Добавить материал и получить бесплатное свидетельство о публикации в СМИ
Эл. №ФС77-60625 от 20.01.2015
Свидетельство о публикации

Автоматическая выдача свидетельства о публикации в официальном СМИ сразу после добавления материала на сайт - Бесплатно

Добавить свой материал

За каждый опубликованный материал Вы получите бесплатное свидетельство о публикации от проекта «Инфоурок»

(Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ: Эл №ФС77-60625 от 20.01.2015)

Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Презентации / Презентация на тему "Translation as a specific kind of human activity"
ВНИМАНИЮ ВСЕХ УЧИТЕЛЕЙ: согласно Федеральному закону № 313-ФЗ все педагоги должны пройти обучение навыкам оказания первой помощи.

Дистанционный курс "Оказание первой помощи детям и взрослым" от проекта "Инфоурок" даёт Вам возможность привести свои знания в соответствие с требованиями закона и получить удостоверение о повышении квалификации установленного образца (180 часов). Начало обучения новой группы: 28 июня.

Подать заявку на курс
  • Иностранные языки

Презентация на тему "Translation as a specific kind of human activity"

Translation, as a specific kind of human activity Shynasylova Gulmira Content...
Introduction The human translation theories may be divided info 3 main group...
Translation, as a specific kind of human activity During last decades especi...
Basic theories   2.1 Communication theory This is why biblical scholars spen...
2.3 Transformation theory of translation The emergence of this theory is con...
5 1

Подайте заявку сейчас на любой интересующий Вас курс переподготовки, чтобы получить диплом со скидкой 50% уже осенью 2017 года.

Выберите специальность, которую Вы хотите получить:

Обучение проходит дистанционно на сайте проекта "Инфоурок".
По итогам обучения слушателям выдаются печатные дипломы установленного образца.


Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:

№ слайда 1 Translation, as a specific kind of human activity Shynasylova Gulmira Content
Описание слайда:

Translation, as a specific kind of human activity Shynasylova Gulmira Content Introduction Translation, as a specific kind of human activity 1.1 Methods, approaches and receptions which can be applied in translation theories 1.2 Methods, receptions and approaches of translation 1.3 Translational transformation and types of lexical transformations Basic theories 2.1Communication theory 2.2 Denotative theory of translation 2.3 Transformation theory of translation Conclusion References

№ слайда 2 Introduction The human translation theories may be divided info 3 main group
Описание слайда:

Introduction The human translation theories may be divided info 3 main groups, which quite conventionally may be called transformational, denotative and communicational approach. The transformational theories consist of many varieties which may have different names, but they all have one common feature. The process of translation is regarded as transformation. According to the transformational approach translation is viewed as the transformation of objects and structures of the source language info those of the target language. Within the group of theories which we include in the transformational approach dividing line is sometimes drawn between transformations and equivalences. According to this interpretation as transformation starts at the syntactic level where there is a change of the word order, during translation. Substitution at other levels is regarded as equivalences where we substitute words at the target language as equivalence. In the transformational approach will distinguish 3 levels of substitution: morphological, lexical, syntactic equivalence. At the: morphological levels morphemes both word building and word changing at the target language substituted. At the lexical level words and word combinations of the target language substituted for those of the source language. At the syntactic level syntactic structures of the target language are also substituted. The translator usually tries to produce in target language the possible equivalent to source text. As a king of practical activities translation is a set of actions performed by the translator while rendering source text info another language. The theory of translation provides the translator with the appropriate tools at analyses and synthesis. The basic theory of translation deals to speak with translation universals and is the bases for all other theoretical study in this sphere. This theory achieves the aim by a number of translation models, which describe the translating process either in a general form or by listing a number of specific operation though which the process can in part be realized.    

