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Abbreviations Выполнила: Светлакова Е.К.
An ABBREVIATION is a contracted or shortened form of a word. Many abbreviations are just shortened versions of words. Example: October => Oct.
Types of Abbreviations Abbreviations that can be pronounced as words are called acronyms. Example: NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), OPEC (Oil Producing Economic Countries) Initialisms are abbreviations that cannot be pronounced as words. Each letter in an initialism is pronounced. Example: NRA (National Rifle Association), BBC (British Broadcasting Company)
General Rules for Abbreviating First Use If an abbreviation is unfamiliar to your readers, spell out the full term the first time you use it and give the abbreviation in parentheses. Example: intensive care unit (ICU) Only use an abbreviation if it has been established earlier in the document. Best Practice Only use an abbreviation when it saves space and avoids tedious repetition. According to APA, if the abbreviation appears fewer than three times, spell the term out instead.
Punctuation and Abbreviations Periods While shortened versions of words are usually followed by a period, there are no definitive rules that govern whether you should put periods after each letter in an initialism or acronym. Check your discipline’s style guide. Examples: F.B.I., FBI Note: UMB’s print style guide does not use periods with initialisms or acronyms. If you use an abbreviation at the end of the sentence, do not use an additional period. Example: Sarah applied to the F.B.I.
Punctuation and Abbreviations Other Punctuation If you end a question or an exclamation with an abbreviation, include both the final period as well as the question mark or exclamation point. Example: Did Sarah apply to the C.I.A.? This same rule applies to commas. Example: After Sarah applied to the C.I.A., did she apply to the F.B.I.?
Punctuation and Abbreviations Plurals of Abbreviations Simply add an “s” to form the plural of most abbreviations. Example: vols. Units of measurement are an exception to this rule. Incorrect: 12 kms Correct: 12 km
Common Abbreviations Many abbreviations are commonly understood and do not need to be spelled out in your document. Dates and Times Abbreviate months only when used with a specific date. Do not abbreviate them when used with just a year. With Specific Date: Aug. 28, 1989 With Year: August 1989
Common Abbreviations Places Only abbreviate states when used with the name of a city, town, or county. Correct: Baltimore, MD Incorrect: MD In formal writing, the United States should only be abbreviated when being used as an adjective. Correct: I hope the U.S. figure skating team will win the Olympics. Incorrect for Formal Writing: I live in the U.S. When referencing other countries, spell out the full name of the country the first time it is mentioned. If a well-known abbreviation for the country exists, it can be used subsequently. Example: Democratic Republic of Congo => DCR
Common Abbreviations Units of Measurement Abbreviations should only be used for units of measurement accompanied by numeric values. Other units of measurement must be written out. Examples: 5 ft, 60 kg Example: several millimeters When referring to the same unit of measurement in varying amounts successively, wait to list the abbreviation until after the final numerical value. Example: 5, 10, and 15 mL
Common Abbreviations Bibliographical Terms Abbreviations for words such as “edition” and “page” are frequently used in source citations. However, these abbreviations are generally not used in body text. Incorrect: The sixth ed. of Lippincott’s book has more diagrams than the Course Atlas. Correct: The sixth edition of Lippincott’s book has more diagrams than the Course Atlas.
Latin Abbreviations Use Latin abbreviations in source citations and parenthetical comments. Avoid using them in your body. Examples: i.e. = that is, e.g. = for example, etc. = and other things
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