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English artist John Constable. .
Джон Констебль. John Constable , the great English artist of the early XIX century , can be called the father of realistic landscape of modern times . He first rose up against the ruling in his days and conditionally idealizing abstract landscape painting techniques , claiming all his works worth living real world surrounding man. In a simple , unadorned rural nature he saw an inexhaustible source of beauty and grandeur , was able to penetrate the deep poetry of its most mundane picture. John Constable was born June 11, 1776 . His father, Golding Constable , inherited from a rich uncle , who died childless, fair property. The surrounding East Bergholta Golding built a house , where he settled in 1774, shortly before he married Miss Ann Watts . From this marriage were born three daughters and three sons . John was the second son . He was baptized on the same day , since no one had hoped that he would survive . However, the boy grew up strong and healthy child. In seven years, John was sent to boarding fifteen miles from Bergholta . Then he was transferred to Levenhemskuyu school, and then he began to study in the classical school Reverend Dr. Grimwood in Dedheme . By the time he went to the seventeenth year , and he became seriously interested in painting . French lessons at the teacher often had to interrupt a long silence student saying, " Go - I do not sleep . Ah! Clear - again you dreams in his workshop ! "
Джон Констебль. It was a lover of painting workshop John Dansorna - glazier and locksmith. John worked long hours with him. Senior Constable wanted his son to a clergyman . But John did not show any inclination to theology , and then my father decided to make it a miller . Constable had about a year to work on his father's mills. Mother managed to arrange a meeting with his son George Beaumont , a lover of art. Sir George looked and praised copies made Constable pencil and ink with cartons Raphael. Then the young man first saw a painting by Claude Beaumont " Hagar ." Constable said that day , when he saw this wonderful picture, marked the beginning of a new era in his life. In 1795, the father allowed Constable to go to London . He wanted to know whether the son of chances to succeed in painting. On this occasion, he was given a letter of recommendation to Fairington . He predicted a bright future and Constable at the first acquaintance said that Constable landscape over time " will leave an imprint on the painting." Soon after his arrival in London, Constable met John Thomas Smith , a good draftsman and printmaker . He gave a lot of beginner artist practical advice . Here is one of them : " Do not try when writing landscape with nature , to enter there invented figures ; and you will not spend hours in the most secluded corner , not to see what some living creature, which is much better agreement with the scenery and lighting than any of your fiction . "
Джон Констебль. Now Constable divided his time between London and Bergholtom . John works for some time in the office of his father, but in 1799 he returned to painting and never betrayed her . In the same year he became a student of the Royal Academy Schools . John admires Lorrain , Wilson and Gainsborough, but for all that , after graduating from school , Constable did not want to "take the truth at second hand " and turned to direct observation of nature. In 1802 he first exhibited at the exhibition at the London Academy . In 1805 he introduced the "Landscape in the moonlight ", and in 1806 the drawing " " Victoria " - His Majesty's ship at the Battle of Trafalgar with two French ships of the line ." This story was inspired by the story of a fellow Constable , who served on the ship of Admiral Nelson . In the same year, made a two-month trip Constable scenic Westmoreland and Cumberland . In 1807 he exhibited several works inspired by this trip - "Type in Westmoreland ," " Lake Keswick " and " Bow Fell, Cumberland ." Almost until his death (1837 ) Constable regularly exhibited his landscapes at the London Academy , but his paintings were appreciated is low - partly because of the fact of prejudice , which then belonged to the landscape . When Constable in 1829 was elected to the Academy , Academy President Lawrence gave him to understand that this was done out of charity . The only real success in his life was an exhibition at the Paris Salon in 1824 .
