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Название документа Cells + Mendel.doc

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Cells

A cell is a tiny unit which constitutes the core of all living things: human, animal, plant or microbe. It was an English mathematician and physicist called Robert Hooke who, in 1665, first recorded his observations of cells under a microscope and published them in a book entitled Micrographia. Hooke noted that there are single-celled organisms, such as the amoeba, and multi-celled organisms, such as man. In the latter type of organism, it was revealed that the cells are grouped together to form different types of tissues, and the tissues then form organs.

The structure of a cell appears very simple. It is a jelly-like mass, called protoplasm, enclosed by a wall, with a central nucleus. Although research continued into the structure and function of cells, it was not until the late 19th century that a process of staining and fixing tissues was developed. This made it possible for scientists to preserve the cells for more detailed observation under a microscope. It was then discovered that new cells are formed by the division of old ones, and that each cell has its own lifespan. In other words, a cell is born (created), feeds, produces waste, grows, splits to create new cells or disintegrates and dies. Each cell has a specific function and specific characteristics, for example, muscle cells stretch and nerve cells carry information.

Stem cells are central to this infrastructure. These cells provide a remarkable repair system for the body, as they are able to develop into any type of cell. They can continue to redivide as often as possible to replace damaged or dying cells. The cells created from the division of a stem cell can remain stem cells, or become any of the other specific cells (blood cells, brain cells or other) in the organism. The key to the division process lies in the nucleus. The nucleus splits into two identical parts in the shape of rods or threads, which break away in opposite directions and form new nuclei. At this point the cell itself divides and two new cells are born.

The rods or threads are called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of links of protoplasm called genes joined together in a chain. It is the genes that determine the essence of each cell and its particular characteristics. The number of chromosomes found in a particular organism always remains the same, but it will vary depending on the species; human beings have 48, for example, and sugar cane over 200.

Gregor Mendel

Gregor Mendel was born on 20th July, 1822, and died on 6th January, 1884. He was a biologist and botanist whose scientific research showed that inheritance proceeds according to certain scientific laws.

Mendel was a brilliant student and his family encouraged him to study, but they were very poor so Mendel entered a monastery in 1843. There he taught Mathematics, Physics and Greek to high school students. Eight years later, in 1851, the monastery sent him to the University of Vienna where he was able to continue his education. In 1853, he returned to the monastery and began teaching and researching again.

Mendel's theories of heredity based on his work with pea plants are well known to students of Biology. But his findings were so different from the accepted views on heredity at the time that his work was ignored until long after his death. His paper, Experiments in Plant Hybridisation, in which he described how traits were inherited, has become one of the most influential publications in the history of science.

Mendel was the first person to trace the characteristics of successive generations of an organism. In Mendel's day, a number of hypotheses had been suggested to explain heredity. The most popular one was the so-called blending theory. According to this theory, inherited traits blended from generation to generation. For instance, a red rose crossed with a white rose would, over time, produce a pink rose. Another theory put forward by Charles Darwin was called pangenesis. This stated that there were hereditary particles in our bodies, and that these particles were affected by our actions. The altered particles could be inherited by the next generation. These theories were disproved by Mendel.

The first thing he noticed when he began his experiments was that traits were inherited in certain numerical ratios. This observation led him to come up with the idea of the dominance of genes and he tested it in peas. For seven years he crossed thousands of plants to prove the Laws of Inheritance. From his experiments, Mendel developed the basic laws of heredity. Those laws are the following: that traits do not combine, but are passed whole from generation to generation (which disproved the blending theory and Darwin's theory); each member of the parental generation passes on only half of its hereditary information to each offspring (with certain traits dominant over others); and different offspring of the same parents receive different sets of hereditary information.

Mendel's research formed the beginnings of the modern science of genetics. Genetic theory has had a huge impact on our lives. Many diseases, for example haemophilia, are known to be inherited, and family histories can be traced to determine the probability of passing on a hereditary disease. Scientists can now design plants that are easier to grow, or which can produce more food. This practical side of the results of Mendel's research is being used to improve the way we live.

Prepare a short presentation on the topic: “Theories of inheritance”. Use the information in both texts.

Talk about:

  • Mendel’s theory

  • Mendel’s experiment

  • Theories that were disproved

  • Cells, chromosomes and genes

You may use these notes in your presentation”

Mendel stated that….

