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Croeso i Gymru! Welcome to Wales!
T S E R E V E E G R O E G U W L R Y B S N H W S D O N I F D A C F A S T L C N O D R D W R A A D D D I E L C K L O P S C H A R H M A N O M E H A N back back
By the time the Romans arrived in Britain in around 50 AD, people had lived in Wales for around 225,000 years. Welsh History Castell Odo Aerial photograph of Castell Odo Iron Age hillfort, Aberdaron, 1989 Llyn Fawr in the Cynon Valley is the site of the discovery of the first iron implements found in Wales, from about 650 BC. Hill forts became more common with Castell Odo on the Lleyn Peninsular being the earliest. Ллин-Ваур (валл. Llyn Fawr) — озеро в Кинон Вэлли (Welsh: Cwm Cynon) на юге Уэльса. Оно хорошо известно благодаря археологическим находкам предметов позднего периода бронзового века и раннего железного века Предметы археологии были обнаружены между 1909 и 1913 годами, в течение строительства водохранилища. Было найдено большое количество предметов, относящихся к позднему периоду Бронзового века. Также были найдены предметы железного века, примечательным из которых является меч в стиле мастеров Гальштата. Так же были найдены копье и серп, которые относятся в железному веку. Находки бронзового века включали котелок и наконечник для топора. Возможно, эти предметы были выброшены в озеро в ритуальных целях, как предметы жертвоприношения. Установить время изготовления данных предметов не удалось, кроме железного меча, который относится к 650 году до н. э. Это самый ранний предмет, найденный в Уэльсе, который относится в железному веку.
The Iron Age Celts lived in Britain two thousand years ago. The Iron Age ended in AD43 when the Romans invaded Britain. Welsh History The name 'Iron Age' comes from the discovery of a new metal called iron. We can find out a lot about the Celts through looking at objects made of iron and other materials which have survived over time, such as the Tal-y-Llyn plaque.
The brass plaque was found in 1963 on Cadair Idris in north Wales. Welsh History Bronze Age Iron Age The pair of plaques are decorated with human faces. The faces have staring eyes, and straight hair. Archaeologists believe that the head was greatly respected by the Celts. Bronze Age horse-gear from the Llyn Fawr hoard, near Rhigos
Iron Age Celts lived in roundhouses. The walls were made of daub (straw, mud and tail) and the roof of straw. Welsh History he Celts would light a fire in the middle of the roundhouse for cooking and heating. A farm worker found this iron firedog in 1852 near Llanrwst, north Wales. It was found lying on its side, with a large stone at each end, and deeply buried in peat. Archaeologists believe it was a gift to one of the Celtic gods or goddesses. In the roundhouse, firedogs would have been placed as decorations either side of the central fire. Perhaps they showed the status of the family. The blacksmith who made this firedog was very skilled at shaping and working iron. At either end of the firedog is an animal's head and neck - it would have taken a lot of time, effort and skill to make. Roundhouses Reconstructed roundhouse, Castell Henllys This is a reconstructed Iron Age roundhouse, built on a hillfort site in Castell Henllys, Pembrokeshire. Iron Age people would have chosen where they lived for different reasons. The chieftain and his family, soldiers and craftsmen, lived in a hillfort because they were easy to defend. There are over 1000 Iron Age hillforts in Wales. Steep slopes, a high wall and deep ditch helped keep the Celts safe in their homes. Farmers lived on the land they farmed. Sometimes farms would be built in spots with a good source of water, or fertile ground of good pasture for the animals. The Celts grew corn and kept cows, pigs, horses, goats and sheep. The hillforts didn't keep the Romans out though and the Celtic tribes were conquered when the Romans invaded in AD43.
Clothes and Appearance Welsh History The Iron Age Celts' clothes might have looked like the tartan you see in Scotland and Ireland today, with checks and stripes. The Celts used berries and plants to dye the wool different colours. Not only did the Celts like brightly coloured clothes - the Romans tell us that some of them painted patterns all over their bodies with blue woad made of a special plant. The Celts' clothes showed their status and importance within the tribe. Men would wear a tunic with a belt, a cloak and trousers. Women wore dresses fastened with brooches. And if you were an important member of the tribe, you would wear a neck torc of gold, silver or iron, decorated with patterns. Soldiers Roman historians say that Celtic soldiers had white spiky hair. They used lime like we use hair mousse today, and sometimes they tied their hair up in a ponytail. Around their necks they wore gold torcs like big necklaces. The most famous soldiers wore fancy bronze helmets on their head to show how important they were. Often there were model birds, animals or horns on the helmets which made them even more special. They carried huge shields decorated with signs or patterns.
Iron Age Celts had many gods and goddesses and worshipped them through giving them valuable objects to keep them happy. Welsh History Creiddylad Cordelia Llyr Lear Religion & Belief Archaeologists believe that the Iron Age Celts had many gods and goddesses and that the Celts worshipped their gods through sacrifice, giving them valuable objects to keep them happy. But material treasures weren't the only sacrifices - the Iron Age Celts sacrificed (killed) animals, and even humans, to their gods. The Celts also sacrificed weapons to the gods by throwing them into lakes, rivers and bogs - places they considered special. At Llyn Cerrig Bach, archaeologists have found over 150 objects of bronze and iron, including spears, shields and swords. The Celts paid great respect to the human head. Roman historians say they cut off the heads of their ancestors, and even their enemies, and worshipped the skulls. The Celtic religion was closely tied to the natural world and they worshipped gods in sacred places like lakes, rivers, cliffs and bushes. The moon, the sun and the stars were especially important - the Celts thought that there were supernatural forces in every aspect of the natural world. The early Celts did not build temples in which to worship their deities, but held certain groves (nemeton) of trees to be sacred and worthy to be places of worship. Some trees were considered sacred themselves. The importance of trees in Celtic religion is shown by the fact that the very name of the Eburonian tribe contains a reference to the yew tree, and that names like Mac Cuilinn[?](son of holly) and Mac Ibar[?] (son of yew) appear in Irish myths. Only in the period of Roman influence did the Celts start to build temples, a custom which they would later pass on to the Germanic tribes that displaced them. Gods Creiddylad - Goddess of flowers, love. A daughter of the sea God Lir, connected with the festival of Beltane and called the May Queen. Variants: Creudylad, Cordelia. Llyr – God of sea, the father God of the sea, his sons were transformed into swans by their jealous step-mother. God of waters and the sea. May have also ruled the underworld. The father of Manawydan, Bran the Blessed, and Branwen. Variants: Lyr, Lir. Lugh – God of light, Celtic (Welsh, Irish) God, also known as Lleu, Llew and Lugh the Many Skilled. He is a druid, carpenter, poet, and mason. His animals are the raven and the lynx. He symbolizes healing, reincarnation, prophecy, and revenge. Also a Sun God as well hence the Pagan Sabbath Lughnasadh, his namesake. Son of Cian, a Tuatha de Danaan. Of legend, his skills were without end; in Ireland he was associated with ravens; and a white stag as his symbol in Wales. He had a magic spear and otherworldly hounds. Rhiannon- Welsh Goddess of the earth and fertility, of horses and birds and inspiration and moon Myrrdin "Merlin", Celtic (Britania, Irish & Welsh) Sorcerer, Druid, Wizard and Magician. Originally an ancient Welsh Druid, priest of the old religion, and great magician. He was transformed in the later Arthurian sagas. Tradition says he learned his powerful magic from the Goddess in her forms of Morrigan, Viviane, Nimue, and Lady of the Lake. Legend says he now lies sleeping in a hidden crystal cave. Variants: Merddin, Merlyn. Taliesin - Celtic (Welsh) God of song, known as Prince of Song, Chief of the Bards of the West, and Patron God of the Druids, he was a great magician, bard, and shapeshifter who gained his knowledge from the Goddess Cerridwen directly. Druids The druids were very important in Iron Age society but we know very little about them. They were the Celts' priests, responsible for all sorts of religious ceremonies. They were educated and powerful members of the tribe and were well respected by the other Celts. The main centre of the druids in Britain was Anglesey. We know a little about the druids from descriptions by Roman historians. The Romans tried to limit the powers of the druids because they were so important in Iron Age society.