Джон Констебль. Peaks early period biography of Constable began watercolor views of Borrowdale ( 1806 ) , "View at Epsom " ( 1808 ), " Malvern Hall" ( 1809 ), " Portico Bergholtskoy Church" ( 1810 ) , studies on the River Stour ( 1810-1811 ) . Constable uncle , Mr. Watts , at the same time writes about his nephew , " J. K. diligent in fact, moderate in eating , modest clothing, frugal in spending and as an artist deserves approval . " Searches of the world was long and painful . In 1811 Constable wrote " Dedham Vale ", which is dominated by the desire for a panoramic effect. Rubens few tones in the foreground , tender green gray pink and blue tones are not sufficient to cover decorative topographical character of the whole. Danger , the more threatened the Constable , becoming more perfect his technique , found in " Flatfordskoy mill ," written in 1817. Art artist in this painting reached a high degree : images of the scene is quite convincing his perspective depth , its proportions and precision individual parts. But the style of the painting lacks unity. At various times in the artist fought two sides of his nature : the realist and romance . Until 1820 it is dominated by a realist , after 1825 - romantic. And here in the twenties comes the long-awaited period of harmony, and then create a masterpiece in the works though less brilliant periods manifested genius Constable . In 1820, the artist painted the picture " Harwich , sea and lighthouse ", where all the elements of nature merged into one , are factors determining the style of the artist . In this picture, nothing has been preserved from the traditions of " picturesque ", no quirks. L. Venturi : "... freedom contributed to the creation of a number of masterpieces , to rise to the level of Constable perfect artist. He wrote big picture, not finishing them or in accordance with the customary laws of painting, nor in accordance with the objective nature of the transfer . He only followed his style . When he could express all that craved his imagination to create a second reality , parallel reality of nature, but an independent , because it is truly beautiful , he thought work finished , he could stop in time , making no concessions to the requirements of non-artistic painters and audience of his time. Yet he was not so rebel, not to make concessions to public opinion. So he sent exhibitions Academy only replicas made in accordance with the prejudices of his time, and kept for paintings, written according to his style . "
Джон Констебль. The first couple of pictures of the same name was written by Constable in 1821 - this is the famous " wagon with hay ." Finished painting , exhibited along with three others in the Louvre in 1824 , was the biggest success of Constable . Despite the manifest respect for the tradition of the artist , the painting was perceived by the public as a revolution in painting. French critic Paul Yue wrote: " In the history of modern art works of Constable's appearance was an event ... In Paris, they experienced the fate of all the beautiful and new: enthused , on the one hand, and hostility - on the other ... what some only dream turned suddenly realized most beautifully ... Constable paintings sparkled primarily artless originality, based on truth and inspiration ... cottage, half hidden in the shade of beautiful green spaces , clear creek that ford moved the cart , deep - rural views in the suburbs of London with a damp atmosphere of the English landscape - here in all its simplicity, one of the compositions . " French painter Delacroix wrote in his diary : " Constable says that the superiority of its green fields is achieved by combining a plurality of different shades of green paint ... What he says here about the green fields , applicable to any other color ." The second pair - the sketch and finished painting " Salsberi Cathedral , Bishop of the garden ." According to L. Venturi : " Study is one of the highest achievements of art, known in the history of painting . It combines shades of brown and blue , from which flows like a mysterious light . Trees also emit light , but the artist dimmed them a few strokes of dark paint , wanting to give a special radiance belfry. And it seems to us as if this radiance with incomparable ease and grace are woven into the branches of trees dance . To Cezanne we did not meet anyone like perfection. "
Джон Констебль. Another famous couple - " Prancing Horse" (1825 ) . " Filled with rapid dynamics landscape " Jumping Horse " , compactly built, being imbued with a sense of completeness , receding into the distance of space, gusty winds , bending trees, swirling clouds - writes MT Kuzmina . - All the subtle shades of the palette used by the artist to play the British identity of nature, its beauty and grandeur . " Constable's personal life was full of hardship and sorrow. He fell in love with Maria Bicknell , young lady , the daughter of Charles Bicknell , admiralty attorney . Mary loves it , but against their marriage ganged many friends Miss Bicknell , who believed that he is no match for her . They were able to get married only after many years, and then against the wishes of parents . Poor health of his wife caused him constant anxiety, she died before him. Inspired him with a lot of worries and children's health . Constable never suffered from want , but only reached contentment in 1828, when his wife received a substantial inheritance. Since then, he stopped painting portraits and moved exclusively on landscapes. Constable was completely absorbed in his painting was maloobschitelen and therefore had few friends ; its petty bourgeois life , limited in their capabilities , would not let him , despite the innate good manners , to get close to a great London society. Although the artists and the audience greeted him with cold work, Constable , feeling his innocence and his right to a place in art, remained calm .