Mendel conducted experiments on……

The theories that Mendel disproved were ……. and ……

What are cells? How is genetic information passed on?

Write a letter to a science museum applying for a part-time job. Use these notes to help you. Use these notes to help you:

Dear (sir/madam),

I am writing to apply for the position of ………………….I believe I would be suitable for the position because …………………..

It is my intention to study Science at university, and I believe this will ……………………

I have worked in a ……………………….. for …………..years/months.

I am available for an interview ………………….

Yours faithfully,

(your first name and surname)


Prepare a short presentation on the topic: “Theories of inheritance”. Use the information in both texts.

Talk about:

  • Mendel’s theory

  • Mendel’s experiment

  • Theories that were disproved

  • Cells, chromosomes and genes

You may use these notes in your presentation”

Mendel stated that….

Mendel conducted experiments on……

The theories that Mendel disproved were ……. and ……

What are cells? How is genetic information passed on?

Write a letter to a science museum applying for a part-time job. Use these notes to help you. Use these notes to help you:

Dear (sir/madam),

I am writing to apply for the position of ………………….I believe I would be suitable for the position because …………………..

It is my intention to study Science at university, and I believe this will ……………………

I have worked in a ……………………….. for …………..years/months.

I am available for an interview ………………….

Yours faithfully,

(your first name and surname)


Название документа cell song and rap - копия.docx

Поделитесь материалом с коллегами:

Cell rap

Today’s the day we’re gonna 1____________ about the cell

If I teach it OK, you’ll know it very well

So listen up 6th graders – no 2_________ left for haters

Let’s talk about the 3__________ _______________ of life –

Cells that 4_________ us.

Cells, cells, they’re made of 5____________

Cells, cells, they’re made of 6___________

The nucleus takes over, controllin’ everything

The party don’t stop

Till the 7____________ blocks the scene

Inside the 8___________,

We can float around for hours

Running 9____________ with chloroplasts,

Lovin’ sunlight showers

Cells, cells, they’re made of 10_______________

First things first, there’s two different types

11___________ and 12___________ cells that make up all life.

The little things that make up 13___________ cells,

The main structures –

Year, we call them organelles.

Now let’s break it down

And get some information –

How do cells work? It’s 14____________ ____________!

Cells, cells, they’re made of 15______________

The nucleus takes over, controllin’ everything

The party don’t stop

Till the 16______________ blocks the scene

Inside the 17_______________,

We can float around for hours

Running round with chloroplasts,

Lovin’ sunlight showers

Cells, cells, they’re made of organelles

The cell membrane is the border patrol,

Who can cross over?

The membrane lets ‘em know

The gooey stuff inside

Is called the cytoplasm

It holds the organelles

Don’t worry, plasm-has ‘em!

In the 18____________ of the cell

You’ll find the big 19___________,

The 20____________ surrounded

By nuclear membrane

Don’t forget the vacuole filled up with water

It’s a basic need for life when

This rap keeps getting hotter!

Cells, cells, they’re made of organelles

The nucleus takes over, controllin’ everything

The party don’t stop

Till the 21___________ blocks the scene

Inside the vacuole,

We can float around for hours

Running round with 22___________,

Lovin’ sunlight showers

Cells, cells, they’re made of organelles

The mitchohondria’s something

Every cell needs,

Breaking down the 23___________ and releasin’ energy.

There’s a place inside the cell where

Chemicals are stored,

The squiggly Golgi bodies, releasin’ even more.

Yo hangin’in the cell is 24_______________ reticulum

Synthesizin’ enzymes for respiration, and um…

If still think that this rap is whack

Remember ribosomes making

Proteins getting’ jacked!

Cells, cells, they’re made of organelles

The nucleus takes over, controllin’ everything

The party don’t stop

Till the membrane blocks the scene

Inside the vacuole,

We can float around for hours

Running round with chloroplasts,

Lovin’ sunlight showers

Cells, cells, they’re made of organelles

Lookin’ at the plant cell, weird and green

Two more parts is all it takes you see?

Cell wall knows what’s up

When it comes to keepin’ structure

Strong with cellulose

This cell can’t get much tougher.

