovaya Street. This main building was constructed between 1782 and 1793 in the Neo-Palladian style, designed by Matvei Kazakov, and rebuilt after the 1812 Fire of Moscow by Domenico Giliardi.
In the 18th century, the university had three departments: philosophy, medicine, and law. A preparatory college was affiliated with the university before it was abolished in 1812. In 1779 Mikhail Kheraskov founded a boarding school for noblemen which became a gymnasium for the Russian nobility in 1830. The university press, run by Nikolay Novikov in the 1780s, published the most popular newspaper in Imperial Russia — Moskovskie Vedomosti. In 1804, medical education split into clinical (therapy), surgical, and obstetrics faculties. In 1884–1897 the Department of Medicine - supported by private donations, City Hall, and the national government - built an extensive, 1.6 kilometer long, state-of-the-art medical campus in Devichye Pole, between the Garden Ring and Novodevichy Convent. It was designed by Konstantin Bykovsky (ru), with university doctors like Nikolay Sklifosovskiy and Fyodor Erismann acting as consultants. The campus, and medical education in general, were separated from the university in 1918. As of 2015 Devichye Pole is operated by the independent I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University and by various other state and private institutions. The roots of student unrest reach deep into the 1800s. In 1905 a social-democratic organization emerged at the university and called for the overthrow of the tsar and for the establishment of a republic in Russia. The Tsarist government repeatedly threatened to close the university. In 1911, in a protest over the introduction of troops onto the campus and mistreatment of certain professors, 130 scientists and professors resigned en masse, including prominent figures such as Nikolay Dimitrievich Zelinskiy, Pyotr Nikolaevich Lebedev, and Sergei Alekseevich Chaplygin. Thousands of students were expelled.
After the October Revolution of 1917 the school began admitting proletariat and peasant children. In 1919 the university abolished tuition fees, and a preparatory facility was established to help working-class children prepare for entrance exams. During the implementation of Joseph Stalin's First Five-Year Plan (1928–1932), Gulag prisoners constructed parts of the university. Stalin would later ironically mock, repress, and imprison the intelligence After 1991 nine new faculties were established. In 1992 the university gained a unique status: it isfunded directly from the state budget (bypassing the Ministry of Education), which provides a significant level of independence. On September 6, 1997 the French electronic musician Jean Michel Jarre, whom the mayor of Moscow had specially invited to perform, used the entire front of the university as the backdrop for a concert. The frontage served as a giant projection screen, while fireworks, lasers, and searchlights were all launched from various points around the building. The stage stood directly in front of the building, and the concert, titled "The Road To The 21st Century" in Russia (but renamed "Oxygen In Moscow" for worldwide video/DVD release) attracted a world-record crowd of 3.5 million people. On March 19, 2008, Russia's most powerful supercomputer to date, the SKIF MSU was launched at the university. Its peak performance of 60 TFLOPS (LINPACK - 47.170 TFLOPS) make it the fastest supercomputer in the CIS.
As of 2015 the Old Building houses the department of Oriental studies As of 2015 the Old Building houses the department of Oriental studies The First Humanities Building Students celebrating the university's 250th anniversary in 2005 Building of the Faculties of Biology and of Soil Science
Faculties As of September 2009, the university has 39 faculties and 15 research centres. A number of small faculties have been opened recently, such as Faculty of Physics and Chemistry and Higher School of Television. Evening classes are conducted by the Faculties of Economics, History, Journalism, Philology, Psychology and Sociology while the Faculty of Journalism offers a correspondence degree program. Here is the full list of faculties, according to the official web-site:
Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics Faculty of Physics Faculty of Chemistry Faculty of Materials Science Faculty of Biology Faculty of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics Faculty of Soil Science Faculty of Geology Faculty of Geography Faculty of Medicine Faculty of History Faculty of Philology Faculty of Philosophy Faculty of Economics Faculty of Law Faculty of Journalism Faculty of Psychology The Institute of Asian and African Studies Faculty of Sociology Faculty of Foreign Languages and Area Studies Faculty of Public Administration Faculty of World Politics Faculty of Political Science Faculty of Fine and Performing Arts Faculty of Global Studies Faculty of Education Graduate School of Business Administration Faculty of Physics and Chemistry Moscow School of Economics Higher School of Translation and Interpretation Higher School of Public Administration Higher School of Public Audit Higher School of Administration and Innovations Higher School of Innovative Business Administration Higher School of Contemporary Social Sciences Higher School of Television Faculty of Further Education Faculty of Military Training
Academic reputation A few more narrowly specialized Moscow colleges, including the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and the Moscow State Institute of International Relations were split off from MSU at one time or another and have since established strong reputations of their own, arguably even surpassing their parent in terms of prestige and quality of education. The university has well-established contacts with the most distinguished universities in the world, exchanging students and lecturers with the leading international institutions of higher education. It houses the UNESCO International Demography Courses, the UNESCO Hydrology Courses, the International Biotechnology Center, the International LASER Center, courses or seminars on Russian as a foreign language. In 1991 the French University College, the Russian-American University and the Institute of German Science and Culture were opened. The university has awarded honorary degrees to more than 60 scientists, statesmen and politicians from abroad. Many prominent university scholars and scientists in return hold honorary degrees from foreign academies and universities.
Moscow State University is one of Russia's most prestigious institutions of higher learning, and has demanding entry requirements for prospective students. Nonetheless, it performs inconsistently in international rankings. While it was placed 77th overall by the Academic Ranking of World Universities and 112th by QS World University Rankings, it was not included among the top 200 universities by recent Times Higher World University Rankings and came in at 296th (based on the full THE World University Rankings in their iPhone application). On a highly cited and consistent ranking, Moscow State University ranked 43rd in 2008, 44th in 2009–2011, and 45th among 300 Best World Universities in 2012 compiled by Human Resources & Labor Review (HRLR) on Measurements of World's Top 300 Universities Graduates' Performance.Despite its large number of faculties, Moscow State University seems to be strong mostly in natural sciences and mathematics (currently placed between 38th and 75th in the world) but considerably weaker in other disciplines. Despite the fact that it is still the highest ranked Russian university according to the three international rankings mentioned above (with the nearest Russian competitor being Saint Petersburg State University that scored 300–400th), the university was consistently placed outside top 5 nationally in 2010–2011 by Forbes and Ria Novosti / HSE. with both ratings based on data set collected by HSE from Russian Unified State Exam scores averaged per all students and faculties of university.
Famous alumnus and faculty 11 Nobel laureates and 7 Fields Medal winners are affiliated with the university. It is the alma mater of many famous writers such as Anton Chekhov and Ivan Turgenev, politicians such as Mikhail Gorbachev or Mikhail Suslov, as well as renowned mathematicians and physicists such as Boris Demidovich, Vladimir Arnold, and Andrey Kolmogorov.
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