Джон Констебль. " The last period of the life and work of Constable - approximately 1829 - again proved ambivalent and contradictory - writes AD Chegodaev . - These are the years of severe mental depression, which occurs played a bad role and dangerous deterioration of health , and the death of his wife , and the fears and concerns for the fate of the children , but not in the least offensive appointed and elected to the Royal Academy , and deepening the already sharp differences with the dominant trend in the arts, and growing more and more depressing and frustrating . The nature and quality of these studies and years of great painting again became disparate and unequal . All exhibition paintings of this time : " Salisbury Cathedral from the meadows " ( 1831 ) , "Opening of Waterloo Bridge " (1832), " Englefield House" (1833), " Farm in the Valley" ( 1835 ) , " Reynolds Cenotaph " (1836 ) - bear the stamp of uncertainty and disorder , and much inferior to the pictures of previous years . They tangled, artificial composition , slightly muddy brown, so alien previously Constable , what that strange ambiguity of space and amorphous pattern , creating the impression that they wrote , or at least finish another artist . " Theory of his art artist outlined in the preface to "The English landscape " - the collection of engravings of his paintings , published in 1830 , and six lectures delivered from 1833 to 1836 .
William Hogarth (Eng. William Hogarth; November 10, 1697, London - October 26, 1764, London) - English artist, founder and a major representative of the national school of painting, illustrator, author of satirical prints, discoverer of new genres in painting and drawing. Many of his works the artist, has experienced the influence of the ideas of the Enlightenment philosophers, subordinated to the task of education with the help of artistic creation of the moral man, and the eradication of vices.
The Early Years. William Hogarth was born in London into a family of rural Latin teacher Richard Hogarth, and Anne Gibbons. Was the first child of the couple. Poverty pushed Hogarth father to move to London, where he worked as a proofreader printing. William from early childhood showed remarkable talent for drawing was very observant and had great memory for details.
Education and early work. In 1713 Hogarth, not completed primary school, became an apprentice at the engraver on silver Ellis Gamble, where he received skills engraving, metal work and met with the style of Rococo. In 1718, William's father died and he had to support his mother and two sisters, taking hold of the minor orders. He manufactured commercial cards, small arms and other small items. This work did not bring Hogarth pleasure as experienced cravings for high art. Soon he began taking art lessons in one of London's private art academies, which are based Cherone Lewis and John Vanderbank. Hogarth also a lot of self-education. In 1720 he opened his own small engraving workshop. First Hogarth paintings appeared in 1728, it was the canvas on the story then popular play by John Gay's "The Beggar's Opera."
"The Beggar's Opera"
Marriage. In the house of James Thornhill Hogarth fell in love with the daughter of the artist Jane. March 25, 1729 secretly married her in Peddingtonskoy church.
Creation. In the years 1730-1731 Hogarth made a series of six paintings, called "A Harlot's Progress". Enjoyed great success reprints series of engravings, printed in 1732. It is not known whether his model is written in a series of paintings, fictional or really existed.