C-H-L-O-R-O-Plast,

These little 25___________ ____________

Are havin’ a blast

Photosynthenisizing – filled with chlorophyll

They hit the cell club, runnin’ up a high bill

Cells, cells, they’re made of organelles

The nucleus takes over, controllin’ everything

The party don’t stop

Till the membrane blocks the scene

Inside the vacuole,

We can float around for hours

Running round with chloroplasts,

Lovin’ sunlight showers

Cells, cells, they’re made of organelles









































The cell song

I went into a 1___________

To get out of the 2____________,

And there was the gatekeeper the cell 3______________.

I went into a cell

And what did I see?

The mitochondria

It’s the 4____________ ____________.

I went into a cell,

And said “who drives this bus?”

And found myself talking to the boss, the 5____________.

I went into a cell

To recover from a spasm

And found myself swimming in some clear 6_______________.

I went into a nucleus to ask how to get home,

And got genetic info, Stored in a 7_____________

I went into a cell and stretching o’ so far

Was a thin and wavy network. It’s called the E.R. I went into a cell trying not to be perplexed,

By packaging and sorting in the Golgi 8____________

I went into a cell and said “who makes proteins here?”

And somebody responded “it’s 9_______________, my dear”

I went into a cell and was feeling pretty fine

Till a lysosome engulfed me

And dissolved me in 10_______________

I went into a cell and was feeling pretty nimble

Till a 11_______________ lassoed me

Tying me up in a spindle

I went into a 12___________ cell, to see how trees get so tall,

And all around outside was a rigid cell wall

I went into a plant cell “why’s it so 13___________?” I asked

Cause I make food from sunlight”,

Said a green 14__________________

I went into a plant cell to see how plant cells 15_____________ _____________,

When a vacuole informed me

That he was the storage dude

So, when you go inside a cell, remember 16_________ ____________ ___________,

There’s over a trillion cells, in both you and me.

Just sing this song if you ever feel confusion

And remember active transport - is the opposite of 17____________.













Название документа cell song and rap.docx

Поделитесь материалом с коллегами:

Today’s the day we’re gonna learn about the cell

If I teach it OK, you’ll know it very well

So listen up 6th graders – no room left for haters

Let’s talk about the building blocks of life –

Cells that make us.

Cells, cells, they’re made of organelles

Cells, cells, they’re made of organelles

The nucleus takes over, controllin’ everything

The party don’t stop

Till the membrane blocks the scene

Inside the vacuole,

We can float around for hours

Running round with chloroplasts,

Lovin’ sunlight showers

Cells, cells, they’re made of organelles

First things first, there’s two different types

Animal and plant cells that make up all life.

The little things that make up microscopic cells,

The main structures –

Year, we call them organelles.

Now let’s break it down

And get some information –

How do cells work? It’s crazy combination!

Cells, cells, they’re made of organelles

The nucleus takes over, controllin’ everything

The party don’t stop

Till the membrane blocks the scene

Inside the vacuole,

We can float around for hours

Running round with chloroplasts,

Lovin’ sunlight showers

Cells, cells, they’re made of organelles

The cell membrane is the border patrol,

Who can cross over?

The membrane lets ‘em know

The gooey (липкий) stuff inside

Is called the cytoplasm

It holds the organelles

Don’t worry,plasm-has ‘em!

In the middle of the cell

You’ll find the big brain,

The nucleus surrounded

By nuclear membrane

Don’t forget the vacuole filled up with water

It’s a basic need for life when

This rap keeps getting hotter!

Cells, cells, they’re made of organelles

The nucleus takes over, controllin’ everything

The party don’t stop

Till the membrane blocks the scene

Inside the vacuole,

We can float around for hours

Running round with chloroplasts,

Lovin’ sunlight showers

Cells, cells, they’re made of organelles

The mitchohondria’s something

Every cell needs,

Breaking down the food and releasin’ energy.

There’s a place inside the cell where

Chemicals are stored,

The squiggly (изогнутый)golgi(внутриклеточныйсетчатыйаппарат) bodies, releasin’ even more.

Yohangin’in the cell is endoplasmic reticulum (ретикулярнаяткань, сетка)

Synthesizin’ enzymes for respiration, and um…

If still think that this rap is whack (чудной, ненормальный)

Remember ribosomes making

Proteins getting’ jacked (подбадривать)!

Cells, cells, they’re made of organelles

The nucleus takes over, controllin’ everything

The party don’t stop

Till the membrane blocks the scene

Inside the vacuole,

We can float around for hours

Running round with chloroplasts,

Lovin’ sunlight showers

Cells, cells, they’re made of organelles

Lookin’ at the plant cell, weird (чудной) and green

Two more parts is all it takes you see?

