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ИнфоурокИностранные языкиДругие методич. материалыПрезентация "PECULIAR FEATURES OF LEGAL TERMINOLOGY IN LEGAL TRANSLATION "

Презентация "PECULIAR FEATURES OF LEGAL TERMINOLOGY IN LEGAL TRANSLATION "

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 PECULIAR FEATURES OF LEGAL TERMINOLOGY IN LEGAL TRANSLATION ,
Aims and objectives: My presentation is an attempt to provide a general overv...
Common features which distinctly characterize the modern legal English, in ge...
There are three major features of legalese: 1. clarity 2. accuracy 3. objecti...
1. Clarity “the quality of being clear and easy to understand” as in “There h...
2. Accuracy Accuracy means “being exact or correct” as could be seen in the f...
3. Objectivity Accuracy, in its own turn, is closely linked with objectivity,...
English legalese has developed and is characterized by particular lexical, gr...
 Terms of Latin and Greek origin
id est (i.e)- That is in camera- In private et cetera- Other things of that t...
Technical and Semi technical terms
Claim In common law ‘claim’ means ‘a demand for a remedy or assertion of a ri...
The Use of Legal Jargon
e.g. Without prejudice to- without dismissing or detracting from an existing...
However, sometimes a specific sort of synonyms is used in legal English writi...
Lexical repetition and redundancy Legalese avoids the use of anaphoric device...
Variety in writing, particularly variety in vocabulary, is the typical virtue...
In the following example from standard contracts consistency of the repetitiv...
Using pairs of words of a reciprocal relationship E.g. The Lessee shall pay t...
Older words and modern equivalents
The aforementioned/ foregoing- set out above/written above Hereafter-after th...
Avoidance of personal pronouns Avoiding “I” and “you” personal pronouns The u...
The usage of “shall” The modal shall has some difficulties both in interpreta...
The usage of “shall” More importantly, experts claim that any legal verb prec...
Lengthy and complex sentences Sentences in the English legal language are muc...
329. Upon a trial for the violation of any of the provisions of this chapter,...
Law has a vital part to play in reinforcing communication between nations and...
Bibliography:  Alcaraz, E. & Hughes.B. (2002).Legal Translation Explained. Ma...
 THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION!!!

Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:

1 слайд  PECULIAR FEATURES OF LEGAL TERMINOLOGY IN LEGAL TRANSLATION ,
Описание слайда:

PECULIAR FEATURES OF LEGAL TERMINOLOGY IN LEGAL TRANSLATION ,

2 слайд Aims and objectives: My presentation is an attempt to provide a general overv
Описание слайда:

Aims and objectives: My presentation is an attempt to provide a general overview of peculiar lexical, grammatical and syntactic features of legal English translation.

3 слайд Common features which distinctly characterize the modern legal English, in ge
Описание слайда:

Common features which distinctly characterize the modern legal English, in general, are referred to by the term legalese. Legalese is “the specialized language of the legal profession” (Merriam Webster Dictionary), and more specifically, “the language of legal documents” (Harper 2001–2010).

4 слайд There are three major features of legalese: 1. clarity 2. accuracy 3. objecti
Описание слайда:

There are three major features of legalese: 1. clarity 2. accuracy 3. objectivity

5 слайд 1. Clarity “the quality of being clear and easy to understand” as in “There h
Описание слайда:

1. Clarity “the quality of being clear and easy to understand” as in “There has been a call for greater clarity in this area of the law” (Cambridge Dictionary Online)

6 слайд 2. Accuracy Accuracy means “being exact or correct” as could be seen in the f
Описание слайда:

2. Accuracy Accuracy means “being exact or correct” as could be seen in the following example “We can predict changes with a surprising degree of accuracy” (Cambridge Dictionary Online)

7 слайд 3. Objectivity Accuracy, in its own turn, is closely linked with objectivity,
Описание слайда:

3. Objectivity Accuracy, in its own turn, is closely linked with objectivity, the latter meaning “based on real facts and not influenced by personal beliefs or feelings”, an example of its usage being “an objective and impartial report” (Cambridge Dictionary Online)