№ слайда 3 Translation, as a specific kind of human activity During last decades especi
Описание слайда:

Translation, as a specific kind of human activity During last decades especially intensive development in area translation is observed. Principal causes of this phenomenon are the certain gravitation of the world community to integration. Constantly there is an exchange of the got information (not at all levels, it is usual), cultural properties. The international conferences both with scientific, and on social questions are carried out. There is a vigorous exchange in the field of the film-industry. Though, probably, it would be more expedient to tell, that there is an intensive inflow of the western film- industry on our market. All this appreciably predetermines development translation, in fact any area whether sciences, whether cultures, whether a social life the understanding, adequacy demands the certain approach, on the part of speaking another language partners. Very much frequently while translating the scientific, technical whether economic literature the translator encounters the certain realities which not to clear our reader and at all have no conformity in our language. In such cases of a task of the translator consists in that is whenever possible more exact, понятнее and more deforming the certain measure the maintenance of the original. Nevertheless, not beginning from all this certain sides of translation remain shortly to recreate them in our language. Certainly, not always it is possible to reach all at once - sometimes it is necessary to endow conciseness, managing in a descriptive explanation of this or that lexeme; sometimes it is necessary to replace simply their reality on such, that the certain measure перекликается with ours, has the common with ours of an attribute, thus poorly investigated. So, one of such problems is translation so-called «informal (not literary) lexicon» - oral colloquial lexicon which if it is used outside of sphere of informal dialogue of people, creates comic or ironical effect. The colloquial lexicon, as well as book, in informal dialogue can be common, reduced (popular speech) and to exist as social dialects. Social dialects it is the version of language used as means of dialogue between people, the connected close social or professional generality, i.e. it is language of the certain social group. Considerable the factor which causes occurrence of social dialects is social heterogeneity of a society which has various professional, and also century groups. The reason of occurrence of social dialects can be and social-class heterogeneity of a society . The most convenient, there is such terminological - conceptual paradigm «social dialects»: jargon, professional jargon, slang, not normative lexicon And authors of the illustrated dictionary American slang in the definition of informal lexicon, except for slang and not normative lexicon, including the most rough and vulgar words and expressions, allocate also euphemisms. Popular speech, or the reduced (not normative) lexicon, characteristic for informal conversation, includes insulting, humiliating or swear words, and is mainly used in informal dialogue. It is rather relative covers for slang and slangs, and the greater attention concentrates on vulgarisms and depreciates to lexicon. The use such gives a layer of lexicon speech of ironicalness and expressiveness, and recently starts to penetrate more and more to publicist, though and not to a semi-official organ. Without knowledge of it to a layer of lexicon, on an idea of Century. Therefore, we adhere to idea which it is possible and sometimes it is necessary to shift the author's uses of such lexemes adequately. The linguist - translator who deals with language in all its real variety, cannot shut eyes to that objectively exists. As the theme elected by us rather specific and to us was not possible to find the scientific researches devoted especially of translation of informal lexicon, we have addressed to the general {common} theories of translating.   1.1 Methods, approaches and receptions which can be applied in translation theories   There are some approaches to a technique of translation. So in the linguistic sketch «Bases of the general theory of translation» considers two basic directions in the decision of problems of translating, such as grammatical questions of translation. Also it considers features of translation of different styles of language where rather in details submits the linguistic questions connected to interpretation of texts of fiction. Interesting to us there was that idea which while translating of slang and popular speech (and all these concern to informal lexicon above the specified categories) the translator should recreate them on same stylistic equal, not managing {not going right} to replacement by literary, book words and expressions.   The author marks:«...if in translation which recreates dialecticisms, some elements of the original, at infringement of an author's plan are supposed especially literary words or word-combinations the last brings to nothing all efforts on reproduction of stylistic painting the original, destroys impression about integrity, that though both in practice, and in the theory while translating special attention it is given lexicon, not smaller value can get grammatical means that are capable to recreate stylistic painting of informal lexicon, in particular suffixes of value judgment, syntactic shifts . V. Komisarov in work «the Word about translation» offers other approach to problems I shall translate and results some theories which, in our opinion, cover a number of problems which arise while translating more full. Advantage is that the author considers a question of translating not only in language aspect, and puts forward the theories connected to communicative function. Useful there is that last approach can be applied and in relation to informal lexicon as it frequently appears in direct language and carries out directly communicative function. Pragmatically aspects of translation are shined also