Cell wall knows what’s up

When it comes to keepin’ structure

Strong with cellulose

This cell can’t get much tougher.

C-H-L-O-R-O-Plast,

These little green machines

Are havin’ a blast(выхлоп)

Photosynthenisizing – filled with chlorophyll

They hit the cell club, runnin’ up a high bill

Cells, cells, they’re made of organelles

The nucleus takes over, controllin’ everything

The party don’t stop

Till the membrane blocks the scene

Inside the vacuole,

We can float around for hours

Running round with chloroplasts,

Lovin’ sunlight showers

Cells, cells, they’re made of organelles





Вакуоль - полость в цитоплазме клетки, ограниченная мембраной, заполненная жидкостью, включающей ферменты

Диффу́зия (лат. diffusio — распространение, растекание, рассеивание, взаимодействие) — процесс взаимного проникновения молекул или атомов одного вещества между молекулами или атомами другого



The cell song

I went into a cell

To get out of the rain,

And there was the gatekeeper the cell membrane.

I went into a cell

And what did I see?

The mitochondria

It’s the energy factory.

I went into a cell,

And said “who drives this bus?”

And found myself talking to the boss, the nucleus.

I went into a cell

To recover from a spasm

And found myself swimming in some clear cytoplasm.

I went into a nucleus to ask how to get home,

And got genetic info, Stored in a chromosome

I went into a cell and stretching o’ so far

Was a thin and wavy network. It’scalledtheE.R. (endoplasmicreticulum- клеточнаяорганеллаэукариот, - системаоднослойныхмембран, образующихнепрерывную поверхность, которая ограничивает единое замкнутое пространство)

I went into a cell trying not to be perplexed,

By packaging and sorting in the Golgi complex (внутриклеточныйсетчатыйаппарат)

I went into a cell and said “who makes proteins here?”

And somebody responded “it’s ribosome, my dear”

I went into a cell and was feeling pretty fine

Till a lysosome (лизосома)engulfed(поглощать, заглатывать) me

And dissolved (растворять) me in enzymes

I went into a cell and was feeling pretty nimble (подвижный, легкий)

Tillacentriole(центриоль – хромофильные тельца, образующие клеточный центр)

lassoed (поймал)me

Tying(завязывать) meupinaspindle(ахроматическое веретено, система микротрубkе в делящейся клетке)

I went into a plant cell, to see how trees get so tall,

And all around outside was a rigid(прочный) cell wall

I went into a plant cell “why’s it so green?” I asked

Cause I make food from sunlight”,

Said a green chloroplast

I went into a plant cell to see how plant cells store food,

When a vacuole informed me

That he was the storage dude (хранитель (пижон, парень))

So, when you go inside a cell, remember what you see,

There’s over a trillion cells, in both you and me.

Just sing this song if you ever feel confusion

And remember active transport - is the opposite of diffusion.

Название документа клетка.ppt

Поделитесь материалом с коллегами:

Cell Tiny unit Core Observation Physicist Amoeba Single-celled Multi-celled R...
Rod Thread Chromosome Gene Lifespan Determine Палочка Нить, волосок Хромосома...
Complete the sentences below with words from the box Chromosomes, multi-celle...
Read the text and answer the questions in your own words How do organs form i...
Listen to two students discussing their homework. Then answer the questions b...
What do you know about genetic engineering? Do you think it is safe?
Inheritance Proceed Encourage Pea Ignore Influence Trace Hypotheses Blending...
Blend Altered Hypotheses Ratio Offspring Successive Particle Trace Come up wi...
Read the text and choose the best title for each paragraph. There is one titl...
Listen to a talk about Darwin. Then decide if the following sentences are tru...
Discuss these questions with your partner How are characteristics passed on f...
1 из 11

Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:

№ слайда 1 Cell Tiny unit Core Observation Physicist Amoeba Single-celled Multi-celled R
Описание слайда:

Cell Tiny unit Core Observation Physicist Amoeba Single-celled Multi-celled Reveal Tissue Jelly Enclose Division Stem cell Split Клетка Крошечная часть Суть Наблюдение Физик Амеба Одноклеточный Многоклеточный Обнаруживать Ткань Желе, медуза Окружать, огораживать Деление Стволовая клетка Разделить