Iron Age Celts had many gods and goddesses and worshipped them through giving them valuable objects to keep them happy. Welsh History Myrddin Merlin Lugh Rhiannon Taliesin Religion & Belief Archaeologists believe that the Iron Age Celts had many gods and goddesses and that the Celts worshipped their gods through sacrifice, giving them valuable objects to keep them happy. But material treasures weren't the only sacrifices - the Iron Age Celts sacrificed (killed) animals, and even humans, to their gods. The Celts also sacrificed weapons to the gods by throwing them into lakes, rivers and bogs - places they considered special. At Llyn Cerrig Bach, archaeologists have found over 150 objects of bronze and iron, including spears, shields and swords. The Celts paid great respect to the human head. Roman historians say they cut off the heads of their ancestors, and even their enemies, and worshipped the skulls. The Celtic religion was closely tied to the natural world and they worshipped gods in sacred places like lakes, rivers, cliffs and bushes. The moon, the sun and the stars were especially important - the Celts thought that there were supernatural forces in every aspect of the natural world. The early Celts did not build temples in which to worship their deities, but held certain groves (nemeton) of trees to be sacred and worthy to be places of worship. Some trees were considered sacred themselves. The importance of trees in Celtic religion is shown by the fact that the very name of the Eburonian tribe contains a reference to the yew tree, and that names like Mac Cuilinn[?](son of holly) and Mac Ibar[?] (son of yew) appear in Irish myths. Only in the period of Roman influence did the Celts start to build temples, a custom which they would later pass on to the Germanic tribes that displaced them. Gods Creiddylad - Goddess of flowers, love. A daughter of the sea God Lir, connected with the festival of Beltane and called the May Queen. Variants: Creudylad, Cordelia. Llyr – God of sea, the father God of the sea, his sons were transformed into swans by their jealous step-mother. God of waters and the sea. May have also ruled the underworld. The father of Manawydan, Bran the Blessed, and Branwen. Variants: Lyr, Lir. Lugh – God of light, Celtic (Welsh, Irish) God, also known as Lleu, Llew and Lugh the Many Skilled. He is a druid, carpenter, poet, and mason. His animals are the raven and the lynx. He symbolizes healing, reincarnation, prophecy, and revenge. Also a Sun God as well hence the Pagan Sabbath Lughnasadh, his namesake. Son of Cian, a Tuatha de Danaan. Of legend, his skills were without end; in Ireland he was associated with ravens; and a white stag as his symbol in Wales. He had a magic spear and otherworldly hounds. Rhiannon- Welsh Goddess of the earth and fertility, of horses and birds and inspiration and moon Myrrdin "Merlin", Celtic (Britania, Irish & Welsh) Sorcerer, Druid, Wizard and Magician. Originally an ancient Welsh Druid, priest of the old religion, and great magician. He was transformed in the later Arthurian sagas. Tradition says he learned his powerful magic from the Goddess in her forms of Morrigan, Viviane, Nimue, and Lady of the Lake. Legend says he now lies sleeping in a hidden crystal cave. Variants: Merddin, Merlyn. Taliesin - Celtic (Welsh) God of song, known as Prince of Song, Chief of the Bards of the West, and Patron God of the Druids, he was a great magician, bard, and shapeshifter who gained his knowledge from the Goddess Cerridwen directly. Druids The druids were very important in Iron Age society but we know very little about them. They were the Celts' priests, responsible for all sorts of religious ceremonies. They were educated and powerful members of the tribe and were well respected by the other Celts. The main centre of the druids in Britain was Anglesey. We know a little about the druids from descriptions by Roman historians. The Romans tried to limit the powers of the druids because they were so important in Iron Age society. <="" p="" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: 'Playfair Display', serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 20px; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: auto; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Очень большое место в жизни британских кельтов занимали жрецы-друиды, имевшие единую организацию с друидами Галлии. Центр друидов находился на острове Англси. Друидические божества обитали, по убеждению кельтов, в священных рощах, ручьях, горах. Друиды были могущественны: они обладали высшим авторитетом в области права, морали, воспитания. Многое неясно в религии друидов, но захоронения, особенно богатые захоронения в курганах (например, предполагаемая могила Кунобелина), свидетельствуют неоспоримо о вере в бессмертие души. Найдены погребальные дроги из дерева и железа, много вещей обихода, оружия, ювелирных изделий. Все вещи попорчены, чтобы они были также мертвы и могли служить умершему за гробом. Друиды совершали и человеческие жертвоприношения. Корни друидической религии уходят в верования бронзового века.
Roman forces reached the borders of Wales in AD 48, five years after they had begun their conquest of Britain. Welsh History Ordovices Deceangli Cornovii Silurians Demetians At that time, of course, Wales did not exist in any meaningful sense. Its people, like those of most of Britain, spoke a Celtic language, Brythonic, the language which would eventually evolve into Welsh. In the first century the region had at least five tribal groupings: the Deceangli in the North East; the Ordovices in the North West; the Demetians in the South West; the Silurians in the South East; and the Cornovii in the central borderlands.
