Эл. №ФС77-60625 от 20.01.2015
Презентация по акушерству и гинекологии
Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:
What is pregnancy? Pregnancy – is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. A multiple pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins. Pregnancy can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology. It usually lasts around 40 weeks from the last menstrual period (LMP) and ends in childbirth.
Signs of pregnancy Signs of pregnancy – are those presentations and conditions that result from pregnancy but do not significantly interfere with activities of daily living or pose any significant threat to the health of the mother or baby, in contrast to pregnancy complications. All signs, allowing to diagnose pregnancy, divided into doubtful, likely and reliable. The increase in the volume of the stomach - one of the doubtful signs of pregnancy
Doubtful signs of pregnancy: nausea or vomiting (especially in the morning hours), change of the sense of smell, appetite or eating habits; intolerance of certain smells arose; dysfunction of the nervous system (drowsiness, lethargy, frequent mood swings, dizziness, malaise, irritability); frequent urination; breast engorgement, their increased sensitivity; change (gain) of skin pigmentation (darkening) on the face, in the nipple area, the white line of the abdomen; the appearance of scars (bands) pregnancy (striae) on the breasts, thighs, the skin of the abdomen; an increase in the volume of the stomach; feeling fetal movements (in nulliparous women at 18-20 week multiparous - at 16-18 weeks).
Likely signs of pregnancy: amenorrhea (absence of menstruation); breast enlargement, the emergence of colostrum; blueness (cyanosis) of the vaginal mucosa and cervix; change in shape, volume, consistency of the uterus (with internal OB); increase in uterine 5-6 weeks of gestation in the anteroposterior first size and then transversely; rapid pregnancy test.
Reliable signs of pregnancy: determined fetal heart rate (using the obstetric stethoscope can hear the fetal heart rate); detection and palpation of the large (head, pelvis) and small (hands, feet) pieces of fruit and / or movements (starting from the second trimester of pregnancy) in the course of external midwifery research; on X-ray and sonogram of the fetus is determined by the skeleton; determination of the fetus and placenta using sonography.
Duration of pregnancy The average duration of pregnancy from fertilization to birth was 38 weeks (fetal period). The average duration of pregnancy from the beginning of the last menstrual period before birth is 40 weeks (maternity period). Using OB period is more common in medicine, as fertilization date, as a rule, difficult to define. It is also customary to embryonic period (first 8 weeks from fertilization) and fetal (from 9 weeks before delivery) periods of development.
Embryonic period The embryonic period lasts from the moment of fertilization to the end of 8 weeks of the embryonic period (10 week OB period). During the embryonic period, fertilization occurs, split (the formation of multicellular), implantation (introduction into the uterus), gastrulation (formation of germ layers), organogenesis (forming organs), placentation, and other processes. Embryo at 4 weeks after fertilization. (Image from gestational age of 6 weeks). Fetus at 8 weeks after fertilization. (Image from gestational age of 10 weeks)
Fetal period Fetal period lasts from 11 weeks to term obstetric delivery. By the early fetal period in the fetus are formed all organ systems (development takes place within the system generated), in appearance resembles a baby fetus, there is an intensive growth of the fetus and the change in body proportions. Fetus at 18 weeks after fertilization. (Image from gestational age of 20 weeks). Fetus at 38 weeks after fertilization. (Image from gestational age of 40 weeks).
A visit to the gynecologist during pregnancy The main objective of female consultations – is systematic monitoring of pregnant women, starting from early pregnancy timely detection of pathology of pregnancy and the provision of skilled care. All pregnant women are under medical observation; the average woman during pregnancy home visit the antenatal clinic 13-14 times. Schedule a visit: up to 12 weeks of gestation - in these terms is decided whether the pregnancy is allowed; once a month up to 28 weeks (in the absence patoporii); twice a month - up to 37 weeks; every 7-10 days before delivery.
Pregnancy diet Allowed All low-fat meat and poultry - rabbit, beef, turkey, chicken; fish - cod, saffron cod, ice fish, perch, etc; dairy products - low-fat yogurt, cottage cheese, yogurt, yogurt, whole milk, etc; raw vegetables - cucumbers, squash, zucchini, tomatoes, all varieties of cabbage, carrots, green peas, radishes, etc; oil, cereals and pasta consumed only in small quantities (soups, cereals).
Prenatal vitamins During pregnancy, changes the metabolism, the hormonal system is rebuilt. With the onset of pregnancy in women increased need for vitamins and minerals. For example, calcium requires a half times more than the usual time; zinc, iodine, vitamin B6 and B12 - an average of 30%; and iron and folic acid - twice. Vitamins and minerals are carried out in the mother's body a variety of functions. Some substances are necessary for the regulation of the hormonal system, while others - for the assimilation of proteins, others affect the growth of the embryo.
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