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The South of England In 55 BC, Julius Ceasar’s Roman army invaded England and landed in Kent and marched north-west until it reached the river Thames.
Londonium- the settlement in the 1st century There was a second invasion 88 years later and the Romans bridged the river and built their administrative headquarters on the north bank, calling it Londonium
Medieval London The historic division between London’s centres of commerce (the City) and goverment (Westminster) started in the 11th century. Edward the confessor became the king and established his court and sited his abbey at Westminster. In 1348 Black Death kills thousands of people Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales creates a rich picture of 14th century England
William the Conqueror William the Conqueror landed with his army at Hastings. His claim to the English throne was based on a promise made by Edward the Confessor. During his reign he united England, introduced French language, and feudal system nd recorded the wealth and properties of important estate owners in th Doomsday Book.
King John I.(1199-1216) John I. was forced by the barons to sign Magna Carta, a document which limited the royal power.
Edward I. known as ‘Longshanks’ He was a man of enormous energy. He invaded Wales and defeated the Scottish. His only setback was a defeat by William Wallace at Stirling but he took revenge and Wallace was hanged and quartered.
Edward I. removed the Stone of Scone to Westminster, on which traditionally Scottish kings had always been crowned.
Elizabethan London In the 16th century the monarchy was stronger than ever before. The Tudors established peace throughout England. Art and commerce flourished.
Henry VIII.(1509-1547) During his reign England broke with the power of Roman Papacy. England became a rival of the European powers headed by the Emperor Charles V. and Francis I. of France. He laid the foundations for the golden age of Elizabeth I. He showed off his power by building new palaces.
Henry the VIII. and his 6 wives He beheaded 2 of his 6 wives He had 3 children, all of them from a different mother. All of them got the throne. First, Edward VI, the king’s only son, who died very early of disease, then Mary I. became the queen, who was known as Bloody Mary because she executed those who were nor Roman Catholic.
The Virgin Queen (1558-1603) Then after her prisonment in tower, at the death of her elder sister Queen Mary I., Elizabeth became the Queen who ruled England for 45 years and was called the Virgin Queen as she never got married.
Restorian London In 1642 Civil War broke out and Parliament took power, the king Charles I. was beheaded. 1660 Monarchy restored under Charles II. Plague kills 100.000 people in 1665 In 1666 in the Great Fire London was in flames for 5 days Sir Christofer Wren the architect helped to restore London
the Great Fire The settlement was surrrounded by a wall and after the Great Fire of London in 1666 the post-Fire rebuilding formed the basis of the area we know today as the City. The fire destroyed large areas of crowded streets and unhealthy dwellings.
In the 18th century, London enveloped the settlements around it. These included the royal city of Westminster, which had long been London’s religious and political centre.
Georgian London London became an important financial and commercial centre when George I came to the throne in 1714. Lots of famous architects like John Nash or the Adam brothers designed lots of buildings.
Victorian London- much of today’s London is Victorian The explosive growth of commerce and industry during the 18th and 19th century made London the biggest and wealthiest city in the world. Nearly 14,000 exhibitors came from all over the world to the Great Exibition in 1851, which was held in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park.
London between the World Wars The innovations of the 20th century were available for the people: motor car, telephone, cinema, radio
Postwar London Much of London was flattened by World War II. bombs. By the 1960s, London was a dynamac world leader in fashion and popular music Modern skyscrapers emerged among the historic buildings
And what attracts most tourists in London?
The Tower The oldest historical building in London. It was built in the 11th centurs, which used to be a fortress. Kings and Queens slept here before their coronations in Westminster Abbey. Visitors can see the Crown Jewels here today.
Westminster Abbey Since 1066 all the kings and queens have been crowned and most of them have been buried here in a place called Poets’ Corner as this is the resting place for many of the famous poets and writers as well.
The Coronation Chair The Coronation chair is made of wood. On this chair British kings and queens have been crowned for almost a thousand years. Under it was the Stone of Scone, which was stolen from Scotland and later stolen back by the Scottish. British people can get it back only for coronations
Buckingham Palace This beautiful building has given home to kings and queens for centuries. It has a nice garden too.
Changing of the guards There are guards near the gate, called beefeaters, who wear bearskin hats. Holidaymakers can see the parade at 10.30 every morning.
London Eye or Millenium Wheel The London Eye is a giant 135m tall wheel situated on the bank of the River Thames. It was built in 1999 and became the most popular paid tourist attraction in the UK visited by 3,5 million people annually.
About 25 people can get into one of the 32 capsules and a ride takes 30 minutes. From the top there is a breathtaking view of the city.
Museums and Galleries London is the city of museums and galleries. The works of such famous artists as Michelangelo, Van Gogh, Monet, Picasso are exhibited in the National Gallery.
Hyde Park It is probably the best known of the 5 huge parks in the centre of London, where Londoners can lie down on the lawn, go jogging, ride a horse or a bike, enjoy the concerts or can listen to a speaker at the Speakers’ Corner.
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