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Great Patriotic War of 1812 The war between Russia and France of Napoleon in the territory of Russia in 1812.
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France before war The military preparations of the French army were completed in March 1812. The "Great army", assigned for a campaign to Russia, was composed of 647 thousand persons and 1372 guns. French were only half of that army, into which entered the representatives of the nations won by Napoleon. "The great army" was headed by Napoleon; among his marshals were L.Davu, M.Nei, I.Murat, U.Ponyatovsky.
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Russia before war To the intruded enemy resisted 220 - 240 thousand Russian soldiers at 942 guns - in 3 times less, than was at the opponent. Besides Russian armies have been divided into 3 armies. The moral spirit of the Russian army was extremely high. Apart brilliant military leaders Barklai De Tolli and Bagration, the armies were commanded by talented generals D.S.Dokhturov, A.P.Ermolov, P.P.Konovnitsyn, M.I.Platov, N.N.Raevsky. Barklai De Tolli, being the military minister, became the Commander-in-chief of the army.
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War reasons Russia refused to support continental blockade against England. Napoleon wish to grasp the world. In 1811 Napoleon said to his Ambassador in Warsaw: "In 5 years I will rule all the world. Only Russia remains, I will destroy it..."
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The Army of Napoleon crossing the river Neman. On 24 June 1812, the 690,000 men of the Grande Armée, the largest army assembled up to that point in European history, crossed the river Neman and headed towards Moscow.
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The battle of Smolensk (1812) Political pressure on Barclay to give battle and the general's continuing resistance led to his removal from the position of commander-in-chief to be replaced by the boastful and popular Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov. Despite Kutuzov's rhetoric to the contrary, he continued in much the way Barclay had, immediately seeing that to face the French in open battle would be to sacrifice his army pointlessly. Following an indecisive clash at Smolensk on August 16–18, he finally managed to establish a defensive position at Borodino.
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The unsatisfaction due to the long retreat and the growing mistrust of Barklai De Tolli in the army and generally in the Russian society forced the emperor, the 8th of August, to appoint as commander-in-chief M.I.Kutuzov, an experienced and cautious commander. Kutuzov started the preparation for the decisive battle, for which the Russian army receded at the position near the village of Borodino, in 110 versts from Moscow. There, on the 26th of August (the 7th of September) took place the battle that played the important role in war.
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The battle of Borodino The battle of Borodino happened on August 26 or on September 1 in 1812. In French history it is called the battle near the Moscow river. The result of the battle is undefined, but the Russian Army won the moral victory.
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The military Council in Fili. Kutuzov said "Untill the Army exists and can oppose to the enemy, we will keep hope to finish the war succesfully, but when the Army will be destroyed, Moscow and Russia will die. I order to recede".
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The surrender of Moscow After entering Moscow, the Grande Armée, unhappy with military conditions and no sign of victory, began looting what little remained within Moscow. The same evening, the first fires began to break out in the city, spreading and merging over the next few days.
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The manoeuvre of Tarutino. Thanks to this manoeuvre the Russian Army and the detachment of partisans deprived Frenchmen reserves of rations and forage. It completely destroyed the Army of Napoleon.
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The retreat of the Army of Napoleon from Moscow.
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At the Battle of Maloyaroslavets At the Battle of Maloyaroslavets, Kutuzov was able to force the French army into using the same Smolensk road on which they had earlier moved East and which had been stripped of food by both armies.
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The crossing of the river Berezina The crossing of the river Berezina was the final French catastrophe of the war, as two Russian armies inflicted horrendous casualties on the remnants of the Grande Armée as it struggled to escape across pontoon bridges.
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The war end The 28th of November, Russian armies finished their counterattack, and the 25th of December 1812, Alexander's I manifest announced the final expulsion of the aggressors from the territory of Russia and the victorious end of the patriotic war.
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Napoleon's defeat In October of 1813 the Army of Napoleon was destroyed during the battle of Leipzig, and in April of 1814 he abdicated the throne of France.