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General information. Australia is the smallest, flattest and driest continent in the world. It is the biggest island and smallest continent in the world. Australia is the oldest continent in the earth; some of the rockers are more than 3000 million years old.
The Great Barrier Reef, of Australia’s east coast, is one of the wonders of the natural world. It is the largest living organism in the world. The area abounds with wildlife, varieties of dolphins and whales, more than 1500 species of fish, 4000 types of mollusk and more than 200 species of bird. The Great Barrier Reef system consists of more than 3000 reefs which range in size from 1 hectare to over 10,000 hectares in area and covers more than 300,000 square km. There are many different types of coral, some are slow growing and live to be hundreds of years old, others are faster growing. The colours of coral are created by algae. Only live coral is coloured. Dead coral is white.
The submarine world of Great Barrier Reef
Uluru, also known as Auers Rock, is the world’s biggest monolith. It is 9.4 km if you walk around it, and about 345 m high if you climb it. It is 3.6 km long, 2 km wide, and is roughly oval in shape. It is famous for it changes colour at sunrise and sunset. Uluru is located in the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park in the Northern Territory of Australia. Uluru was named «Auers Rock» by European explorer Ernest Giles who found it in 1872. It was named by him for the South Australian premier of the time, Sir Henry Auers. In 1995 the National Park was named Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park.
Population. Australia is the least populated all the world’s continent. The population is only 18.3 million people. Australia is the land of immigrants. The population can be divided into 3 groups: 1) the “Original Australians” (known as aboriginals);2) the “Old Australians”; 3) the “New Australians”. The “Original Australians» or Aboriginals are form about 1% of population. The “Old Australians” or Aussies are people of Irish or British descent, born in Australia or Aussie Land and speaking English as the native language. The “New Australians” are post-war immigrants from different countries. More than 80% of people live in sixth capitals: Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Hobart, and Perth.
STATES AND TERRITORIES -it was the first state; population is 6 mil; the floral emblem is Waratah -is the smallest inland state; 4.4 mil -is the second largest state after Western Australia; 3.1 mil -is the driest state; 1.5 and 1%is aboriginals; “Sturt’s Desert Pea” -is the largest state with the area is 2.5 sq. km; 1.7 mil; the inhabitants are called “sand gropers” -is an only island state; 500 people; was called Van Dieman’s land by the dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 -is one of the two territories; area is about 1.3 sq.km The Australian Capital Territory (CANBERRA)
It was adopted in 1901
History. Early European explorers refered to Australia as “Terra Australis Incognita” which meant the Unknown Southern Land. The first English man to visit the continent was a buccaneer William Dampier, who landed on the north- west coast in 1699. The second wave of immigration began in 1770, when captain James Cook of the British explorer sighted the east coast of the continent. Cook had been sent to Tahiti to make astronomical observations, and when his mission was completed, he sailed to south on the ship “Endeawor”. On 20 April, 1770 Cook found land in the south-east corner of Australia, he turned north and nine days later he landed at Botany Bay. He raised the British flag and claimed this land a British colony (now New South Wales). In 1795-1799 and from 1801-1803 English navigator Matthew Flinders landed the continent and gave the name Australia.
Flora and Fauna. -platypus; -echidna; -wombat; -The Tasmanian Devil; -lizards; -crocodiles; -frogs; -birds; -kookaburra; -parrots; -fairy penguins; -emus; -kangaroo; -koala; -eucalypt is called gum tree; -the Sturt’s desert pea; - kangaroo paw and the Christmas bush; -the Smoky Mouse; the Spotted Tree Frog; the Mountain Pygmy Possum.
Kangaroo Dingo Forest
Opossum Koala Tasmanian Devil
Koala Kookaburra Emu
Canberra. Canberra is the capital of Australia. It is an ideal place for sailing, fishing, cricket, football, cycling. There are a lot of parks and gardens. Around 300,000 people live in Canberra. At Canberra’s centre, the artificial Lake Burley Griffin is ideal for sailing and cruising. Parliament House, National Gallery of Australia, the High Court, The National Science and Technology Centre, The National Library of Australia, the Australian War Memorial, Telstra Tower, Old Parliament House, the Australian Institute of Sport, the National Film and Archive Exhibition, National Museum of Australia and the Royal Australian Mint. The name Canberry is based on an Aboriginal name for the area Kamberra or Kambery. In 1913 Canberra became the official name for the area.
