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The Black Sea ecosystem and its features
The Black Sea is the inland sea of the Atlantic Ocean basin. The Bosphorus Strait connects with the Sea of Marmara, then, through the Dardanelles Strait, with the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas.
The area of the Black Sea is 422,000 km2. The maximum depth is 2210 m.
The Black Sea has its own unique feature that distinguishes it from other seas of the World Ocean.
At the depth of 200 meters, a toxic, lifeless hydrogen sulfide layer of water begins. It occupies 87% of the total volume of the Black Sea
Only 13 % of the water volume is available to plants and marine animals.
In the oxygen layer that hundreds of species of algae, 500 species of single-celled organisms, 1900 invertebrates, 185 species of fish, 4 species of mammals live.
The dolphin is a unique animal species that has become the visiting card of the Crimea.
From the Greek Delphos means
“ a brother”
According to biologists, 100 dolphins die every month.
The declining of dolphin population can be attributed to three main factors: accidental deaths directly related to fishing nets, destruction of the coastal ecosystem, and direct exposure to pollution.
Scientists, biologists are sounding the alarm, if the trend continues, then in a few years the dolphins will be on the verge of extinction.
Populations of dolphins are declining.
1914 releases of cetaceans on the coast were recorded 2020
659 recorded cases
Where are they most often found?
The Saki district 25%
Ecological problems of the Black Sea arose as a result of human activity. They lead to disruption of the structure and functioning of nature. Scientists give disappointing forecasts about changing flora, fauna, water composition. Nowadays, the impact on the Black Sea ecosystem can be traced everywhere.
Ecological problems of the Black Sea
Oil product contamination
The Black Sea occupies one of the leading places in the world in terms
of oil pollution
Tuapseis the largest port of Russia.
The oil depots are “ Zarechnye”, “ Rosneft”, “ Tuapse Sea Trade Route”.The concentration of petroleum products in the port’s water area exceeds permissible norm by 14,4 times.
Sevastopol bays are the most polluted with oil products. This is largely due to the activities of the Black Sea Fleet.
2016. v. Lyubimovka ( the north of Sevastopol), a large amount of heavy fuel oil was observed on the water surface. This fraction is the most harmful to the environment.
The total amount of oil pollution in the Black Sea is estimated at 110, 840 tons per year. Of these, 48% is transported by the Danube River. Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, the Russian Federation, Turkey, Ukraine are the coastal countries.
The total volume of oil discharges from the coastal countries of the Black sea is 57, 404 tons per year.
Feodosia Commercial Sea Port is the major Black Sea port. The capacity of loading and unloading of petroleum products is 1500 tons per hour.
Mining, metallurgy and other industries are the main sources of water pollution with heavy metals, lead, nickel, zinc and cyanides.
The Danube, the Dniester,
the Southern Bug rivers pollute the Black sea with industrial, household waste and mineral fertilizers, pesticides.
Environments estimated that 4 tons of lead, 7 tons of mercury, 10 tons of zinc came from the rivers.
2017. 155 million m 3 of wastewater was discharged into the sea., 11 million m3 which is contaminated.
Shore pollution by Solid household waste
The Black Sea is a closed water area, so its pollution with solid household waste is a topical problem for all the Black Sea states.
During winter storms, it is washed into the water from landfills which are located in coastal areas.
According to the divers, the bottom is covered with debris.
Pieces of plastic cover the bottom and float in the water. They reduce the absorption of oxygen by water, which causes marine life to have breathing problems.
The marine resources of the sea have been reduced.
The annual production of fish in 2008-2013 averaged 3.8 thousand tons, in 2020 it was about 4 thousand tons.
Factors of decline in fish stocks are :
negative consequences of eutrophication of offshore waters
formation of zones of hydrogen sulfide contamination
Trawling as the type of fishing is prohibited
Eutrophication of water ( flowering water)
Pesticides, nitrogen and phosphorus from the fields enter the sea from the river waters.
Phytoplankton, receiving an excess of nutrients from fertilizers, quickly multiply, forming a dense layer.
In the process of rotting, they use an increased amount of oxygen. Lack of oxygen at the bottom leads to the death of the inhabitants of the depths.
Blooming, discoloration of the water mass, release of toxins, mass death of fish are the problems of this process.
Today, these zones reach 40 thousand sq.km.
Poaching of natural resources
In the Crimea, coastal areas are being destroyed due to the extraction of sea sand.
The problem with the disappearance of beaches in the area of Karkinitsky Bay, located on the north-western coast of the Crimea, is particularly acute.
2012. Sea sand was extracted uncontrolled at Cape Fiolent( near Sevastopol).
During this time, 1,5 million tons of coastal sandy bottom were destroyed.
The main international document regulating the protection of the Black Sea is the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea from Pollution, signed by six Black Sea countries — Bulgaria, Georgia, Russia, Romania, Turkey and Ukraine in 1992 in Bucharest (Bucharest Convention). On October 31, 1996, in Istanbul (Turkey), representatives of the Governments of Russia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey and Georgia signed a strategic action plan to save the Black Sea. The need for such a document arose due to the danger of destruction of the unique natural complexes of the water area. At the same time, it was decided to make October 31 the International Day of the Black Sea.
We create the world around us with our own hands.
It is a matter of honor for every person living on Earth to take care of nature, to multiply its riches. We must protect the natural resources of our unique peninsula.We need to preserve all the wealth of the Black Sea for our future generation.
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