8 слайд English legalese has developed and is characterized by particular lexical, gr
Описание слайда:

English legalese has developed and is characterized by particular lexical, grammatical and, syntactic features. Here are some of them:

9 слайд  Terms of Latin and Greek origin
Описание слайда:

Terms of Latin and Greek origin

10 слайд id est (i.e)- That is in camera- In private et cetera- Other things of that t
Описание слайда:

id est (i.e)- That is in camera- In private et cetera- Other things of that type de jure- Rightful, by right de lege ferenda-What the law ought to be (as opposed to what the law is) de lege lata-What the law is (as opposed to what the law ought to be) bona fide-Sincere, in good faith ad hoc-For this purpose Affidavit- a signed statement

11 слайд Technical and Semi technical terms
Описание слайда:

Technical and Semi technical terms

12 слайд Claim In common law ‘claim’ means ‘a demand for a remedy or assertion of a ri
Описание слайда:

Claim In common law ‘claim’ means ‘a demand for a remedy or assertion of a right, especially the right to take a particular case to court’ (Dictionary of Law, 2003: 83). In Russian civil law the term has a broader meaning and might relate to situations that can be resolved in court or outside it. The translator thus has to select a Russian equivalent with the same legal effect from a selection of words with their different semantic fields depending on the context, i.e. судебный акт, процесс’ (claim/pleas), ‘требование; предложение’ (demand), ‘повод, предлог, оправдание’ (right), ‘жалоба, иск’ (complaint), ‘претензия, заявление, сделанное в суде одной из сторон’ (claim).

13 слайд The Use of Legal Jargon
Описание слайда:

The Use of Legal Jargon

14 слайд e.g. Without prejudice to- without dismissing or detracting from an existing
Описание слайда:

e.g. Without prejudice to- without dismissing or detracting from an existing right or claim Pairs of words (doubles)- the benefits and advantages; loss or damage Triplets- sold, assigned, or transferred; left, stored or transported.

15 слайд However, sometimes a specific sort of synonyms is used in legal English writi
Описание слайда:

However, sometimes a specific sort of synonyms is used in legal English writing and these are set doublets and triplets. Made and enter By and between Lying and situated Terms and conditions- постановления и условия Covenants and obligations Null and void-потерявший законную силу (о договоре) In good order and repair Represents and warrants Any and all- любыми средствами

16 слайд Lexical repetition and redundancy Legalese avoids the use of anaphoric device
Описание слайда:

Lexical repetition and redundancy Legalese avoids the use of anaphoric devices or referential pronouns. They are: personal pronouns (he, she, it etc) or the demonstrative ones (this, that, etc), in addition to the verb “to do” that may substitute a whole clause. e.g. He rents a car and so does his brother (Sabra: 1995) Actually, legal language is highly concerned with the exactness of reference; hence its tendency toward lexical repetition, and therefore to functional redundancy.

17 слайд Variety in writing, particularly variety in vocabulary, is the typical virtue
Описание слайда:

Variety in writing, particularly variety in vocabulary, is the typical virtue in many genres of writing. However, this is not the case in legal English writing. Indeed, when it comes to key terms, using the same term over and over again is expected. The reason for repetition of the same terms is to avoid confusion. As A. Enquist and L. C. Oates state “a different term for the same idea suggests to legal readers that the writer of the legal text intended a difference in meaning” (Enquist, Oates 2001: 3).

18 слайд In the following example from standard contracts consistency of the repetitiv
Описание слайда:

In the following example from standard contracts consistency of the repetitive use of the term “warranty” may seem boring, but legal readers – and, most importantly, writers – prefer accuracy over the confusing variety: Each of the Warranties shall be construed as a separate Warranty, and (unless expressly provided to the contrary) shall not be limited by the terms of any of the other Warranties or by any other term of this agreement (Share Purchase Agreement).

19 слайд Using pairs of words of a reciprocal relationship E.g. The Lessee shall pay t
Описание слайда:

Using pairs of words of a reciprocal relationship E.g. The Lessee shall pay to the Lessor at the office of the Lessor. We work in a number of sectors with licensors and licensees, establishing compliance programs for licensing and distribution, and advising on licensing revenues.