Sydney. Sydney, a free spirited, vibrant city built around one of the world’s most beautiful harbours, with beaches within easy reach of its cosmopolitan-that’s Sydney, capital of New South Wales, Australian’s largest and oldest city, where the first settlers landed in 1788. The arches of the Sydney Harbour Bridge provide fantastic views of Sydney Sydney Tower Observation Level is located in the Centrepoint Tower. The tower provides compelling 360-degree views of Sydney from the observation level. Darling Harbour is a place where Sydney celebrates.
Sydney Opera House one of the most recognizable images. The Opera House is situated on Bennelong Point. The skyline of the Sydney Harbour Bridge, the blue water of the harbour and the Sydney Opera House are viewed from a ferry or from the air. The Opera House with a roof evocative of a ship at full sail-was designed by Danish architect – Jorn Utzon. Utzon spent a couple of years reworking the design and it was 1961 before he had solved the problem of how to build the distinguishing feature – the “sails” of the roof. The project was expensive. It was opened by Queen Elizabeth 2 on 20 October 1973. It provides guided tours to 200,000 people each year. It includes 1000 rooms. It is 185 m long and 120 m wide. It has roof sections weighing up to 15 tons. It uses 6225 square m of glass and 645 km of electric cable. SYDNEY OPERA HOUSE
Brisbane. Brisbane, the “City of Sun Days”, is a clean and fresh city. Botanic Gardens in Brisbane are very nice. Also famous is Victoria Bridge. The Queensland Art Gallery, Queensland Museum, the State Library are based in this area. Breaka Beach – the only inland beach in Australia – is the place where people build sandcastles. The Australian Woolshed, 11 km north-west of Brisbane at Ferny Hills, portrays an Australian sheep station today. Alma Park Zoo, situated 28 km from Brisbane at Kallangur, displays a large collection of palms and tropical plants.
Hobart. Hobart, with a deep-water port and a maritime history, is the capital of Tasmania and second-oldest city. Founded in 1804, it straddles the Derwent River, with Mount Wellington. Point, a waterfront precinct, was first settled in 1804. It remains largely residential, with more than 40 historic buildings still in use. There are early fishermen’s cottages and fine townhouses. Richmond, 27 north-east of Hobart, is a delightful Georgian village with Australians oldest bridge. New Norfolk, 38 km north of Hobart is famous for its hop fields and turn of the century architecture. The town was settled in 1807 by convicts brought from Norfolk Island. Port Arthur Historical place. Port Arthur Historical Site is located 100 km south of Hobart and one of most significant historic sites. Port Arthur offers a combination of convict history. There are 30 buildings and ruins, historical walking tours, harbour cruises and museums.
Adelaide. Adelaide, capital of South Australia, is gracious, spacious and green. North Terrace is an elegant boulevard, where is a number of grand old buildings such as Parliament House, Government House and old Parliament House. Further along is the Art Gallery of S.A. which houses the state’s collection of Australia, European and Asian art. Nearby is The National Aboriginal Culture Institute – Tandanya. It is museum and site for fostering and developing Aboriginal art, culture, visual arts. There is Adelaide Zoo, which has more than 1,500 native and exotic mammals, birds and reptiles. The famous place Glenelg is not far from the city. Wide, white beaches, stately homes and a vibrant shopping and eating district.
The memorial for surfing The Blue Mountains Outback
Melbourne. The capital of Victoria and Australia’s second-largest metropolis is known around the world for the Melbourne Cup horserace. This is a city of style, of Victorian architecture, of trams, of fashion, food, theatres, art galleries and gardens. Royal Botanic Gardens have vast collection of Australian native plants. It is situated in Birdwood Avenue, South Yarra. The Victorian Arts Centre is situated on the banks of the Yarra River. The complex includes the 115 m.high spire-topped theatres – State Theatre and George Fairfax Studio – the Melbourne Concert Hall, the Performing Art Museum, the Westpac Gallery and the Sidney Myer Bowl. Melbourne is a sport-mad city and home to world-famous sporting events such as the Melbourne Cup, the Australian Open Tennis and the Qantas Australian Grand Prix. The MCG (Melbourne Cricket Ground) is known as the supertheatre of Australian sport. Colonial Stadium – the new home for Australian Rules Football.
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