with O. Schweitzer in the book «the Theory of translation: the status, problems, and aspects». Interesting its research concerning equivalence and adequacy of translation which explain translation process and possible criteria of its estimation as result. Being guided by a principle of communication between language values and the maintenance of activity, the author divides all existing theories of translation on two basic types: language and communicative, thus an accessory of some theories to so- called transitive cases. As the informal, colloquial lexicon represents that layer of lexicon which is directly connected to human dialogue, we would like to stop more in details first of all on communicative models of translation. This category carries the theory of dynamic equivalence and the theory of levels of equivalence. The author counts main principle of the theory of equivalence idea of the functional contents of the initial message which is defined by communicative installation of the author of the original. On the basis of this idea the author makes a line of conclusions, namely, necessity to take into account «person» of the author of the original as its communicative installation is a category subjective. So, the problem of the translator will be to understand and keep in the text of translation this communicative installation, and it is possible only under condition of a parity of value of the text or the statement with language a situation. Also this idea provides functional equivalence of the text of translation to the text of the original which is defined not on the basis of formal conformity of texts, and on the basis of reaction of the speaking another language addressee. I.e., in the text of translation reaction of the addressee has as to answer communicative installation of the sender, as well as in the text of the original. Taking into account that not normative lexicon carries on itself precise expressively-emotional mark; the theory of dynamic equivalence is given out to us rather successful for application of it while translating texts which contain words and expressions of lexicon of informal dialogue. In fact, the dynamic model of translation includes a line of structural, semantic and stylistic - functionally-stylistic restrictions which narrow a choice and define a direction of translational transformations. And among these restrictions first of all it is necessary to note expressive characteristics of the text of the original, its stylistic features, rate of the use of this or that lexical unit in language of translation within the limits of corresponding style and etc.. The trace go four equal, that submit each other and the purposes of the communications: • A level of the description of a situation (the information on material and ideal objects of the validity and communication between them); • A level (structures)the message(a choice of one of possible synonymic ways of the description of a situation of the validity); • A level of the statement (a linear number line in a special way of the selected signs which are united by any rules and settle down in the certain order) and • A level of language signs (words). Process of translational activity according to the given theory occurs the following grade. At an analysis stage of the statement of the original the translator passes a way from below upwards (from signs up to the purpose of the communications, consistently finding out all levels of the maintenance). 1.2 Methods, receptions and approaches of translation Fast development of information technologies and means of the communications allow speaking today about processes of globalization in the world community. It, on the one hand, results in unification and standardization of world cultures, and on the other hand, raises consciousness of some representatives of national cultures, deduces on the first place desire to keep specificity and features of the culture at respect for representatives of other cultures and clever acceptance of most these cultures. The role of the translator of fiction - as link in among cultural communications grows. On shoulders of the translator ложится the responsibility for adequate transfer of the art text. Art «to inform the author» to the reader consists now not only in skill to transfer the text without infringement of usual norms of language on which translation is carried out, but also at the maximal reflection of cultural (mental) features of language of the original. Translators on the experience know, how it is hard to recreate precisely other time the semantic contents as separate word-combination and all idea. Not casually, which before to undertake translation of any foreign author, the translator should establish precisely for itself style of this author, system of his images .Only in case of a correct choice of a way of translation, being based on the detailed analysis of stylistic receptions of the author in comparison to possible receptions in language of translation, the translator can more all exact transfer that degree of influence which feels the native speaker at reading the original text. Only in this case it is possible to speak about qualitative translation. 