After numerous fights they captured king of Welsh Celts Caradoc and by the year 70 A.D. completely conquered the territory of modern Wales. Welsh History “Noble Emperor and people of Rome! I face humiliation, while you have glory. I had horses, men, weapons! Are you surprised I’m sorry, I’ve lost them? Just because you want to rule the world, do you think everyone else is happy to be made slave? If I had surrendered without a fight, no one would have heard about my downfall or your triumph! If you kill me, they were both be forgotten! But if you spare me, I shall stand forever as a symbol of your mercy.” В 43 г. сильная римская армия высадилась на побережье Кента. Сыновья Кунобелина были разбиты у Медуэя, населенные пункты по течению Темзы подчинены, а Камулодун сдался. Римские легионы двинулись по трем направлениям: на запад, на северо-запад и на север. При движении на запад был взят ряд крепостей, включая Мейден Касл. В своем движении на северо-запад и на север римляне к 47 г. достигли линии северный Уэльс —Хамбер, откуда было уже недалеко до горных районов. Но здесь движение римлян замедлилось, так как племена Уэльса дрались яростно и остались непобежденными, хотя их вождь, сын Кунобелина Карадок, потерпел поражение в 51 г. и был оттеснен на север. Королева племени бригантов предала Карадока римлянам, но сами бриганты продолжали сражаться. В 61 г. римская армия подошла к Ирландскому морю и обрушилась на Сноудон, а затем и на твердыню друидов — остров Англси. В это же время на юго-востоке Британии разразилось восстание племени иценов, вызванное бесчинствами и грабежами римлян. Во главе восставших иценов встала их королева Боадицея (Будикка). Восставшие разгромили три крупнейших города, очевидно, наиболее подвергшиеся романизации,— Лондиний, Камулодун, Веруламий. Там погибло до 70 тыс. человек, что само по себе уже подтверждает большие размеры этих городов. В конце концов римляне победили и подавили восставших, а королева Боадицея отравилась. В 70—80-х годах римляне покорили Уэльс и начали наступление на северную Британию. Между 80 и 84 гг. римский полководец Агрикола пересек реку Тайн и горы Чевиот-Хилс и вступил в Пертшир. Однако покорение этой области было поверхностным; все районы севернее Твида после 85 г. были оставлены римлянами. В истории ордовики известны как племя, оказавшее поддержку Каратаку, вождю бриттов-катувеллаунов, ведущему борьбу против завоевания Британии римлянами. В течение двух лет Каратак скрывался у ордовиков в предгорьях Сноудонии и вел партизанскую войну с захватчиками. Осторий Скапула, пропретор провинции Британия, сделал все для окончательного присоединения земель кельтских племен в Уэльсе и разгрома Каратака. Он объединил XX Легион Валерия из Мандуесседума с XIV Легионом Гемина и их объединенными силами в 50 году разбил армию ордовиков в битве при Каэр Карадок. Каратаку удалось бежать, но вскоре он был пойман и отправлен в Рим. Каратак был вождем катувеллавнов - племени британских кельтов. Он возглавил борьбу против римскихинтервентов, но Картимандуа, королева племени бригантов, выдала его римлянам. По преданию, его отвезлив Рим, и император Клавдий помиловал его. британский князь, вел неудачную войну с римлянами и вследствие измены княгини Cartismanduae должен был подчиниться их власти. Император Клавдий велел привезти его в Рим, 51 г. от Р. X., и обходился с ним ласково из уважения к его благородному прямодушию. Tac. ann. 12, 33 слл. Tac. hist. 3, 45. Каратака и его семью проводят по улицам Рима к восторгу его жителей. Античный историк Тацит: «Слава Каратака распространилась за пределами острова через провинции до самой Италии. Людям было любопытно взглянуть на того, кто столько лет бросал вызов могуществу Рима. Даже в самом Риме это имя вызывало отклик». Это был символ их победы: «вот вражеский вождь, его ведут по нашим улицам, поверженного». Что обычно случалось с врагами Рима? Их отправляли в тюрьму, где сажали в яму и душили. Но в данном случае этого не произошло. Вместо этого Каратака подвели к Клавдию, сидящему на высокой скамье трибуна, и там он произнес пламенную речь. Если верить Тациту, он говорил о том, что необходимо сопротивляться захватчикам, и что, если Клавдий оставит его в живых, это будет символом его милосердия. Даровать милосердие означает превосходство, и это как раз то, какими себя видят римляне – выше всех остальных. Тронутый речью Каратака Клавдий дарует жизнь ему и всей его семье. Его, возможно, отвезли на виллу где-то неподалеку от Рима, где он доживал свои дни в относительном благоденствии, но лишенный главного – свободы, в золотой клетке. Британия так и не попала до конца под влияние Рима Хотя Каратак, наконец, приручен Римом, романизация Британии идет не так гладко. В ходе десятилетия повстанцы поднимаются вновь. На этот раз во главе их стоит Венутий. Даже столетие спустя северные границы остаются непокоренными. Боудикка (Боудика, кельт. Boudic(c)a, неточная римская передача Боадицея, лат. Boadicea, ум. 61 г.) — жена Прасутага, тигерна зависимого от Рима бриттского племени иценов, проживавшего в районе современного Норфолка на востоке Англии. После смерти мужа римские войска заняли её земли, а император Нерон лишил её титула, что побудило её возглавить антиримское восстание 61 года. Описание этой женщины можно найти либо у Тацита, либо у Диона, хотя у обоих оно практически одинаковое. Оба они отмечают, что Боудикка была королевских кровей, очень высокого роста и «обладала умом гораздо большим, чем обычно женщины». У неё были рыжие прямые волосы, ниспадающие ниже талии, резкий, громкий голос и всепроникающий взгляд. Обычно она носила цветную тунику, массивное шейное украшение из золота (возможно, шейную гривну, у кельтов называющуюся «торквес»), а также плащ, заколотый брошью. До последнего десятилетия XX века имя этой королевы чаще всего произносили как «Боадицея». Это связано с тем, что под ним она фигурирует у Тацита (Boadicea, Boudicea). У Кассия приведена греческая форма имени — Βουδουικα, Βουνδουικα, или Βοδουικα. Скорее всего, имя её происходит от кельтского слова bouda — победа. Слово boudīko значило у кельтов «победоносный». Похожие имена существовали в Лузитании — написание Boudica, в Бордо — Boudiga. В настоящее время считается правильным произношение этого имени как Боудикка (по правилам валлийского и ирландского языков).
One of the most prominent and vivid Roman Remains in Wales is the Roman Fortress of ISCA in Caerleon. Welsh History Roman military amphitheater at the legionary fortress of Caerleon, on the River Usk near Newport, south Wales. Остатки римского наследия в Уэльсе. Sections of the Roman fortress wall still survive ... despite locals in times gone by using the more accessible facing stones for their own building purposes. Many premises in the village are constructed of 'Roman' stone! The more adventurous visitor may like to walk along the path that runs on top of the southern corner of the fortress wall. Caerleon is proud to be a member of the Walled Towns Friendship Circle. Visit the website of the Walled Towns Friendship Circle. The amphitheatre stands just outside the walled area. It once could seat a whole legion - up to six thousand spectators. Nowadays it is sometimes used for open air events and re-enactments. Entry is free (except for special events) and there is free parking nearby in Broadway (off High Street). For more information about the amphitheatre and its excavation followthis link. For amazing film of the amphitheatre from above followthis link. Caerleon has the finest remains of Roman barrack buildings in Europe. This block housed a century - 80 men. The larger rooms in the foreground were for the centurion. Legionaries shared quarters - eight men to a room. The National Roman Legion Museumhouses a superb display of artefacts found in the region, as well as having demonstration rooms and the reconstruction of legionaries' quarters. Like other National Museums and Galleries of Wales, entry is free. The museum organises an excellent variety of events right through the year (there is a small charge for some of these) details on Caerleon Net's Events Page. Admission free. Location: High Street, opposite Broadway. Tel.: 01633 423 134 Email the Museum Open 10am-5pm Monday-Saturday, 2pm-5pm Sunday. Closed 24-26 Dec & 1 Jan. National Museums and Galleries of Wales website click here. The Roman Baths Museum nearby uses modern technology to give the visitor a vivid image of its former grandeur. The museum is run by CADW, so opening times are not exactly the same as the Legionary Museum. Audio guide and videos available.
In 407 A.D. Wales was again under the Anglo-Saxon attack. When raiders and settlers from Germany slowly pushed the Celtic tribes into the mountains in the far west, which the Saxons called “Wealas” – “the land of foreigners”. Welsh History После ухода римлян в 407 г. кельты римской Британии были фактически предоставлены самим себе на протяжении полувека. После ухода римлян из Британии на землях, принадлежавших ордовикам, были созданы валлийские королевства Поуис и Гвинед. Это было время, когда усилилась кельтская знать, перенявшая римские методы ведения хозяйства при помощи труда рабов, коими были также кельты, и колонов или крестьян, положение которых было близко к положению колонов. Кельтская знать стала превращаться в земельных магнатов, ведущих борьбу за землю и рабов. Эта борьба привела к ожесточенным усобицам между кельтскими земельными магнатами, особенно между потомками кельтских военных вождей и королей различных племен. Усобицы приняли особенно яростный характер в силу отсутствия какой-либо центральной власти, которая могла бы сдерживать соперничающих магнатов. В разгар этих усобиц на Британию и обрушились дружины англов и саксов. Германские племена не стали или не смогли завоевывать Уэльс, они называли эту территорию Wealas – страна чужеземцев.
