Курс профессиональной переподготовки
Курс повышения квалификации
«Подольский социально-спортивный колледж»
The figure who made the most important impression on Russian and Soviet physical education was Pyotr Frantsevich Lesgaft (1837-1909), biologist, anatomist, educationalist and social reformer – the founder of the new discipline of physical education in tsarist Russia.
Lesgaft started his career in 1861 as a teacher of anatomy at the St. Petersburg Academy of Medicine; he was subsequently invited to take up a professorship at the University of Kazan and went there in 1868, but was soon dismissed for his outspoken criticism of the unscientific methods used.
For a while, from 1872, he worked as consultant on therapeutic gymnastics in the private surgery of Dr. Berlindt but after publication of several articles and books (including a descriptive history of sport in Europe and ancient Greece and an article, published in 1874), he was in charge of physical training of military cadets.
The next year, 1875, he was commissioned by the War Ministry to spend two summers in Western Europe studying the systems of physical education current there. Altogether, he visited 26 cities in 13 Western European states. The British system was evidently most to his liking, although he abhorred the “strict orders, fagging and lording of senior pupils over juniors” that he witnessed in some public schools. He also visited the Central Army Gymnastics School at Aldershot, the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich and Oxford University. What specially took his fancy was ”English predilection for strict rules of hygiene, competitive games in the open air, long walks and boat trips swimming and other regular exercises”.
Two years in Western Europe
On his return, in 1877 he published his Relationship of Anatomy to Physical Education and the Major Purpose of Physical Education in Schools, in which he outlined a physical education program for military colleges. He was, in fact able to supervise its progress in twelve academies. At the same time, he took a keen interest in organizing courses for physical education instructors for the military academies – provision for which, until then, had been non-existent.
In 1872-1874 he supervised a group of Russian women for the first time allowed to employment in the Imperial Medical-Surgical Academy.
The Lesgaft University of Physical Education.
The Lesgaft University of Physical Education in St. Petersburg is one of the oldest in Russia and in Europe. It was founded in 1896 by P.F.Lesgaft, a prominent teacher and anatomist, who created the theory of physical education.
The aims of this university were and are to create a scientific base for physical education, to devise pedagogical methods and to train teaching stuff.
Answer the questions.
1. Who made the most important impression on Russian physical education and founded a new discipline of Physical Education in Russia?
2. When and where did Lesgaft start his career?
3. What did Pyotr Lesgaft do in Western Europe?
4. How many cities and countries did Lesgaft visit?
5. What system did Lesgaft like most of all?
6. What specially took his fancy?
7. What did Lesgaft do on his return in 1877?
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