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Young People's Movements and Organizations
The term "Young People's Movement" is so wide that it includes all kinds of young people's associations from Punk Rockers, Hippies and Goths to the Young Conservatives in Britain and Komsomol in Soviet Russia.
The world's first voluntary youth organization was the Boys' Brigade, founded in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1883 by William Alexander Smith. This idea was to give the boys religious education and teach them to be disciplined and well-mannered. In England Major-General Robert Baden-Powell founded the Boy Scouts movement in 1908.
Like the Boys' Brigade, the Scout movement has spread around the world. A sister organization to the Scouts, the Girl Guide Association, founded in 1910, also has a lot of members in different countries. These organizations train boys and girls in various useful skills, such as lighting a fire, cooking, fishing and help children to develop their character.
Very often young people's movements are political in nature. In the 1930s there existed Fascist organizations for young people in Mussolini's Italy and Hitler's Germany.
In Britain some young people joined the Blackshirts. Soviet Russia had Young Communist groups: Oktobrists, Pioneers and Komsomol, which were founded to give young people political education and teach them patriotism.
The second half of the 20th century saw a number of youth cults and cultures such as the Rockers, associated with motorcycles, rock-and-roll music and clothes made of leather. The Hippies of the late 1960s experimented with drugs, lived in communities, grew their hair long and were interested in radical politics.
The Goths followed a fashion of the late 1980s and early 1990s for white faces and black and purple clothes. Skinheads are associated with racism. They appeared in the 1960s.
Skinheads, mostly boys and young men, shave their hair off or cut it very short. They wear heavy boots and earrings. Skinheads often use violence and terrorize people. Some of the youth cults have survived till nowadays.
1. The term "Young People's Movements" includes .... only political teen organizations of all types various groups of young people religious associations of young people 2. The world's first youth organization was founded .... last century last but one century last but two centuries
3. The members of the Boys' Brigade were .... trained to believe in God taught to obey everybody taught to become patriots 4. The Boy Scouts movement was founded .... in the late 19th century in the early 20th century in the mid 20th century
5. Many Scout organizations all over Europe give their members a good education teach them to do jobs about the house prepare them for the future 6. ... is not a political organization. The Blackshirts Komsomol The Goths 7. ... is an organization the members of which are characterizoil by racist behaviour. Skinheads The Rockers The Hippies
1 B 2 B 3 A 4 B 5 C 6 C 7 A
РЕСУРСЫ Учебник О.В.Афанасьевой, И.В. Михеевой «Новый курс английского языка для российских школ», 5 год обучения, 9 класс
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