That was the time when the legend about The Red Dragon of Wales rose. In North Wales there is an old hill fort, known as Dinas Emrys. There is a legend that the British King Vortigern, who fled to Wales from the Saxons, tried to build his castle here. But every night, when the work stopped, the tower fell down. A wise old man explained to Vortigern that a new building needed a blood sacrifice. The wise old man added that the blood must be of a young fatherless boy. Vortigern’s men returned with a young boy named Merlin. The red dragon Just as Merlin was about to get the chop he claimed that he knew the real reason the castle kept falling down. Beneath the ground, he explained, was a deep pool where two dragons lived. The red dragon and the white dragon would fight every night and the struggle would bring down the tower. The red dragon represented Wales and the white dragon represented Saxon England. When the red dragon eventually won the fight, then peace would return. Of course, Vortigern never did get to defeat the Saxons. That was down to another British leader – the man they knew as Arthur. Merlin joined Arthur and for a while the British defeated the Saxon enemies.
Key figure in this battle against Anglo-Saxons was Arthur, who later became King. Welsh History Артур (Arthur — великий герой борьбы британцев против саксов. Возможно, он продолжатель римской традиции, потому что у римлян была должность "начальника Британии" (лат. Dux Britanniarum), командира мобильного подразделения, в обязанности которого входило поддержание целостности римской провинции. Дело в том, что много мест по всей Британии, чтящих память об Артуре, указывают на то, что он мог занимать такой пост. Он выиграл свою главную битву около 496 г. у горы Бадон (лат. Mons Badonicus), предположительно в Сассексе или возле Кайрватона (Caerfaddon, англ. Bath, лат. Aquae Sulis). Его победа сдерживает саксов по крайней мере полсотни лет. The great figure in the struggle between the British and the Saxons is Arthur. He may have been of the Roman tradition, since the Romans had an officer - the Dux Britanniarum (Duke of Britain) - who was leader of a mobile force, charged with the duty of protecting the integrity of the Roman province. Places commemorating Arthur may be found in widely separated parts of Britain, which suggests that he held such an office. His greatest victory came in about AD 496 at Mons Badonicus, a place perhaps in Sussex or possibly near Bath. The victory halted the Saxon advance for at least half a century. Whether Arthur was actually a king or merely a warrior, however, is less clear. It is believed that he was the leader of Brythonic forces, and was killed following the battle of Camlann in about 515. In the earliest mentions of Arthur in Welsh texts, he is never given the title of king. Medieval Welsh texts frequently referred to him as ameraudur (emperor or war leader). There is now a broad consensus that he was a Romano-British warrior leader defending Britain against Anglo Saxon invaders in the late fifth or early sixth century. It’s unclear where exactly Arthur’s power base was, but there’s a strong argument for him being from Wales and its thought his name derives from the Welsh words for bear and gold, arth aur. Arthurian tales The 12th century writer Geoffrey of Monmouth did much to popularise Arthurian tales. He wrote several books based on the Welsh legends of the wizard Myrddin Wyllt, who he renamed Merlin, and of Arthur, his court at Caerleon and his military successes. More stories appeared in the Mabinogion, written around the same time. Subsequent writers including Sir Thomas Malory and Alfred Lord Tennyson picked up on these and embellished them with romantic tales of Camelot, Avalon and the Holy Grail. 1St Davids or St David's (Welsh: Tyddewi, [təˈðɛwi],lit. "Davy's house") is a city and community (full name St David's and the Cathedral Close) in Pembrokeshire, Wales, in the United Kingdom. Эскалибур, волшебный меч Артура, который таинственная рука подняла из вод заколдованного озера, сверкал, как свет тридцади факелов, а ножны предохраняли владельца от потери крови во время битвы
Key figure in this battle against Anglo-Saxons was Arthur, who later became King. Welsh History В послеримский период на территории Уэльса возник ряд королевств. Самый могущественный правитель признавался Королём бриттов (позже — Принцем Уэльским). Некоторые правители, расширяя свой контроль над землями Уэльса, подчиняли себе территории западной Англии и зачастую на длительное время объединяли под своей властью Уэльские земли в единое государство. Междоусобные войны и давление со стороны англосаксонских, а затем и норманнских завоевателей ослабляло Уэльс, и валлийские королевства постепенно подпадали под влияние Англии. В 1282 году после смерти последнего независимого правителя Уэльса Лливелина ап Грифида страна была покорена английским королём Эдуардом I. После этого титул Принца Уэльского стал присваиваться наследному принцу английского королевского дома. титул мужчины-наследника английского престола, с 1707 года, после юридического объединенияАнглии и Шотландии — престола Великобритании. Как правило, женщина-наследница престола не носит титула «принцесса Уэльская», его использует только жена принца. По преданию, Эдуард I применил хитрость, чтобы добиться доминирования английской короны в Уэльсе. Когда он, достигнув внушительных военных успехов в этом крае, собрал валлийских князей и предложил им признать вассальную зависимость от Англии, те в качестве главного условия потребовали, чтобы принцем Уэльса был местный уроженец, не знающий ни слова по-английски. Эдуард тут же дал торжественную клятву соблюсти это условие. Князья подписали договор о вассальной зависимости, после чего Эдуард вынес им своего сына (будущего короля Эдуарда II), родившегося накануне в валлийском замке Карнарвоне, и воскликнул: «Вот вам принц Уэльский, уроженец вашей страны и он ни слова не знает по-английски!» Легенда известна с XVI века. В действительности во времена Эдуарда I аристократия в Англии была норманской и говорила по-старофранцузски; но Эдуард II действительно родился в Карнарвоне во время кампании его отца в Уэльсе.
Under England's authority, Wales became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 and then the United Kingdom in 1801. Welsh History A published version of the Articles of Union, 1707. Prince of Wales's feathers В 1707 году Уэльс под управлением Англии вошёл в состав Королевства Великобритания, а позже, в 1801 году — в состав Соединённого королевства. Несмотря на давление со стороны англичан, валлийцы сумели сохранить свой язык и культуру. Валлийский перевод Библии, сделанный Уильямом Морганом, значительно укрепил позиции валлийского языка как литературного языка. Yet, the Welsh retained their language and culture in spite of heavy English dominance.