1.3 Translational transformation and types of lexical transformations The estimation of translation quality can conduct with the greater or smaller degree of detailed elaboration, speaking about types of translation in the work «The Theory of translation». In his {its} opinion, for a general characteristic of results of translational process it is necessary to use such terms as «adequate translation», «equivalent translation», «exact translation», «literal translation» and «free translation». Adequate translation, translation which provides pragmatically problems of the translational certificate on greatest possible for achievement of this purpose equal equivalence refers to, not supposing infringement of norms of the use of words and their forms which was fixed in language of translation, adhering to tasks - stylistic requirements to texts of the given type and answering socially - the recognized conventional norm of translation. In not strict use «adequate translation» is a «beautiful» translation which justifies expectation and hopes of the person which carries out an estimation of translation quality. Equivalent translation names translation which recreates the contents of the speaking another language original on one levels of equivalence. Under the contents of the original there is information which is transferred, switching as subject - logic, and simple value of language units which make the text of the original, and also pragmatically potential of the text. By definition any adequate translation should be equivalent (on this or that equal equivalence), but not any equivalent translation admits adequate, and what answers, except for norm of equivalence, and to other normative requirements which have been mentioned above. The following kind of translation of names exact translation, i.e. translation in which it is equivalent reproduced only subject - logic part of the maintenance {contents} of the original at possible {probable} deviations {rejections} from janr-stylistic norm and usual (usual) rules of the use of language of translation. Exact translation can be recognized adequate if the problem of translation is reduced to transfer of the actual information on the surrounding world. Equivalent translation always should be exact and exact translation by definition only in part equivalent. For exact transfer of informal lexicon of a subject - logic part of the text of the original some translators use slang and euphemisms, but thus reduce expressivity and abusiveness of phraseology. However doubtless plus of a similar way of translation is «adaptation» of the text for reading by different century groups or people which essentially do not read the literature which contains the reduced lexicon. At the same time a question on similar «advantage» of exact translation disputable. Among researchers there is an idea which through similar translational transformations the reader judges any more the product, and about its translation.. In some cases incompetence of the translator results in a literal translation of the reduced phraseology. Literal translation names translation which recreates communicative - formal elements of the original therefore or norms of language of the original text rise, or there is deformed (not handed) a valid contents of the original. «More often amusing examples of a literal translation meet at attempt to translate the text the help of electronic programs - translators». Book Ritter considers, that accuracy in translation is reached {achieved} due to literal transfer of all lexical and grammatical details of the text, it is frequent is declined before language of the original, forgetting about such psycholinguistic concepts, as norms of the use in language of these or those lexical units, idiomatic character of language (especially oral), language traditions which have developed during a history of development of any .Of use of a literal translation desire to recreate semantic elements of higher level of equivalence, not having provided transfer of the contents at the previous levels. In such cases the literal translation can be accompanied by explanations or adequate translation which opens the sincere contents of the original. But concerning informal lexicon to which a plenty slangs concerns, received by reconsideration of value of neutral lexicon, «literal» translation is caused to ignorance by the translator of slang word meaning more often: Translation which is executed on lower equal equivalence refers to as free translation. Free translation can be recognized adequate if it meets other normative requirements of translation and not connected with the important losses in transfer of the contents of the original. Rebukes, which more serious deviations from the contents of the original make free translation nonequivalent and inadequate, transforming it in «retelling» or the independent statement on a theme of the original. And, in the work «In creative laboratory of the translator» rebukes, some separate translators who stand on positions of adherents of free translation, show attempts to ignore a gain of the translational theory and practice which, entirely fair words should result the translator in language negligence and slovenliness of style». «Free translation becomes the extremely aggressive and in the theory. Anything strange in it is not present. Theoretical reasons and requirements seem to new people who came in translation, any «sophistications crafty», attempts to throw лассо on a unrestrained mustang named Talent». Translational transformation and types of lexical transformations names transformation with which help it is possible to carry out transition from units of the original to units of translation in the specified contents. As translational transformations are carried out with language units which have both the plan of the contents, and the plan of expression, they have formal - semantic character, transforming both the form, and value of initial units. Within the framework of the description of translation process, translational transformations are considered not in the static plan as means of the analysis of relations between units of the source language and their dictionary conformity, and in the plan dynamic as ways of translation which the translator while translating different originals can use when dictionary conformity absent or cannot be used on conditions of a context. The basic types of transformations: • Translational transcription and a transliteration, • Tracing, lexical-semantic replacements (a concrete definition, generalization, modulation), the most widespread grammatical transformations carries: • Syntactic likening (literal translation), • Partitioning the offer, association of offers, • Grammatical replacements (forms of a word, a part of speech oral sentence part). As the object of our research is in the greater measure the lexical side of a spoken language in the work we do not consider grammatical kinds of transformations.

