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MELODY Successive contours of intonation singled out of the speech flow may be defined differently: 1.sense-groups (semantic approach), breath-2.groups (extra-linguistic approach), 3.Tone groups (phonological definition) 4.Intonation groups, 5.Tone (tonetic) units, 6.Pitch and stress patterns. Speech melody or pitch of the voice is closely connected with sentence stress.
54rHigh, medium and low pitch of the voice is shown on the staves. The change of pitch within the last stressed syllable of the tone-group is called a nuclear tone. It may occur not only in the nucleus but extend to the tail — terminal tone. Palmer has four basic tones: falling, high rising, falling-rising, low rising.
O'Connor and Arnold give low and high falls and rises, rise-fall, fall-rise, and a compound fall + rise (the latter is considered a combination of two simple tunes) Vasilyev gives ten tone units. He states that tones can be moving and level. Moving tones can be: simple, complex and compound. They are: Low Fall; High Wide Fall; High Narrow Fall; Low Rise; High Narrow Rise; High Wide Rise; Rise-Fall; Fall-Rise; Rise-Fall-Rise. The most common compound tones are: High Fall + High Fall; High Fall + Low Rise. Level Tones can be pitched at High, Mid and Low level.
The tonetic units that constitute the total intonation pattern (contour) are the following: 1. Unstressed and half stressed syllables preceding the first stressed syllable constitute the prehead of the intonation group; 2. Stressed and unstressed syllables up to the last stressed syllable constitute the head, body or scale of the intonation group; 3. The last stressed syllable, within which fall or rise in the intonation group is accomplished, is called the nucleus; the syllable marked with the nuclear tone may take a level stress; 4. The syllables (or one syllable), that follow the nucleus, constitute the tail, e.g.
SENTENCE STRESS Sentence stress is a greater prominence of words, which are made more or less prominent in an intonation group. The difference between stress and accent is based on the fact that in the case of stress the dominant perceptual component is loudness, in the case of accent it is pitch.
In tone-groups stress may undergo alternations under the influence of rhythm, but there are some rules concerning words that are usually stressed or unstressed in an utterance. Words that are usually stressed: Nouns. Adjectives. Numerals. Interjections. Demonstrative pronouns. Emphatic pronouns. Possessive pronouns (absolute form). Interrogative pronouns. Indefinitepronouns(used as subject). The meaning of the verbs may, should, must changes depending on whether they are stressed or unstressed.
STYLISTIC USE OF INTONATION According to M.A. Sokolova's data, stylistically distinctive function of intonation is determined by the intonational styles, which are the following: Informational Academic (Scientific) Publicistic (Oratorial) Declamatory (Artistic) Conversational (Familiar)
Intonational styles register and speech typology correlate along the lines of: varieties of language: spoken or written; Forms of communication Monologue or dialogue,polylogue; Degree of speech preparedness Prepared, spontaneous; The number of participants Public, non-public; Character of participants' relationship Formal, informal.
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