№ слайда 2 Rod Thread Chromosome Gene Lifespan Determine Палочка Нить, волосок Хромосома
Описание слайда:

Rod Thread Chromosome Gene Lifespan Determine Палочка Нить, волосок Хромосома Ген Продолжительность жизни Определять, решать

№ слайда 3 Complete the sentences below with words from the box Chromosomes, multi-celle
Описание слайда:

Complete the sentences below with words from the box Chromosomes, multi-celled, protoplasm, lifespan, nerve, determined, single-celled, tissues, nucleus, muscle, stem cell …..are found in cells and pass on information. Bacteria are …..organisms. ……..organisms consist of more than one cell. Cells of the same structure and function that are grouped together form …… ……. Is the jelly-like mass that fills a cell. The cell’s hereditary material is stored in its …… The natural …… of a pig is 10-12 years. The …….tissue stretches or tightens to move the body. The purpose of the …….. Cell is to transmit nerve impulses. Every single cell in the body is born by a …….. Gender is ……… by the presence or absence of certain chromosomes.

№ слайда 4 Read the text and answer the questions in your own words How do organs form i
Описание слайда:

Read the text and answer the questions in your own words How do organs form in multi-celled organism? What stages/processes does a cell’s lifespan include? Why are stem cells important? What happens to the two identical threads or rods the nucleus splits up into? What are chromosomes?

№ слайда 5 Listen to two students discussing their homework. Then answer the questions b
Описание слайда:

Listen to two students discussing their homework. Then answer the questions by writing one or two words in each gap They will both write a report for their …. class. The boy may write about….. It is now possible for scientists to change information in …. …… watermelons have been produced by scientists in their labs. Scientists can use this new technology to produce more …… Plants can be genetically engineered to make ……

№ слайда 6 What do you know about genetic engineering? Do you think it is safe?
Описание слайда:

What do you know about genetic engineering? Do you think it is safe?

№ слайда 7 Inheritance Proceed Encourage Pea Ignore Influence Trace Hypotheses Blending
Описание слайда:

Inheritance Proceed Encourage Pea Ignore Influence Trace Hypotheses Blending theory Blend Pangenesis Numerical ratios Наследственность Продолжать, возобновлять Ободрять, поощрять Горох Игнорировать Влияние След, признак Гипотеза Теория независимого наследования признаков Смешивать Пангенез (гипотеза наследственности, согласно которой признаки и свойства родителей передаются потомству посредством мельчайших зародышей, поступающих в половые клетки из всех других клеток организма) Численное соотношение

№ слайда 8 Blend Altered Hypotheses Ratio Offspring Successive Particle Trace Come up wi
Описание слайда:

Blend Altered Hypotheses Ratio Offspring Successive Particle Trace Come up with Changed Children Combine Theories Relative amount Element Think of Find Following

№ слайда 9 Read the text and choose the best title for each paragraph. There is one titl
Описание слайда:

Read the text and choose the best title for each paragraph. There is one title which you do not need to use. Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Paragraph 4 Paragraph 5 Paragraph 6 The experiment His studies Genetics today A modern science An important paper Different theories Gregor Mendel, the scientist

№ слайда 10 Listen to a talk about Darwin. Then decide if the following sentences are tru
Описание слайда:

Listen to a talk about Darwin. Then decide if the following sentences are true or false, according to the speaker. 1. Darwin wrote two famous books. 2. Darwin’s theory was very popular in his time. 3. Differences between fossils and modern animals helped him form the Theory of Evolution. 4.Natural selection meant the healthiest speciments would survive. 5. An adaptation was inherited and decreased an organism’s chances of survival.

№ слайда 11 Discuss these questions with your partner How are characteristics passed on f
Описание слайда:

Discuss these questions with your partner How are characteristics passed on from generation to generation? How does modern science change this? Why?

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Данный материал включает в себя презентацию, предназначенную для работы над темой Клетка на уроке английского языка в 10 классе. Также, помещаю текст, выбранный для обсужденя данной темы, видеофрагмент, который можно вкючить в начале урока для введения темы и в ходе урока. Прилагаю слова песни с пропусками, которые ученики могут заполнить во время ее прослушивания, а также, копию для учителя с вставленными словами.

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Дата добавления 24.10.2015
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