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Bilingualism. Types of Bilingualism The term “bilingualism” is used in different ways: for some it means an equal ability to communicate in two languages; for others it simply means the ability to communicate in two languages with greater skills in one. It is more common for bilingual people to be somewhat dominant in one language.
Different approaches to defining “bilingualism” and a “bilingual” Bloomfield It is a native-like control of two languages. Thiery “bilingual” is a person who can at all times be taken for a native speaker by native speakers of two languages.
Haugen – bilingualism begins where a speaker of one language can produce complete meaningful utterances in the other languages. Diebold – a type of bilingualism has commenced when a person begins to understand utterances in the second language.
Types of Bilingualism Balanced – equal proficiency in two languages. Dominant – one language in which the speaker operates with greater proficiency is used more often. Semi-bilingualism – is when people’s two languages are at a low level of development.
Other Types of Bilingualism Simultaneous - learning several languages simultaneously. Additive - the second language is acquired without any detriment to the speaker’s native language. Sequential - learning a language after already established first language. Substractive - the second language is acquired and the speaker’s native language deteriorates.
Prestigious – refers to people, who speak two high-status languages (English, German, French). Societal bilingualism - some countries are officially bilingual (France, India). Multilingualism – knowledge of several languages.
Three types of bilingualism to describe bilingual children: Simultaneous – as their parents belong to different cultures, both languages are native. Receptive – the ability to understand two languages, but express oneself in only one. Sequential – learning a language after already established first language.
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