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Земля Земля – это планета, на которой мы живём. Уникальность Земли в том, что на ней существует жизнь. Нигде больше во Вселенной следов жизни до сих пор не обнаружено. Earth *The Earth is the third closest planet to the sun *Earth is one astronomical unit away from the sun *It orbits the sun in 365.25 days *It takes 24 hours for Earth to rotate on its axis *It weighs 5.98 x 10^24kg *It is 12 800kms wide *The surface temperature varies between -88oC and 58oC *It has one moon - "Luna" *It has an atmosphere of nitrogen, oxygen and argon *Earth is the only known planet to support life as we know it *It has abundant water on the surface *It is where we live! *This photo was taken by Apollo 17 in 1972 - you can see Africa and Arabia and Antartica. Australia would be to the far right.
созвездие Созвездия – это участки звёздного неба, которые носят имена мифических героев, животных или предметов, на которых они похожи. Самые известные созвездия – Большая Медведица (на рисунке), Малая Медведица, Дракон, Рысь, Жираф, Цефей, Кассиопея и 12 созвездий зодиака – Овен, Телец, Близнецы, Рак, Лев, Дева, Весы, Скорпион, Стрелец, Козерог, Водолей и Рыбы.
комета Кометы – это тела Солнечной системы, которые двигаются вокруг Солнца по очень вытянутым орбитам. Когда комета находится далеко от Солнца, она выглядит как слабо светящееся пятнышко овальной формы, но когда она приближается к Солнцу – у неё появляется «голова» и светящийся «хвост». Мы можем увидеть комету и её светящийся хвост в небе всего несколько раз в столетие.
Меркурий Mercury *Mercury is the closest planet to the sun. *One Astronmical Unit = 150 million kilometres. Mercury is 0.387 AU from the sun *It is the second- smallest planet *It orbits the sun in 87 days *It takes 59 days for Mercury to spin on its axis *It weighs only 6% of what the Earth masses *It is about 38% the diameter of the Earth *The surface temperature ranges from 100oK to 543oK (-173oC to over 270oC) *It has no moons *It is named after the Winged Messenger to the gods *It is mostly made of iron *It has very little atmosphere *Mercury has many craters - it has been hit many times by meteorites, espcially early in its history *The first man-made satellite to send back pictures of Mercury was called Mariner 10
Венера Venus *Venus is the second-closest planet from the sun *It is usually 0.72 AU from the sun *It is the sixth-largest planet *It orbits the sun in 224.7 days *It spins on its axis in the *opposite* direction to Earth (counter-revolutionary) and this takes 243 days *It masses about 82% of the Earth's mass *The surface temperature is about 462oC - the hottest planet in the solar system *It has no moons *It is named after the goddess of love *It is mostly made of iron *It has an atmosphere of sulfuric acid and carbon dioxide that has produced a "greenhouse effect" *We can see the surface of Venus by using radar images *It was first visited by Mariner 2 in 1962 *The USSR's Venera 7 landed on Venus and was the first probe to land on another planet *Venus is easily seen from Earth and is the brightest object in the sky. It is often wrongly called the "morning star" or "evening star" *It is often called Earth's sister planet because the two planets are so similar in size. The mystery is why the turned out so differently.
