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Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher 13 October 1925 – 8 April 2013 the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and the Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British Prime Minister of the 20th century and is currently the only woman to have held the office. A Soviet journalist called her the "Iron Lady", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev born 2 March 1931 is a former Soviet statesman. He was the eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991 when the party was dissolved. He served as the country's head of state from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991 (titled as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet from 1988 to 1989, as Chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 1989 to 1990, and as President of the Soviet Union from 1990 to 1991). He was the only general secretary in the history of the Soviet Union to have been born after the October Revolution.
Diana, Princess of Wales (Diana Frances Spencer) July 1961 – 31 August 1997 was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, who is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. Diana was born into a family of British nobility with royal ancestry as The Honourable Diana Frances Spencer. She was the fourth child and third daughter of John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer and the Honourable Frances Shand Kydd. Following her parents' divorce, Diana grew up in Park House, which is situated on the Queen's Sandringham estate, and was educated in England and Switzerland. In 1975, she became Lady Diana Spencer, after her father later inherited the title of Earl Spencer.
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi 9 November 1917 – 31 October 1984 was the first female Prime Minister of India and central figure of the Indian National Congress party. Gandhi, who served from 1966 to 1977 and then again from 1980 until her assassination in 1984, is the second-longest-serving Prime Minister of India and the only woman to hold the office.
David Robert Joseph Beckham Was born 2 May 1975 is a retired English professional footballer. He played for Manchester United, Preston North End, Real Madrid, Milan, LA Galaxy, Paris Saint-Germain, and the England national team for which he holds the appearance record for an outfield player. He is the only English player to win league titles in four countries, England, Spain, the United States and France. He announced his retirement at the end of the 2012–13 season and, on 18 May 2013, played the final game of his 20-year career. He won 19 major trophies.
Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy 9 September [O.S. 28 August] 1828 – 20 November [O.S. 7 November] 1910), usually referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian novelist. He is regarded as one of the greatest in the canon of world literature. His best known works are War and Peace (1869) and Anna Karenina (1877). He first achieved literary acclaim in his 20s with the semi-autobiographical trilogy, Childhood, Boyhood, and Youth (1852–1856), and Sevastopol Sketches (1855), the latter based upon his experiences in the Crimean War. Tolstoy's fiction includes dozens of short stories and several novellas such as The Death of Ivan Ilyich, Family Happiness, and Hadji Murad. He also wrote plays and numerous philosophical essays. In the 1870s Tolstoy experienced a moral crisis, followed by what he regarded as a profound spiritual awakening, as outlined in his non-fiction work A Confession. His literal interpretation of the ethical teachings of Jesus, centering on the Sermon on the Mount, caused him to become a fervent Christian anarchist and pacifist. His new-found asceticism and determination to renounce his considerable wealth tipped his marriage into turmoil, which continued right up to his death at the age of 82, in the waiting room of an, until then, obscure Russian railway station.
Irina Eduardovna Slutskaya born 9 February 1979 is a Russian figure skater. She is a two-time World champion (2002, 2005), two-time Olympic medalist (silver in 2002, bronze in 2006), seven-time European Champion (1996, 1997, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2006), a four-time Grand Prix Final champion (2000–2002, 2005) and a four-time Russian national champion (2000–2002, 2005). Slutskaya, known for her athletic ability, was the first female skater to land a triple lutz-triple loop combination. She is also known for her trademark double Biellmann spin with a foot change, which she also invented. With her women's record seven-time triumph at the European Championships she is generally considered to be the most successful ladies' singles skater in Russian history.
Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky 11 November 1821 – 9 February 1881 sometimes transliterated Dostoevsky, was a Russian novelist, short story writer, essayist, journalist and philosopher. Dostoyevsky's literary works explore human psychology in the troubled political, social, and spiritual atmosphere of 19th-century Russia. Many of his works are marked by a preoccupation with Christianity, explored through the prism of the individual confronted with life's hardships and beauty.
William Shakespeare 26 April 1564– 23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet, and the "Bard of Avon".[nb 2] His extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 38 plays,[nb 3] 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright
Elena Vasiliyevna Obraztsova 7 July 1939 – 12 January 2015 was a Russian mezzo-sopranoShe played many roles throughout her career, including performances under the baton of such leading conductors as Claudio Abbado and Herbert von Karajan. In December 1977 she opened the 200th opera season in La Scala singing Don Carlos's Eboli with Abbado as conductor. She first performed in New York in 1976, in Aida, and was called a "major artist" in reviews. In 1978, she played the title role of Carmen opposite Plácido Domingo in Franco Zeffirelli's television production of the opera. She also appeared as Santuzza in Zeffirelli's film version of Cavalleria rusticana in 1982. In her career she performed in operas with many other well-known opera singers of her generation: Luciano Pavarotti, Joan Sutherland, Ingvar Wixell. She sang Carmen opposite Placido Domingo in Franco Zeffirelli’s film of the Bizet opera, and appeared in Don Carlos with Domingo and Margaret Price. On 27 December 1990, she was awarded the title of the Hero of Socialist Labor (mark of distinction - "Hammer and Sickle" gold medal ), Order of Lenin by the President of USSR for her contribution to the development of Soviet Music. In June 2007, Obraztsova was appointed artistic director of opera at the Mikhaylovsky Theatre in St. Petersburg. She also trained young soloists in her own cultural center in St. Petersburg. Obraztsova regularly appeared on stage at the Mikhailovsky in the role of the Countess in Tchaikovsky's The Queen of Spades. In 2008, Obraztsova ended her artistic director contract with the Mikhailovsky to concentrate on the competition of her name and the recently announced project of International Academy of Music in St Petersburg. Obraztsova remained in collaboration with the Mikhailovsky at the General Director's Artistic Advisor. On 7 July 2009, Obraztsova's 70th birthday was marked with a special program at the Mikhailovsky Theater that included ballet performances, opera arias, excerpts from films, and jazz and piano recitals.