20 слайд Older words and modern equivalents
Описание слайда:

Older words and modern equivalents

21 слайд The aforementioned/ foregoing- set out above/written above Hereafter-after th
Описание слайда:

The aforementioned/ foregoing- set out above/written above Hereafter-after this Hereby- in this way/ by this Herein- in this (document) Notwithstanding- despite Thereafter- after that Therewith- with that

22 слайд Avoidance of personal pronouns Avoiding “I” and “you” personal pronouns The u
Описание слайда:

Avoidance of personal pronouns Avoiding “I” and “you” personal pronouns The use of first and second person expression (“I” and “you”) is avoided at all costs. It can be illustrated with a sentence from contract examples on-line: e.g. Subject to the Client complying with its obligations under these general terms, XXX agrees to complete and deliver the work to the Client in accordance with the timetable (Contract examples). Using the third person in statutes and contracts is predominantly common.

23 слайд The usage of “shall” The modal shall has some difficulties both in interpreta
Описание слайда:

The usage of “shall” The modal shall has some difficulties both in interpretation of clauses containing it and in the translation of such clauses. Traditionally, the modal shall, in legal texts, carries an obligation or a duty as opposed its common function: expressing futurity: E.g. Lessor shall not be liable for a loss or damage to any property left, stored, or transported by Hirer.

24 слайд The usage of “shall” More importantly, experts claim that any legal verb prec
Описание слайда:

The usage of “shall” More importantly, experts claim that any legal verb preceded by ‘shall’ is normally translated into another language in the present form: E.g. Tenant shall comply with any and all laws, ordinances, rules and orders of any and all governmental or quasi-governmental authorities affecting the cleanliness, use, occupancy and preservation of the Premises.

25 слайд Lengthy and complex sentences Sentences in the English legal language are muc
Описание слайда:

Lengthy and complex sentences Sentences in the English legal language are much longer than in other styles. Compound sentences tend to be of a much complex nature and include not just two or three, but more clauses, as in the following example:

26 слайд 329. Upon a trial for the violation of any of the provisions of this chapter,
Описание слайда:

329. Upon a trial for the violation of any of the provisions of this chapter, it is not necessary to prove the existence of any lottery in which any lottery ticket purports to have been issued, or to prove the actual signing of any such ticket or share, or pretended ticket or share, of any pretended lottery, nor that any lottery ticket, share, or interest was signed or issued by the authority of any manager, or of any person assuming to have authority as manager; but in all cases proof of the sale, furnishing, bartering, or procuring of any ticket, share, or interest therein, or of any instrument purporting to be a ticket, or part or share of any such ticket, is evidence that such share or interest was signed and issued according to the purport thereof (California Penal Code 2009: Section 319–329).

27 слайд Law has a vital part to play in reinforcing communication between nations and
Описание слайда:

Law has a vital part to play in reinforcing communication between nations and peoples. Building the international rule of law is a mighty challenge for the 21-st century. We cannot achieve this goal by simply talking away to ourselves, confined within in our own legal jurisdictions and linguistic groups. We must cross the barriers of language. For this we need expert translators of language

28 слайд Bibliography:  Alcaraz, E. & Hughes.B. (2002).Legal Translation Explained. Ma
Описание слайда:

Bibliography:  Alcaraz, E. & Hughes.B. (2002).Legal Translation Explained. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing, p.5 Garner, B. A. (2001).Black’s Law Dictionary. St. Paul, Minn. West Group. Second pocket Edition. Crystal, D. & Davy.D. (1986).Investigating English Style. New York: Longman. Tiersma, P. (1999).Legal Language. London: The University of Chicago Press. Sabra, A. M. M. (1995). Translation of Contracts. The American university of Cairo, p. 31 Alcaraz, E., B. Hughes (2002). Legal Translation Explained. St Jerome: Manchester.

29 слайд  THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION!!!
Описание слайда:

THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION!!!

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