Legends and Symbolsof Wales
Saint David “Aquatiqus” March 1st is St. Davids Day, the national day of Wales and has been celebrated as such since the 12th Century. Today the celebrations usually involve the singing of traditional songs followed by a Te Bach, a tea with bara brith (famous welsh fruited bread) and teisen bach (welsh cake). Young girls are encouraged to wear national costume and leeks or daffodils are worn, being the national symbols of Wales. So who was St. David (or Dewi Sant in Welsh)? Actually not too much is known about St David except from a biography written around 1090 by Rhygyfarch, son of the Bishop of St. Davids. David was reputedly born on a cliff top near Capel Non (Non's chapel) on the South-West Wales coast during a fierce storm. Both his parents were descended from Welsh royalty. He was the son of Sandde, Prince of Powys, and Non, daughter of a chieftain of Menevia (now the little cathedral town of St David's). The site of Davids birth is marked by the ruins of a tiny ancient chapel close to a holy well and the more recent 18th century chapel dedicated to his mother Non can still be seen near St. David's Cathedral. In medieval times it was believed that St David was the nephew of King Arthur. Legend has it that the patron saint of Ireland, St. Patrick - also said to have been born near the present day city of St. Davids - forsaw the birth of David in approximately 520AD. The young David grew up to be a priest, being educated at the monastery of Hen Fynyw under the tutorage of St. Paulinus. According to legend David performed several miracles during his life including restoring Paulinus' sight. It is also said that during a battle against the Saxons, David advised his soldiers to wear leeks in their hats so that they could easily be distinguished from their enemies, which is why the leek is one of the emblems of Wales! A vegetarian who ate only bread, herbs and vegetables and who drank only water, David became known as Aquaticus or Dewi Ddyfrwr (the water drinker) in Welsh. Sometimes, as a self-imposed penance, he would stand up to his neck in a lake of cold water, reciting Scripture! It is also said that milestones during his life were marked by the appearance of springs of water. Becoming a missionary David travelled throughout Wales and Britain and even made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem where he was consecrated bishop. He founded 12 monasteries including Glastonbury and one at Minevia (St. Davids) which he made his bishops seat. He was named Archbishop of Wales at the Synod of Brevi (Llandewi Brefi), Cardiganshire in 550. Monastery life was very strict, the brothers having to work very hard, cultivating the land and pulling the plough. Many crafts were followed - beekeeping, in particular, was very important. The monks had to keep themselves fed as well as provide food and lodging for travellers. They also looked after the poor. St David died on 1 March 589A.D., at Minevia, allegedly over 100 years old. His remains were buried in a shrine in the 6th century cathedral which was ransacked in the 11th century by Viking invaders, who plundered the site and murdered two Welsh bishops. After his death, his influence spread far and wide, first through Britain and then by sea to Cornwall and Brittany. In 1120, Pope Callactus II canonised David as a Saint. Following this he was declared Patron Saint of Wales. Such was Davids influence that many pilgrimages were made to St. David's, and the Pope decreed that two pilgrimages made to St. Davids equalled one to Rome while three were worth one to Jerusalem. Fifty churches in South Wales alone bear his name. It is not certain how much of the history of St. David is fact and how much is mere speculation. However in 1996 bones were found in St. David's Cathedral which, it is claimed, could be those of Dewi himself. Perhaps these bones can tell us more about St David: priest, bishop and patron saint of Wales.
National symbols of Wales Welsh male voice choirs National symbols of Wales The story of Wales is long and, at times, confusing. That would go some of the way towards explaining why the emblems of Wales include a dragon, a vegetable, a spoon and a funny-shaped ball. Welsh male voice choirs The 450-strong South Wales Choral Union of Aberdare is credited as popularising the Welsh male voice choir tradition after winning The National Music Union Brass And Choral Event in consecutive years during the 1870s. Welsh choral singing is instantly recognisable, with different pockets of the choir singing different parts. Traditional bedrocks of the movement include Treorchy and Morriston and the more recent success of Only Men Aloud has ensured that the male voice choir tradition is as popular with audiences as ever. The Welsh language Bi-lingual road signs in Powys, Mid Wales The native language of Wales is spoken by three-quarters of a million people – most in Wales, but also in England, the USA, Canada and Argentina. There are few Welsh-only speakers and traditionally, Welsh has been the language of rural Wales; but it is increasingly popular within urban populations. Bilingual road signs and the Welsh language television channel, S4C, are just a couple of examples of the language in common use you’re sure to see on your visit here. Prince of Wales’ Feathers Three white feathers are encircled with a coronet, inscribed with the German words Ich Dien (‘I serve’). This is the emblem of the Prince of Wales, the Heir Apparent to the British and Commonwealth crown. Direct historic links with Wales are fairly sketchy. Nonetheless, the Three Feathers are proudly worn on Welsh rugby shirts. The Welsh lovespoon A handcrafted gift made of a solid block of wood, the tradition of a male admirer crafting a lovespoon for a young woman indicated to the woman’s family that he was skilled and capable with his hands. The oldest existing lovespoon in Wales dates back to 1667 and can be seen at the wonderful St Fagans: National History Museum. Each specific carving on the spoon is symbolic, from the eternal love of the Celtic knot, to the twisted stem indicating togetherness. The daffodil Daffodils Daffodils This is one for those who believe that contemporary culture is all style over substance. The origins of the national flower of Wales appears to be as an attractive interloper, introduced during the 19th century, as a replacement for the humble leek. David Lloyd George, the only Welshman to serve as Prime Minister, was a public advocate of the Narcissus (its Latin name) and its appearance in early spring as a symbol of nature’s optimism neatly coincides with St David’s Day on March 1. A more unusual link is that daffodils are grown commercially in Mid Wales to produce galantamine for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. The Welsh national flag It took until 1959 for the Welsh national flag to be officially unfurled for the first time. The significance of the dragon in Welsh culture is believed to date back to Arthurian legend when Merlin had a vision of a red dragon (representing native Britons) fighting a white dragon (the Saxon invaders). The use of green and white refer to the colours of the House of Tudor, the 15th century royal family of Welsh origin. The red dragon won the battle, just in case you were wondering… Rugby Union Welsh flag and flame-bursts on pitch for Wales vs Australia rugby at Millennium Stadium, Cardiff International rugby at Millennium Stadium, Cardiff by allyhook The first Welsh international rugby union match took place in 1881 against England, in Blackheath. It didn't go well for the away team, but brushing that minor setback aside, the first golden era for Welsh rugby came with a three year unbeaten run between 1907 and 1910. The side’s fortunes may have ebbed and flowed for the subsequent century and a bit, but it hasn't deterred the phenomenal support which reflects the cultural importance of the sport in towns and villages all over the country, particularly in the industrialised parts of South Wales.
The red kite The Welsh language The red kite is sometimes named as the national symbol of wildlife in Wales. The red kite Red kite soaring high in the sky around Aberystwyth Red kite around Aberystwyth, Ceredigion by Howie Mudge In 2007 the distinctive bird of prey was voted the most popular bird among the people of Wales. Less than a century ago there were just two breeding pairs in the country, but the breed’s remarkable recovery means there are over a hundreds to be seen soaring over rural areas of Wales. Several red kite feeding stations also offer visitors the opportunity to get (relatively) up close and personal with these magnificent birds.
The Welsh harp Welsh Leek Welsh Harp We can make life a little complicated for ourselves from time to time. As if to illustrate this the triple harp has three rows of strings rather than one. The Italians invented this particular instrument of melody during the 17th century, but a 100 years later it was widely known as the Welsh harp. Other varieties of harps are believed to have been played in Wales since the 11th century and gifted exponents of the art, such as Elinor Bennett and Catrin Finch among others, continue to inspire audiences and aspiring musicians. The leek Leeks at Brecon Food Festival, Brecon Beacons Leeks at Brecon Food Festival, Brecon Beacons This humble root vegetable is cited as a symbol of Wales in William Shakespeare’s Henry V. Historical evidence also exists that the Tudor dynasty issued leeks to be worn by their guards on March 1, known as St David’s Day in honour of the patron saint of Wales. There is also plenty of entertaining folklore and guesswork why the Welsh are inextricably linked with the leek. The 7th century king of Gwynedd, Cadwaladr, is said to have ordered his men into battle wearing them for identification purposes, but whatever the origins, we grow plenty of them and they taste lovely.