Марс Mars *Mars is the last planet of the inner solar system *It is the fourth planet from the sun *It is usually 1.524 Au from the sun *It takes 1.9 earth years to orbit the sun *It takes 24.5 hours to spin on its axis *It masses about 11% of the Earth *It is 53% as wide as the Earth *The surface temperature ranges between -140oC and 20oC *It has two moons - Phobos and Deimos *It is named after the god of war *It has a thin atmosphere of carbon dioxide (95%),nitrogen, argon and water *Its low density probably relates to a core of iron and iron sulfide *It may have had running water at some time in the past *It may have liquid water on the surface now (this is a point of much investigation) *The polar caps are made of solid carbon dioxide
Юпитер Jupiter *Jupiter is the fifth planet of the solar system. It is the first planet of the outer solar system *It is 5.20 AU from the sun *It orbits the sun in 12 years *It rotates about its axis in 10 hours *It masses more than twice all the other planets combined, 320 times that of Earth *Its diameter is 1300 times that of Earth *It has a gaseous surface *It has at least sixteen moons and a minor ring system. The moons are mostly named after Zeus (Jupiter's) lovers *It is named after the King of the Gods, ruler of Olympus and patron of the Roman states *It is mostly made of about 90% hydrogen and 10% helium (by numbers of atoms, 75/25% by mass) with traces of methane, water, ammonia and "rock" *It may have a core of rocky material. Most of the plaet is probably liquid metallic hydrogen *1n 1994 a comet (Shoemaker-Levy) crashed into Jupiter -- the debris could be seen easily with a telescope *The Great Red Spot (GRS) discovery is usually attributed to Cassini, or Robert Hooke in the 17th century. *The GRS is an oval about 12,000 by 25,000 km, big enough to hold two Earths. * Infrared observations and the direction of its rotation indicate that the GRS is a high-pressure region whose cloud tops are significantly higher and colder than the surrounding regions.
Сатурн Saturn *Saturn is the sixth planet from the sun *It is 9.54 AU from the sun *It orbits the sun in 29.5 years *It takes 11 hours for Saturn to spin on its axis *It weighs 95 times that of the Earth *It is 9.42 times wider than the Earth *It has a gaseous surface. * Saturn's interior is hot (12000 K at the core) *It is named after Zeus' father, the god of agriculture *Saturn has 18 named moons *It has the best developed ring system in the Solar sytem *The rings were discovered by Gallileo using an early telescope *The rings are very thin - ony 1.5km wide
Уран Uranus *Seventh planet from the sun *19.218 AU from the sun *Orbits the sun in 84 years *Rotates on its axis over 17 hours *Third largest planet *Mass 14.5 x Earth *Radius is 4.1 that of Earth *It has a ring system and 21 known moons. The moons are named after Shakespearean characters. *It is named after the ancient Greek deity of the heavens *It is the first planet to be discovered in modern times -- by Herschel *It has been visited by only one spacecraft - Voyager II *Uranus rotates about an axis parallel to the ecliptic -- this is very unusual *Uranus is composed primarily of rock and various ices, with only about 15% hydrogen and a little helium * Uranus (and Neptune) are in many ways similar to the cores of Jupiter and Saturn minus the massive liquid metallic hydrogen envelope. * It appears that Uranus does not have a rocky core like Jupiter and Saturn but rather that its material is more or less uniformly distributed. * Uranus' atmosphere is about 83% hydrogen, 15% helium and 2% methane.
Нептун Neptune *Neptune is usually the 8th planet from the sun. Its orbit intersects with that of Pluto so occasionally it is the most distant planet *It is usually 30 AU from the sun *It orbits the sun over 165 years *It rotates about its axis over 16 hours *It masses 17x that of the Earth *Its radius is 3,88 x that of the Earth *It has a ring system and 8 known moons; 7 small ones and Triton. *It is named after the god of the sea *Neptune's blue color is largely the result of absorption of red light by methane in the atmosphere but there is some additional as-yet-unidentified chromophore which gives the clouds their rich blue tint. *Neptune has been visited by Voyager 2 and observed by the Hubble Space Telescope *Neptune's Great Dark Spot disappeared
Плутон Pluto and Charon *Pluto is the furthest planet from the sun. *It has a satellite - Charon - that is almost as big as it -- some people call Pluto and Charon together a "double planet" *They orbit the sun every 248 years *Pluto has an eccentric axis which it rotates around each 6.5 days *It has a surface temp of- 230oC *Little is known about its atmosphere *It is 2400km in diameter *It is the smallest planet *It is hard to calculate the individual masses of Pluto and Charon *It is named after the god of the Underworld *It was discovered by Percival Lowell *It is the only planet not yet visited by a human spacecraft
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