№ слайда 4 Basic theories   2.1 Communication theory This is why biblical scholars spen
Описание слайда:

Basic theories   2.1 Communication theory This is why biblical scholars spend so much time attempting to locate the circumstances of a given epistle; they are trying to discover information about author and audience, which will help complete the understanding of the particular act of communication represented by the message. At this point, an important warning needs to be expressed. For students of literature whose original audience and author are not present (i.e., dead), we only have direct access to one of the three parties in the communicative process: the message itself. Whereas we would be profited by having direct access to author and audience ("Paul, what in the world did you mean about baptizing for the dead?"; or, "How did it hit you Galatians when Paul said he wished his troublers would castrate themselves?"), it would be incorrect to suggest that we must have such access for any understanding to take place. Frequently one encounters the extravagant statement to the effect that "one cannot understand a biblical book unless one understands the author's (or audience's) circumstances." The problem with such statements is that they imply that we can have no understanding without access to information which simply does not always exist. We haven't any idea who wrote the epistle to the Hebrews, or why, other than what may be indicated in the letter itself. Does this mean that we can't understand it in any sense? I think not. We just have to recognize that information, which would assist the act of interpretation, is, in this case, missing. Related to this warning is a second. For Protestants, scripture itself is authoritative. Our reconstructions, often highly conjectural of the historical circumstances under which a given biblical work was written and read, are not authoritative, by my understanding of Protestant theology. Those reconstructions may assist our understanding of the biblical text, but they are not, in and of themselves, of any religious authority. Finally, we might add that the essential error of many exegetical theories is their exclusion of one or more of these three parties from consideration. While many important debates are continuing to influence interpretive theory, our evaluation of these debates would do well to retain a role for each of the three above-mentioned dimensions. It has become increasingly clear that translation cannot really be performed in a theological vacuum. When a variety of linguistic options present themselves, theological factors can influence the decision to choose one option over the other. In fact, such factors should influence the translation. The resolution of the translation question about how to translate tells in Romans 10:4 is resolved in large part by resolving larger questions about Paul's theology; how he understands the relation between the older testament and the Christ event, etc. Since theology is to be determined by the Bible, and since translating the Bible is determined, at least in part, by theological considerations, it is easy to see that there is something of a circle here. Fortunately, it is not a vicious cycle, because if one is willing to entertain sympathetically a variety of options, one can grow in the confidence with which one evaluates a given translation. One must never pretend, however, that translation is a step of "pre-exegesis" or "pre-interpretation." The first step of interpretation is translation. This step will influence all other steps, so it must be approached with the entire arsenal of theological tools. Denotative (situational), the theory of translation - is the most common model of translation. It comes from the fact that the content of linguistic signs reflects some items, events, relationships to reality. These elements of reality, reflected in the symbols of language, usually called denotations. Generated through the linguistic code messages (speech segments) also contain information about some situation, i.e. about some denotatum set in a certain relation to each other. 2.2 Denotative theory of translation Denotative translation theory defines translation as a process description with the target language denotations, as described in the original language. Perceiving the original text, the translator identifies the components of the text units with known him signs of the source language, and through these recent finds, which describes the situation in reality the original. After clarifying denotatum original translator describes the same situation in the target language. In some cases, the same process is more concise way. Translator knows in advance that certain elements of Linguistics and AEs have similar denotations, and it directly replaces the original unit of the relevant units of translation, without resorting to the translation process to extra linguistic reality. It is important to emphasize that the transfer is possible only because the units between the two languages have been pre-installed situational identity by reference to reality. However, the denotative theory has many weaknesses. It does not take into account some of the facts and pass by very significant aspects of the translation process. This theory does not reveal the basic mechanism of transition from the original text to text translation. It "works" in cases where the situation is more or less clearly defines the necessary translation. However, in most cases is the same situation can be described by a combination of linguistic signs in the AEs. In these cases, referral to the reality does not give sufficient reasons for choosing a translation option. Denotative theory can not explain the possibility of several different translations of the same segment of the original and can not provide a theoretical basis for justifying the choice between these options. Does not disclose the denotative theory and systematic relationship between content and translation. It does not take into account the uniqueness of the informative load themselves of units that make up the two texts. Appeal to the reality only makes it possible to determine. Denotative theory has not solved the problem of equivalence in translation. Identity denotations of the original and the translation does not yet provide (or rather, does not always provide) the necessary degree of equivalence of these two texts. There still remains much of the information related to the choice of linguistic means as in the original and in translation. In denotative translation theory focuses on the identity of the two situations described by FL and AEs. When establishing a connection between the situations of units and translation play a role of intermediate agents. On the other hand, the actual translation process can be represented in a different way: the translator receives the original, makes some operations related to the original, and as a result creates a translated text. Actions interpreter can in this case be regarded as the work of some of the system, the "input" which comes the original, and the "exit" is given translation. In other words, the basis of translation would be a kind of conversion or transformation of the original text. From such a representation of the translation work and comes transformational theory of translation.