Lady of the lake Our stories Everywhere you go in Wales someone will point out a hill, church or a standing stone that has a story of its own. Lady of the Lake Llyn y Fan Fach, a remote lake in our Black Mountains has its very own Lady of the Lake legend. The story goes that it was here a young farmer named Gwyn won and then tragically lost the love of his life. He fell in love with a beautiful water fairy and she agreed to marry him but warned him she would leave him for ever if he struck her three times. They lived happily for many years and had three sons but when Gwyn struck her playfully for the third time she disappeared into the lake and he never saw her again. She would sometimes reappear to her sons and teach them the powers of healing with herbs and plants. They became skillful physicians, as did their children after them. Some of their ancient remedies have survived and are in the Red Book of Hergest, one of our most important medieval manuscripts. King Arthur King Arthur and his knights regularly appear in our mythology and folklore. Sites throughout Wales are connected with this mighty king and his magician Merlin. Today we are still a leading source of Arthurian literature. The County Library at Mold is home to the world’s largest collection of books on Arthur, comprising nearly 2,000 volumes. In Wales, Arthur’s fame lives on in our everyday place names. Caerfyrddin (Carmarthen) is believed to be Merlin’s birthplace, and is named after him. There’s Maes-y-Camlan or Camlan Field; Bryn y Cleifion (Hill of the Wounded) marks the area where the casualties may have been laid and Nant-y-Saeson (Stream of the Saxons) suggests where Arthur's enemies pitched camp. These place names are not devised to try and prove a point - they are real names, centuries old, part of a community memory which is still alive. The name Arthur comes from the same stem as the Welsh word ‘arth’, meaning bear. He is also supposed to have fought his last battle at Bwlch y Saethau - the Pass of Arrows - which is below Snowdon’s summit and Llyn Llydaw is the lake where Arthur’s sword Excalibur was thrown. On the Gower peninsula stands Arthur’s Stone which is said to be the ‘pebble’ that he removed from his boot on his way to the battle of Camlann in AD 539. He threw the stone over his shoulder and it landed seven miles away on Cefn Bryn Common near Reynoldston. Mabinogion The Mabinogion (pronounced 'Mabin-OGion') is a collection of our medieval tales dating back a thousand years which still have the ability to fascinate and appeal to all. They are regarded by many as a masterpiece of medieval literature and Wales' greatest contribution to European literature. The tales are set in a magical landscape which corresponds geographically to the western coast of Wales and are full of white horses, giants, beautiful, intelligent women and heroic men. Although these characters are long gone, the ancient sites associated with these legends remain. For example, Harlech Castle was where according to the tales of the Mabinogion, Matholwch, King of Ireland, arrived to marry the giant Bendigeidran’s sister Branwen. But the ill fated marriage resulted in warfare between the two countries and the death and carnage broke Branwen’s heart and she was buried on the banks of the river Alaw.
Beddgelert Gelert is the name of a legendary dog associated with the village of Beddgelert (whose name means "Gelert's Grave") in Gwynedd, north-west Wales. The story of Gelert is a variation on the well-worn "Faithful Hound" folk-tale motif, which lives on as an urban legend. It is classified as Aarne-Thompson type 178A. Here, the dog is alleged to have belonged to Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Gwynedd, a gift from King John of England. In this legend, Llywelyn returns from hunting to find his baby missing, the cradle overturned, and the dog with a blood-smeared mouth. Believing the dog savaged the child, Llywelyn draws his sword and kills it. After the dog's dying yelp Llywelyn hears the cries of the baby, unharmed under the cradle, along with a dead wolf which had attacked the child and been killed by Gelert. Llywelyn is then overcome with remorse and he buries the dog with great ceremony, yet he can still hear the dying yelp. After that day Llywelyn never smiles again. Beddgelert From the village of Beddgelert, in the National Park of Snowdonia, comes the tale of Prince Llywelyn. The Prince was very fond of hunting. Although he had many dogs, his favourite was Gelert, as he was fearless in the hunt and also a loyal friend and companion. One day Llewelyn and his wife went out hunting, leaving their baby son with a nurse and a servant to look after him. The nurse and the servant went for a walk in the mountains leaving the baby alone and unprotected. Llewelyn was absorbed in his hunting, but after a while he noticed that Gelert wasn’t with the pack. The Prince knew something was wrong as Gelert was always at the front of the pack. He reasoned that the only place Gelert would go was back to the lodge, so he called off the hunt and headed back home. As the party dismounted, Gelert came running out of the lodge towards his master, covered in blood and wagging his tail. The Princess, calling her child's name, fainted. Llewelyn rushed into the baby's room to find the cradle overturned, the bloodstained bedclothes thrown all over the floor - and no sign of his son. Filled with anger and grief he drew his sword and killed Gelert. As the dog died, his whimpers and his cries were answered by the sound of a baby crying from behind the overturned cradle. When Llewelyn pulled aside the cradle he found his son unharmed and the body of a huge wolf next to him. Gelert had in fact killed the wolf as it tried to attack Llewelyn's son. With huge remorse, Llewelyn buried Gelert in a meadow nearby and marked his grave with a cairn of stones. The village of Beddgelert (Gelert's grave) owes its name to this site. Beddgelert Bronze statue of Gelert
Wales’ Amazing Facts
Wales is unbeatable when it comes to castles. From defensive beginnings and the conflict of Civil War to Tudor banqueting and Victorian decadence, the architectural splendour of these fortresses always stirs the soul. Amazing Facts Уэльс – это то место, где количество замков на квадратную милю выше, чем где-либо в мире.
There are 11,000,000 sheep in Wales. That's 1 person in every 4 sheep in Wales. Amazing Facts Despite its small size, only a fraction over 8,000 sq. miles (slightly larger than the state of New Jersey), and with a population just under 3,000,000, Wales raises more sheep than any other area in Europe. Its 11,000,000 sheep represent about 15 percent of the sheep in the European Community. Because of the relatively poor soil of much of the land and high rainfall, about 80 percent of Wales is designated as "less favored areas" by the European Community. The conditions, however, are ideal for the raising of sheep. Especially famous is Berwyn Lamb, a succulent delicacy raised on the lush, green pastures of the Berwyn Mountains.
The custom of carving and giving Welsh Lovespoons originated in Wales hundreds of years ago. Amazing Facts The lovespoon is a traditional craft that dates back to the seventeenth century. Over generations, decorative carvings were added to the spoon and it lost its original practical use and became a treasured decorative item to be hung on a wall. The earliest known dated lovespoon from Wales, displayed in the St Fagans National History Museum near Cardiff, is from 1667, although the tradition is believed to date back long before that. The earliest dated lovespoon worldwide originates from Germany, and is dated as 1664. The lovespoon was given to a young woman by her suitor. It was important for the girl's father to see that the young man was capable of providing for the family and woodworking. Sailors would often carve lovespoons during their long journeys, which is why anchors would often be incorporated into the carvings. Certain symbols came to have specific meanings: a horseshoe for luck, a cross for faith, bells for marriage, hearts for love, a wheel supporting a loved one and a lock for security, among others. Caged balls indicated the number of children hoped for. Other difficult carvings, such as chains, were as much a demonstration of the carver's skill as a symbolic meaning. Although the Welsh lovespoon is the most famous there are also traditions of lovespoons in Scandinavia and some parts of Eastern Europe, which have their own unique styles and techniques when it comes to the Lovespoon. Today lovespoons are given as wedding and anniversary gifts, as well as birthday, baby gifts, Christmas or Valentine's Day gifts. They are now mostly seen as a folk craft. Centuries ago in Wales, the young lover would also give gifts of sweets or cakes; but they would also give a special, more personal gift to the object of their desire, the Welsh Love Spoon. Some of the early love spoons can be seen on display at the Welsh Folk Museum in Cardiff. There is even one that dates back to 1667. The young man would spend hours carving the spoon with his own hands, in the hope that the girl would accept it. If the girl accepted the spoon, she would demonstrate her interest in him and they would commence on a relationship, which is the origin of the word 'spooning'.
