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Captain James Cook discovered Australia in 1770. He was sent to discover the huge land that many people believed was south of the equator. He landed south of present day Sydney in New South Wales. He claimed this part of the land for the King of England. In 1851 gold was discovered about 300 km west of Sydney. People rushed to the gold fields to find their fortunes. This attracted robbers called bushrangers. Захарова Антонина Егоровна МОУ "Александровская СОШ"
The First people in Australia were Aborigines. They arrived there about 12,000 years before from southern Asia. They had very rich forms of art, painting, song, poetry and mythology. The lives of aborigines stayed almost the same for thousands of years until the Europeans came to live in Australia in 1778. In 1770 J. Cook landed in eastern Australia and declared that it belonged to Britain. In 1778, the British government began sending the first prisoners to Australia. Overtime many people arrived from Britain and Europe. Life was difficult. There was very little water and the climate was very hard. The Europeans suffered a lot in Australia but the Aborigines suffered a lot more. Europeans stole their land and killed thousand of Aborigines. They also brought new diseases with them. In parts of Australia, not one Aborigine survived. Today aborigines continue to live in Australia but there culture in under threat. In 1770, there were about 300,000 Aborigines. Now, there are 120,000. It is becoming harder and harder for them to continue their traditional way to live. Today Australia is a modern, industrial country, independent from Britain since 1931. The Commonwealth of Australia consists of 6 states and two provinces. It is the world’s biggest producer of wool, bauxite and important producer of wheat, meat, sugar and fruit. The first Australians Захарова Антонина Егоровна МОУ "Александровская СОШ"
The Land Australia is the only nation that occupies a whole continent. It's an island of 7.7 million square kilometers. It is the sixth largest country in the world after Russia, Canada, China, the United States of America and Brazil. It's located to the south of Asia, between the Pacific and Indian oceans. Australia is the flattest continent after Antarctica. It is also the world's driest continent. Climate The climate in Australia is varied, from tropical in the north to temperate in the south-east. Australia is situated in the southern hemisphere. That's why it has summer when we have winter. The People Australia has a population of about 18 million people. 70 per cent of the population live in its 10 largest cities. Canberra is the capital of Australia. It is not the biggest city. Sydney and Melbourne are much bigger. Australia is a multicultural society. People from about 200 nations live there. The Aborigines, the Australian natives, represent about 1.5 per cent of the population. Language Australia's official language is English. Australian English does not differ significantly from other forms of English, although some expressions are unique to Australia. Birds and Animals Australia's best-known animals are the kangaroo, the koala and the dingo (a wild dog). There are 50 species of kangaroo. Some stand as tall as a man and some are as small as a cat. They can often be seen in many of the forests and parks. The koala is the best loved of all Australian animals. The koala lives on leaves alone. About 400 species of birds in Australia are found nowhere else in the world. There are 55 species of parrots in Australia. They are very colourful. The emu is the most interesting bird in Australia. It is big and cannot fly. The kangaroo and emu can be seen on Australia's coat of arms. The kookaburra is another interesting Australian bird. It cannot sing, but laughs like a human! You can see images of animals in the end of a slide. About of Australia Захарова Антонина Егоровна МОУ "Александровская СОШ"
Australia's coat of arms – the official emblem of the Australian Government – was granted by George V in 1912. The arms consist of a shield containng the badges of the six states. The supporters are native Australian fauna – a kangaroo and an emu. A yellow-flowered native plant, wattle, also appears in the design. The flag of Australia is the only one to fly over a whole continent. The small Union Jack represents the historical link with Britain, the large seven-pointed star represents the six States and Territories, and the small stars from the Southern Cross – a prominent feature of the southern hemisphere night sky. Захарова Антонина Егоровна МОУ "Александровская СОШ"
Literature Т. Клементьева, Дж. Шэннон Happy English-3 – Обнинск: Титул, 2005 Д. Эттенбро Живая природа – М.: Мир книги, 2001 Britannica 2007 Ultimate Referense Suite DVD - энциклопедия, англоязычное издание: www.britannica.co.uk Захарова Антонина Егоровна МОУ "Александровская СОШ"
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