№ слайда 5 2.3 Transformation theory of translation The emergence of this theory is con
Описание слайда:

2.3 Transformation theory of translation The emergence of this theory is connected with ideas of language teaching, known as "transformational grammar." Transformational grammar is considering rules of generation of syntactic structures, which are characterized by common tokens and basic logical-syntactic relations, such as: "A boy threw a stone," "The stone was thrown into a boy," "Abandoned boy's Stone," a boy throwing stones. " Such structures can be obtained from one another on relevant transformational rules. Differing in the form of their constituent units, they have a significant, though not absolute, common (otherwise known as "variance") Plan content. Transformational grammar is not simply relate to each other structures related rules of transformation. She believes some of the original structures ("nuclear") and the remaining structure ("transform") is derived from a small number of nuclear structures or, conversely, reduces to the nuclear structure. In the general theory of translation can be divided into two areas, in different ways using the ideas of transformational grammar. The first area examines the process of creating the translated text as a transformation of units and structures of Linguistics in the units and structures AEs. It is assumed that Intralingua transformation and translation from one language to another - the phenomenon of the same order and that the translation is a series of interlingua transformation. The second direction of development of transformational theory of translation, without considering how the transformation of the transition itself from FL to AEs, describes a number of stages of the translation process in terms of transformation. This theory was first postulated the possibility of reducing the diversity of linguistic forms of Linguistics and AEs to some relatively small (at least, observable) number of structures. It is assumed that between the similar structures of Linguistics and fifth there is a complete equivalence. In any two languages, there is some set of units with the same content. It is these units are "nuclear", and to them according to certain rules can be kept all the other units of language. As between the nuclear units of Linguistics and fifth there is a complete equivalence, translation at the level of these structures will be reduced to a simple substitution, replacement of the nuclear structure of Linguistics equivalent of nuclear structure AEs. Using a transformational model for the study of translation seems to be very useful. Considering the formal unity and translation as related transforms, transformational theory is thus an important place to comparative study of multilingual forms, among which may be established relationship of translation equivalence. Such an approach creates a theoretical framework to describe the translation of specific relations between the two languages, which is one of the main problems of translation. Very fruitful and is described in terms of transformation of the translation process. Nevertheless, for several reasons, transformational theory of translation is suitable to describe only certain aspects of translation, mainly associated with the relations of grammatical structures of Linguistics and AEs. To describe the translation of the need for more "powerful" general theory of translation. 4. Semantic theory of translation. One of the main problems of the general theory of translation is essentially equivalent to the disclosure of relationships between content and translation. It is natural to assume that the theoretical model of translation activities should primarily be based on the study of meaning of texts and translations. Arguing theoretically, one could argue that the equivalence of the content of the two texts (including the two texts in different languages) implies identity or close enough likeness of some or all of the semantic elements that make up the contents of these texts. The translation process in this case will be reduced to the selection of semantic elements in the original and the choice of units of AEs, to the greatest degree of expressing the same elements of meaning in translation. Any semantic model of translation, ie theory of translation. Providing a comparison of elements of content and translation inevitably involves the analysis of the structure of the content, the ability to allocate it some kind of elementary units or components. This creates major difficulties in developing such theories, because until recently in linguistics was not completely satisfactory methods of analysis plan content. In connection with this early work by linguistic translation studies is extremely limited elementary articulation Original content, which is necessary to bring in the translation. In the original text provides "semantic content" and "expressive and stylistic features. The first (also referred to as "object-logical content") brings together all the factual information and the second - the emotional-evaluative elements and characteristics of text units in terms of their belonging to a particular functional style of language or genre of speech. All the same and such a division is allowed to point to the need for the