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ARTICULATORY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF ENGLISH CONSONANTS 4AOD Malinnikova Ekaterina
Principles of consonant classification: I. Work of the vocal cords and the force of exhalation. II. Active organs of speech and the place of obstruction. III. Manner of noise production and the type of obstruction. (1) voice or noise prevalence, (2) number of noise producing foci, (3) shape of the narrowing. IV. Position of the soft palate.
According to the work of the vocal cords and the force of exhalation consonants are subdivided into: voiced voiceless
According to the position of the active organ of speech and the place of obstruction consonants are classified into: 1.Labial 2.Lingual 3.Glottal
Labial consonants are subdivided into: Bilabial Labiodental
Lingual consonants are subdivided into: Forelingual Mediolingual Backlingual.
According to the position of the tip of the tongue they may be: dorsal apical caсuminal
According to the place of obstruction forelingual consonants may be: interdental dental alveolar post-alveolar, palato-alveolar
Mediolingual consonants are produced with the front part of the tongue. They are always palatal. Palatal consonants are articulated with the front part of the tongue raised high to the hard palate.
Backlingual consonants are also called velar, they are produced with the back part of the tongue raised towards the soft palate "velum“.
Manner of noise production and the type of obstruction (1) complete closure, then occlusive (stop, or plosive) and nasal consonants are produced: /p, b, t, d, k, g, m, n, N/. (2) incomplete closure, then constrictive consonants are produced: /f, v, T, D, h, s, z, S, Z, w, j, l, r/. (3) the combination of the two closures, then occlusive-constrictive, or affricates, are produced: /tS, dZ/.
According to the position of the soft palate all consonants are subdivided into oral and nasal.