All the modern road signs feature directions in both the Welsh and English languages with the Welsh first in many principal areas. Amazing Facts 23. The world's longest name of any railroad station is on the Isle of Anglesey in Wales. Though trains do not stop there any more, thanks to the drastic curtailment of British rail services in the 1960's, and the village is now by-passed by the main highway to the port of Holyhead, the railway station at Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwyll-llantisiliogogogoch continues to draw a stream of visitors daily. The tiny village now hosts a large store (Pringles) selling mostly woolen goods and souvenirs (including platform tickets imprinted with the station name). Translated, the name reads: the Church of Mary in a white hollow by a hazel tree near a rapid whirlpool by the church of St. Tisilio by a red cave. You can use the short form of the name on your letters to the village: "Llanfairpwllgwyngyll" or simply "Llanfair P.G."
Nothing quite stirs the national pride in Wales like sport. The most popular and beloved, also traditionally believe to be the national sport of Wales is rugby. Amazing Facts In the modern era, regional teams such as the Scarlets, the Ospreys, Newport Gwent Dragons and the Cardiff Blues continue to compete at the highest level of Rugby Union. Rugby teams also inspire a strong pride in our communities at local level. Rugby teams such as Pontypridd, Neath and Bridgend have a proud sporting tradition. Rugby union is the national sport of Wales and is considered a large part of national culture. Rugby is thought to have reached Wales in the 1850s, with the national body, the Welsh Rugby Union (WRU) being formed in 1881. The national team play at the WRU-owned Millennium Stadium, and compete annually in the Six Nations Championship, as well as having competed at every Rugby World Cup. Wales are ranked as a tier-1 nation by the International Rugby Board (IRB). The main domestic competition in Wales is the Guinness Pro12 (historically the Celtic League), in which Wales have four sides in the competition which is also contested by Irish and Scottish clubs and from 2010-11 Italian teams. Top-level Welsh teams also compete in the Europe-wide European Rugby Champions Cup and European Rugby Challenge Cup and alongside the teams of England's Aviva Premiership in the Anglo-Welsh Cup. Wales also competes as one of the 12 "core teams" in the annual IRB Sevens World Series, and won the 2009 Rugby World Cup Sevens.
The world's biggest liars are getting ready to take part in a famous Cumbrian contest which dates back to the 19th Century. Amazing Facts The annual event was inspired by the tall tales of a publican called Will Ritson. Every November competitors tell their biggest lies in an attempt to follow in the footsteps of 'Auld Will'. Previous winners include TV star Sue Perkins who won the contest in 2006 with an unusual tale about sheep. TRUTHS ABOUT THE BIGGEST LIAR The famous Cumbrian publican Will Ritson lived between 1808 and 1890. Politicians and members of the legal profession are banned from taking part as "they are too practised in the art". Entrants are given a minimum of two minutes, a maximum of five minutes and dialects are permitted. Worldwide liars Any contestant winning for three consecutive years is automatically excluded from entry for one year. The winner is referred to as "The World's Biggest Liar" for as long as they hold the title. Although the competition is unique to Cumbria, competitors are invited from all over the world. Lying tips Previous winners have provided some excellent advice on how to win the contest. Two time winner Mike Naylor says "In 2004 I told a story about the flooding of Wasdale Valley and that all the sheep turned into fish." James Mason, who won the contest in 1998, says "Keep your cool and keep your story a secret. It's a great atmosphere on the night but it can be overwhelming to newcomers." I undertook a rigorous and physically demanding routine. I ran up all the fells in Wasdale - all 16 - and toured all the pubs in Cumbria over a period of two weeks to soak up the jokes and anecdotes. Howard Christie, 1997 winner Seven times winner Nobody has been as successful as seven time title holder, John 'Johnny Liar' Graham. John managed to clinch the 2008 title when he impressed the judges with a suspect story of an adventurous trip to Whitehaven that saw him ride the depths of the ocean on his horse, Daisy and fly back by utilising a giant skate. "I was chuffed to bits to be crowned champ again," said Johnny. "It was a great turn out on the night with some stiff competition. I'll certainly be back to defend my title this year - as long as I keep winning, I'll keep turning up."
One-fifth of all Wales is a national park called Snowdonia. Amazing Facts Snowdonia (Welsh: Eryri) is a region in north Wales and a national park of 823 square miles (2,130 km2) in area. It was the first to be designated of the three national parks in Wales, in 1951. The English name for the area derives from Snowdon, which is the highest mountain in Wales at 3,560 ft (1,085 m). In Welsh, the area is named Eryri. One assumption is that the name is derived from eryr ("eagle"), but others state that it means quite simply Highlands, as leading Welsh scholar Sir Ifor Williams proved. In the Middle Ages the title Prince of Wales and Lord of Snowdonia (Tywysog Cymru ac Arglwydd Eryri) was used by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd; his grandfather Llywelyn Fawr used the title Prince of north Wales and Lord of Snowdonia. Snowdonia National Park (Welsh: Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri) was established in 1951 as the third national park in Britain, following the Peak District and the Lake District. It covers 827 square miles (2,140 km2), and has 37 miles (60 km) of coastline.
Bartholomew Roberts was a Welsh pirate known the most successful pirate of the Golden Age of Piracy, as measured by vessels captured, taking over 470 prizes in his career. He is also known as Black Bart, but this name was never used in his lifetime. Amazing Facts Bartholomew Roberts (17 May 1682 – 10 February 1722), born John Roberts, was a Welsh pirate who raided ships off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722. He was the most successful pirate of the Golden Age of Piracy, as measured by vessels captured, taking over 470 prizes in his career. He is also known as Black Bart (Welsh: Barti Ddu), but this name was never used in his lifetime, and also risks confusion with Black Bart of the American West.
In 1968 The Royal Mint began to move its operations from Tower Hill in the City of London to Llantrisant, Mid Glamorgan, Wales, and has operated on a single site in Llantrisant since 1980. Amazing Facts Чеканка монет в Лондоне начата римлянами. В 388 году чеканка римских монет прекращена. В 650 году в Лондоне начата чеканка англосаксонских монет по образцу монет Меровингов. В Великобритании в разное время действовало почти до сотни монетных дворов. История современного монетного двора исчисляется с 886 года. Более 500 лет двор располагался в замке Тауэр, затем был переведён в переоборудованное для него здание аббатства Св. Марии. В 1968 году двор переведён в Ллантрисант (южный Уэльс). В 2009 году двор преобразован в компанию Royal Mint Ltd., капитал которой принадлежит Королевскому казначейству.