translation equivalence of the expressive and stylistic correspondence and translations. In equivalence of identical messages sent using the language of signs belonging to different stylistic layers of language is undeniable. Further development of linguistic research content plan has enabled a more detailed description of the elements of meaning in the original and in translation. Content (value) of any unit of language is considered as a set (bundle) of more elementary meanings, semantic factors or Sem. Select individual seem in the content of a linguistic unit is made by determining the differential feature by which the content of this unit is opposed to close in value to another unit of the language. Semantic translation theory establishes the equivalence of a translation for common seem in content and translations. In this case, there is no commonality between the collection thereof, assigned to some units in different languages (such generality is fundamentally impossible because of language selectivity), but only between the individual elements of meaning. The task of the translator is to reproduce in a translation exactly the elementary sense that communicatively relevant to the original. Loss of all the other things, contained in the value of transferred units, is considered unimportant in the translation. Depending on the nature of FL units, which are considered as the source of the transformation operations, translation transformations are classified into lexical and grammatical. Grammatical change - grammatical transformation, in which grammatical units in the original transformed into a unit of AEs with different grammatical meaning. Conclusion   Among the many challenges that examines modem linguistics, occupies an important place to study linguistic aspects of cross-language speech activity, which is called "transfer" or "translational activity." Translation - is undoubtedly a very ancient form of human activity. Once in the history of humankind, a group of people whose languages differ from each other, there were also "bilingual," helped to communicate between the "multilingual" teams. With the advent of writing to these interpreters joined and written translators who translated various texts of the official, religious and business nature. From the outset, translation fulfills an important social function, making it possible to cross-language communication between people. Distribution of translation open to people greater access to the cultural achievements of other nations, made possible the interaction and mutual enrichment of cultures and literatures. Knowledge of foreign languages can read in the original books in these languages, but learn even one foreign language is far from everyone. The first translation theorists themselves were the translators who wanted to compile my own experience, and sometimes the experience of their colleagues in the profession. It is clear that setting out his "credo of the translation" were the most outstanding interpreters of all time, although expressed their views did not meet modem requirements and the scientific evidence and did not add to the successive theoretical concepts, yet a number of these considerations, and today is of undoubted interest. However, since then, the theory of translation has firmly established itself as a scientific discipline. . This was facilitated by conscious public need for scientific generalization of translation activity, the development of linguistics, communication theory and other branches of knowledge, provide the scientific basis for the study of translation, and, finally, the emergence of serious translation studies have convincingly proved the possibility and prospects of a scientific field to identify the nature of translation as a of international and intercultural communication. Do not forget that the translation is a purposeful activity that meets certain requirements and rules and focused on achieving a certain result. These rules reflect a holistic orientation of an interpreter, without which one can not satisfactorily explain the logic of translation solutions. A comprehensive, thorough analysis of the translation is only possible on the basis of his procedural side, and its results, or, in other words, based on a combination of dynamic and static approaches. This implies that the traditional translation analysis, based on a comparison of the original and translated texts, has the same right to exist and analysis, as the process of translation in its dynamics. Investigating the transfer as a special kind of verbal communication, translation theory is not limited to the analysis of its linguistic mechanism.

Подайте заявку сейчас на любой интересующий Вас курс переподготовки, чтобы получить диплом со скидкой 50% уже осенью 2017 года.

Выберите специальность, которую Вы хотите получить:

Обучение проходит дистанционно на сайте проекта "Инфоурок".
По итогам обучения слушателям выдаются печатные дипломы установленного образца.


Дата добавления 25.11.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Презентации
Номер материала ДБ-389915
Получить свидетельство о публикации
Похожие материалы

Включите уведомления прямо сейчас и мы сразу сообщим Вам о важных новостях. Не волнуйтесь, мы будем отправлять только самое главное.
Специальное предложение