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky 5 (17) in September 1857, Izhevsk, Ryazan Province, Russian Empire - September 19th, 1935, Kaluga, USSR) - Russian and Soviet scientist and inventor of the self-taught, a school teacher. The founder of theoretical astronautics. Justify the use of rockets to fly in space, came to the conclusion that the use of "rocket trains" - prototypes multistage rockets. Main areas of research are aeronautics, astronautics and rocket dynamics. The representative of the Russian cosmism, a member of the Russian Society of Amateurs of Universe Sciences. The author of science fiction, a supporter and promoter of the ideas of space exploration. Tsiolkovsky proposed to populate space with orbital stations, put forward the idea of a space elevator, train hovercraft. He believes that the development of life on one of the planets of the Universe will reach the power and perfection that it will overcome the force of gravity and distribute the life of the universe.
Maya Mikhaylovna Plisetskaya 20 November 1925 – 2 May 2015) was a Soviet-born ballet dancer, choreographer, ballet director, and actress, who held Spanish and Lithuanian citizenship. She danced during the Soviet era at the same time as Galina Ulanova, another famed Russian ballerina. In 1960 she ascended to Ulanova's former title as prima ballerina assoluta of the Bolshoi.
Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn 11 December 1918 – 3 August 2008 was a Russian novelist, historian, and outspoken critic of the Soviet Union, especially its totalitarianism, who helped to raise global awareness of its gulag forced labor camp system. While his writings were long suppressed in the Soviet Union, he published many books in the West, most notably One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (1962), Cancer Ward (1968), August 1914 (1971), and The Gulag Archipelago (1973). Solzhenitsyn was awarded the 1970 Nobel Prize in Literature "for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature". Afraid to go to Stockholm to receive his award for fear that he wouldn't be allowed to reenter, he was expelled from the Soviet Union in 1974, but returned to Russia in 1994 after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973 was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high-fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion. He served as the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon and Fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford, from 1925 to 1945 and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature and Fellow of Merton College, Oxford from 1945 to 1959. He was at one time a close friend of C. S. Lewis—they were both members of the informal literary discussion group known as the Inklings. Tolkien was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 March 1972.
Leonid Mikhailovich Roshal Was born April 27, 1933 in Livny is a noted pediatrician from Moscow, Russia, expert for the World Health Organization, chairman of International Charity Fund to Help Children in Disasters and Wars. Roshal has been leading the Emergency Surgery & Children's Trauma Department of Moscow's Pediatric Scientific Research Institute since 1981. In 2003, he also took over the Moscow Institute of Emergency Children's Surgery & Traumatology, which is currently treating 60,000 children a year. Dr. Roshal negotiated with Chechen terrorists during the Moscow theater hostage crisis in 2002. He also served as a negotiator in the 2004 Beslan school hostage crisis, working for the release of children and trying to convince the hostage-takers to allow the hostages to have food and water. After the events in the Beslan crisis played out, he also served as the advisor to the medical teams that had to treat burn wounds on hundreds of children. Since 2005 he is a member of the Public Chamber of Russia. He is also a member of the Presidential Commission on Human Rights. Roshal publicly spoke out against the war in Chechnya and the arrest of Mikhail Khodorkovsky. In February 2006 he criticized the Mothers of Beslan for "judging the state rather than the terrorists" at a trial of one of the Beslan hostage takers.
Alfred Bernhard Nobel 21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, and armaments manufacturer. He was the inventor of dynamite. Nobel also owned Bofors, which he had redirected from its previous role as primarily an iron and steel producer to a major manufacturer of cannon and other armaments. Nobel held 350 different patents, dynamite being the most famous. His fortune was used posthumously to institute the Nobel Prizes. The synthetic element nobelium was named after him. His name also survives in modern-day companies such as Dynamit Nobel and AkzoNobel, which are descendants of mergers with companies Nobel himself established.
Mstislav Rostropovich (March 27, 1927, Baku - April 27, 2007, Moscow) - Soviet and Russian cellist, pianist and conductor, public figure, a defender of human rights and spiritual freedom, and teacher. People's Artist of USSR (1966). Lenin Prize (1964), Stalin Prize of the second degree (1951) and two State Prizes of Russia (1991.1995). The five-time Grammy Award-winning .
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