The next series of prints - "Career spendthrift" - was published in 1735, and in 1745 came the famous series "Fashion marriage." This was followed by other series, among them - "diligence and laziness" (1747), "The Four Stages of Cruelty" (1751) and "Election" (4 prints, 1755-1758). Hogarth also performed a plurality of individual prints, a few portraits, and a number of historical paintings. In 1753 was published his treatise "The Analysis of Beauty." In 1757, George II appointed principal painter Hogarth; In this position he succeeded James Thornhill. In 1764, the artist released his latest engraving "The End, or the Abyss." In the mid-50s of the XVIII century in almost any English bench or bookstore, you could buy prints of William Hogarth. Better than any biography about him told a self-portrait, the composition of which is unusual - a "picture in picture".
Subject. Hogarth observed lives of people of all material wealth belonging to all strata of society; he was not only a talented portrait painter, but also a moralist, and a satirist. In art, Hogarth, undoubtedly, an important place belongs to the humor.
Fashionable marriage. In the years 1743-1745, William Hogarth painted six paintings from the series "Marriage à-la-mode" (National Gallery), witty critique of the high society of the XVIII century. This warning indicating disastrous reckless marriage of convenience.
Soon the after the marriage, 1743-45
A visit to the quack, 1743-45
The Boudoir Countess, 1743-45
Duel and Death of Count, 1743-45
The death of the Countess, 1743-45
Sir Joshua Reynolds – English portrait painter of the 18th century
Joshua Reynolds was born into the family of Reynolds, who held the post of headmaster in a local grammar school, which Joshua attended as a boy. The young Reynolds received a good classical education; he loved literature and became well-read in classical Greek and Roman authors. He revealed his interest in and talent for painting rather early. The monument to an artist in the Royal Academy's yard.
Early life Reynolds was born in Plympton, Devon, on 16 July 1723 the third son of the Rev. Samuel Reynolds, master of the Free Grammar School in the town. Samuel Reynolds had been a fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, but did not send any of his sons to the university. One of his sisters was Mary Palmer (1716–1794), seven years his senior, author of Devonshire Dialogue, whose fondness for drawing is said to have had much influence on him when a boy. In 1740 she provided £60, half of the premium paid to Thomas Hudson the portrait-painter, for Joshua's pupilage, and nine years later advanced money for his expenses in Italy.
Reynolds lived in Rome for two years. After that he spent five month in Parma, Florence and Venice. Then he visited other important cities in Italy. He went back to England and became a famous portrait painter.
Since 1768 Sir Joshua Reynolds was the first president of the Royal Academy. He was the president for 24 years and created in the academy a body of highly skilled professional artist. Burlington House – the Royal Academy of Arts
His work is characteristic of a rare artistic variety combining the dignity and greatness of Grand Manner with feelings, fine psychological observations and artistic freedom. There are not many artists in history who were able to render such an exceptional combination of emotions and technique. The models in these works are idealized and very often the subjects are Greek and Roman deities.
The other type of portraiture - he usually painted people he knew well in this style - is intimate, without spectacular attributes, and psychologically subtle. The portraits of children and women are lyrical and straightforward.
Back in Devon in 1746, he painted a large group portrait of the “Eliot Family” (c. 1746/47), which clearly indicates that he had studied the large-scale portrait of the “Pembroke Family” (1634–35) by the Flemish Baroque painter Sir Anthony Van Dyck, whose style of portrait painting influenced English portraiture throughout the 18th century. The Eliot Family. c.1746. Oil on canvas.87x . Trustees of the St Germans Estate, PortEliot.
Man in a Brown Coat. Oil on canvas. 76 x 63.5 cm. 1748. Marble Hill House, Twichenham, English Heritage, UK
Miss Thorold. 1759. Oil on canvas. 76 x 63.5. Private Collection.
Sir Joshua Reynolds self-portrait Oil on canvas His official self-portrait shows him in an elegant pose with his glove in his hand, the body fitting nicely into the noble triangular outline which Raphael and Titian had favored, and behind him on the right appears a bust of Michelangelo.
Kitti Fisher with scare, 1763-1764
Miss Siddons as the Tragic Muse
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