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Baikal reserve СОШ №36 10 Класс
About reserves Reserve - one of the categories of protected natural areas of federal significance, completely withdrawn from economic use for the conservation of natural processes and phenomena, and rare species of plants and animals
Geographical position Baikal Nature Reserve covers the central and northern part of the mountain range Khamar-Daban, located along the southern coast of Lake Baikal, in the territory of the Republic of Buryatia. Main watershed Khamar-Daban conventionally divided the reserve into two unequal halves: big - North and small - south. The main northern part of the reserve covers an area of 12 thousand, ha. Nature Reserve can be reached by car or train. From St. Petersburg to Lake Baikal - 4400 kilometers.
Relief Relief Baikal mountain region is a complex construction system and middle mountainous ridges and deep intermountain basins. Characteristic features of the terrain - an arcuate shape and direction echelon ridges and intermontane basins. Chief Khamar-Daban, reaches a height of 2000-2300 m above sea level. m. The top of his largely aligned, with gentle slopes. Spurs ridge, sloping down to the north and south, are cut by narrow river valleys. Often rocky slopes, a lot of rock slides. To the north slope is characterized by sharp alpine landforms with circuses and canyons south has a smoother relief.
Сlimate The climatic conditions of the reserve depends on the geographical location, its orography, the dominant atmospheric flows, but the most significant is the impact of a huge water mass of Baikal. Forming a kind of climate on the northern macro-slope largely contribute to north-westerly winds, which cause heavy precipitation and continental climate mitigation. The average temperature in January is -17,9 ° C, in July - 14, HS. The climate of the southern macro Khamar-Daban is very different from the north. Winter is little snow, summers are hot and dry. The average temperature in July - + 18-19 ° C, in January + 26-27 ° C. The annual rainfall is less than 400 mm.
Hydrology Within the reserve is more than 160 small and large lakes: - The depth of the lakes varies from 1 to 50 meters; - Surface area from 0.1 to 25 m. The most abundant river Temnyk has a width of 10 to 40 and a depth of 0.8 to 2.5 meters, considerably exceeding the specified value during floods.
Soil Reserve soil has good natural water-physical and site characteristics, ensuring the proper functioning of ecosystems.
Flora On the northern slopes of the Khamar-Daban prevails dark coniferous taiga fir and cedar. In some places there birch, somewhere common spruce. In the valleys of the common birch and poplar plantations with dense undergrowth of wild cherry, rowan, alder. In deciduous forests and meadows abundant developing grasses and ferns; large areas are covered berries. On the southern slopes of the Khamar-Daban more common light coniferous larch, pine and cedar-larch taiga. In river valleys - birch and aspen forests, and their headwaters are found pure cedar. All in the flora of the reserve of about 800 species of vascular plants.
дельфиниум лишайники Сверция байкальская арсеньевия байкальская троечница европейская медуница дакийская черемуха купальница иркутская Тридактилина Кирилова Диплазий сибирский аквилегия Спирея Иволистная родиола розовая орхидея бадан
Fauna The fauna of the reserve is very typical for the mountains of southern Siberia. A peculiarity of the fauna is that it contains species of animals, especially birds, originating in the deep areas of Central Asia. ? Ichthyofauna reserve includes 17 species. The main ones are grayling, goldilocks and trout. All these species enter rivers for spawning and feeding period, at the end of the summer, they migrate into the lake and spend the winter in the lake. An exception is the river Temnik where grayling, goldilocks, burbot, and perhaps trout are able to live and winter.
солонгой пустельга выдра кабан косуля соболь медведь бурый глухарь куропатка тундренная заяц беляк байкальская нерпа беркут северный олень горностай ондатра белка бурундук Серебристая чайка росомаха кроншнеп
The main threats to natural complexes and objects of the reserve illegal hunting Illegal fishing Unlawful presence of citizens and vehicles on the reserve forest fires
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