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POPULATION Population grew thanks to urbanization and Industrialization. During the first half of the 18th century, the population of Great Britain increased on about 15 percent. Between 1751 and 1801, the year of the first official census, the number rose from one-half to 16 million, and between 1801 and 1851, the population grew more than two-thirds to 27 million.
Lakes… There are many rivers in Britain. They are not long but some of them are deep. The longest river is the Severn. There are many lakes in Scotland. The most beautiful is Loch Lomond. There are many mountains in the north of England and in Scotland but they are not very high. The highest mountain in Great Britain is Ben Nevis.
London is the capital of Great Britain London is the capital of the UK. It was founded by the Romans in the 1st century AD. In the 11-th century it became the capital of England. In 1215 its citizens won the right to elect their Lord Major. The town experienced tremendous growth in trade and population during the late 16th and early 17th centuries.
Economy Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. It lives by manufacture and trade. Its agriculture provides only half the food it needs, the other half of its food has to be imported. Britain is one of the most highly industrialized countries in the world: every person is employed in agriculture, eleven are employed in mining, manufacturing and building. The main branches of British economy are engineering, mining, ship-building, motor vehicle manufacturing, textile, chemistry, electronics, fishing and food processing. The industrial centres of Great Britain are London, Manchester, Eirmingham, Leeds, Liverpool, Sheffield and others.
POLITICAL SYSTEM OF GREAT BRITAIN As to its political system it is a constitutional monarchy. The power of the Queen (now Elizabeth II) is limited by Parliament which includes two Houses — the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The Prime Minister is usually the head of the party which is in power. There are the following parties there: the Conservative Party, the Labour Party and the Liberal Party.
Stonehenge About 4,600 years ago – or maybe more – the Stone Age inhabitants of Britain started building an enormous stone structure. This structure is now called Stonehenge, and it is near Salisbury, in the South of England. The largest of the Stonehenge stones weigh 50 tons, and the smallest weight 5 tons. The people who started Stonehenge were primitive. They used no metal and their tools were made only of stone, bone and wood. Those primitive people usually spent all day, from sunrise to sunset, hunting, fishing and growing crops. They started to build Stonehenge in about 1,000 B. C. and finished it 600 years later. Thousands of men and women took part in building it.
Picadilly Circus It is difficult to say what's the real centre of London, but many people choose Piccadilly circus. It is called a circus because it is round, not square like many others places. This is because it is not only central but also the heart of London's world. Within a few hundred yards of it we find most of London's best- know theatres and cinemas and most famous restaurants. Piccadilly Circus at night is a colorful sight.
Saint Paul's Cathedral Saint Paul's Cathedral was designed in a classical Baroque style by Sir Christopher Wren. It was constructed between 1675 and 1710. Many famous persons are buried in the Cathedral. Trafalgar Square was named for Lord Nelson's naval victory in the Battle of Trafalgar. In the centre of the square is Nelson's Column that includes his high statue. At the corners of the column are four sculptured lions. Trafalgar Square is the site of the National Gallery. Traditionally political meetings are held here. Each December a large Christmas tree sent from Norway is erected in Trafalgar Square.
National Gallery Today the picture galleries of the National Gallery exhibits it works of all the European schools of painting which existed between the 13th and 19th centuries. The most famous works among them are "Venus and Cupid" by Diego Velazquez, "Adoration of the Shepherds" by Nicolas Poussin, "A Woman Bathing" by Harmensz van Rijn Rembrandt, "Lord Heathfield" by Joshua Reynolds and many others.
BIG BEN It was under construction within several centuries since 1042, - then the first palace for king Edward-confessor has been incorporated. The modern shape has got Parliament in 1840-1888, when the well-known building in new gothical style with a 97-meter Hour tower (Clock Tower) on which places a bell Big Ben, and a 102-meter powerful tower of Victoria has been erected
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