A monastery was established at Bangor in about AD 560 by Saint Dunod and was an important religious center in the 5th and 6th centuries. Amazing Facts A monastery was established at Bangor in about AD 560 by Saint Dunod and was an important religious centre in the 5th and 6th centuries. This monastery was destroyed in about AD 616 when Æthelfrith of Northumbria defeated the Kingdom of Powys at the Battle of Chester. The scholar Bede wrote that 1200 monks were slaughtered before the attack. More than a millennium later, the massacre was recounted in a poem entitled "The Monks of Bangor's March" by Walter Scott, and put to music by Ludwig van Beethoven. Today no trace of the monastery remains and even its site is uncertain. The settlement at Bangor is nevertheless likely to have continued after this date, although it was not mentioned in the Domesday Book. A village was certainly in existence by 1300, when the present church is believed to have been built. By the late 1690s, the historian Edward Lhuyd recorded that the village still had only 26 houses, but by the end of the 19th century it had significantly expanded, including a free school, coaching inn, a shop, further houses and a brewery. Монастырь Бангор-он-Ди (Bangor-on-Dee) недалеко от Врексама является старейшим в Британии. Он был основан в 560 году. The five-arched stone arch bridge across the River Dee dates from about 1660 and it is believed to have been built by Inigo Jones. A 1903 suspension bridge by David Rowell & Co. is nearby at Pickhill Meadows.
Chepstow Castle is the oldest surviving post-Roman stone fortification in Britain. Amazing Facts Самый старый сохранившийся каменный замок в Британии Chepstow Castle, Monmouthshire. Его строительство было начато в 1067 году, больше чем на 100 лет раньше, чем Виндзорский замок был перестроен в камень (1170). Chepstow Castle (Welsh: Cas-gwent), located in Chepstow, Monmouthshire in Wales, on top of cliffs overlooking the River Wye, is the oldest surviving post-Roman stone fortification in Britain. Its construction was begun under the instruction of the Norman Lord William fitzOsbern, soon made Earl of Hereford, from 1067, and it was the southernmost of a chain of castles built along the English–Welsh border in the Welsh Marches. The castle ruins are Grade I listed as at 6 December 1950.
The Great Glasshouse or The National Botanic Garden of Wales is situated in the Towy Valley Amazing Facts The Great Glasshouse The National Botanic Garden of Wales (NBGW) is situated near Llanarthney in the Towy Valley, Carmarthenshire, Wales. The garden is both a visitor attraction and a centre for botanical research and conservation, and features the world's largest single-span glasshouse measuring 110 m (360 ft) long by 60 m (200 ft) wide. (Большая теплица) в Национальном Ботаническом Саду Уэльса является самой крупной однокупольной теплицей в мире. Её размер – 95 на 55 метров и она служит укрытием для более чем 1000 видов растений.
Here are a few famous Welsh people you might know. Amazing Facts Среди известных американцев, которые по происхождению хотя бы частично валлийцы, стоит упомянуть: президентов Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Abraham Lincoln, Calvin Coolidge, но так же William Penn (основал Пенсильванию), Jack Daniel (для любителей виски фамилия знакомая), J. P. Morgan (банк), архитектор Frank Lloyd Wright, летчик и продюсер фильмов Howard Hughes (жизнь которого была обессмерчена в фильме «Авиатор»), сенатор Hillary Rodham Clinton, и Голливудский актер Tom Cruise. Для страны с населением только в 3 миллиона человек, местная земля оказывается очень плодородной на знаменитостей. Среди звезд и селебрити, которые родом из Уэльса стоит назвать таких, как Кэтрин Зета Джонс, Ричард Бартон, Сэр Энтони Хопкинс, Том Джонс, Тимоти Далтон, Шарлот Черч.
From legendary crooners and icons of cinema to cutting-edge comedians and one of the finest poets ever, Wales has produced abundant talent in entertainment. Famous Welsh Для страны с населением только в 3 миллиона человек, местная земля оказывается очень плодородной на знаменитостей. Среди звезд и селебрити, которые родом из Уэльса стоит назвать таких, как Кэтрин Зета Джонс, Ричард Бартон, Сэр Энтони Хопкинс, Том Джонс, Тимоти Далтон, Шарлот Черч.
Dylan Thomas Dylan Thomas Square, Maritime Quarter, Swansea, 1984 Dylan Thomas POET BIRTHDAY October 27, 1914 BIRTHPLACE Wales DEATH DATE Nov 9, 1953 (age 39) ABOUT Important Welsh modernist poet and author who is known for such famous works as Do not go gentle into that good night and Under Milk Wood. His numerous collections include The Map of Love (poems) and Rebecca's Daughters (prose). BEFORE FAME He had an undistinguished academic career at Swansea Grammar School, save for his work as editor of the school's literary publication. TRIVIA He read and performed his poetic works throughout the United States during the early 1950s. Tragically, he died at the young age of thirty-nine while on the New York leg of his American literary tour. FAMILY LIFE The son of a schoolteacher and a seamstress, he married Caitlin Macnamara in 1937. Macnamara later wrote two autobiographies detailing the couple's shared alcoholism and destructive marriage. ASSOCIATED WITH He was greatly influenced by the work of Thomas Hardy.
Roald Dahl Roald Dahl's work is being celebrated in a set of special stamps. The set of six Royal Mail stamps, which also depict the work of illustrator Quentin Blake whose drawings are synonymous with Dahl's stories, feature six of the author's best-loved novels. One of Dahl's most famous tales, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, appears with a beaming Charlie Bucket on the 46p first-class stamp. Other stamps feature favourites Fantastic Mr Fox (66p), James and the Giant Peach(68p), Matilda (76p), The Twits (£1) and The Witches (£1.10). The 30th anniversary of The BFG (Big Friendly Giant), another one of Dahl's hugely popular characters, is marked by a special sheet of four stamps all of which feature scenes from the story. Roald Dahl AUTHOR BIRTHDAY September 13, 1916 BIRTHPLACE Wales DEATH DATE Nov 23, 1990 (age 74) ABOUT Welsh-born novelist, screenwriter, and fighter pilot who authored such children's classics as James and the Giant Peach, The BFG, and Matilda. Many of his popular books, including The Witches, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, and Fantastic Mr. Fox, have been made into feature films. BEFORE FAME He was involved in what he called the "Great Mouse Plot of 1924," in which he and a few other boys put a dead mouse in a jar of gobstoppers inside "a loathsome" woman's candy store. The conspirators were later caught by the school principal and struck with a cane, and Dahl was sent to boarding school. In 1939, Dahl became a pilot with the Royal Air Force. TRIVIA His family gave him a Viking funeral, placing chocolates, a power saw, pencils, and his snooker cues in his coffin. FAMILY LIFE He grew up in Cardiff, Wales as the son of Norwegian-born parents. When his thirty-year marriage to actress Patricia Neal ended in divorce, Dahl wed second wife, Felicity Crosland. Dahl's first marriage produced five children: Olivia, Chantal, Theo, Ophelia, and Lucy. ASSOCIATED WITH Johnny Depp played Willy Wonka in the 2008 film adaptation of Dahl's book, Charlie And The Chocolate Factory.
Christian Bale Oscar Academy Award, People’s Choice Award, Critics Choice Movie Award, Golden Globe Award, Screen Actors Guild Award, MTV Movie Award. Christian Bale MOVIE ACTOR BIRTHDAY January 30, 1974 BIRTHPLACE Wales AGE 41 years old ABOUT Actor who won over 30 Best Supporting Actor awards and the British Actor of the Year Award for his role in in the 2010 film, The Fighter. His roles as serial killer Patrick Bateman and Trevor Reznik earned him critical acclaim. BEFORE FAME He made appearances on television commercials when he was eight years old and was soon discovered and casted by Steven Spielberg. He made his debut in the 1986 TV film, Anastasia: The Mystery of Anna. TRIVIA He gave an amazing performance as Batman, the character which has been played by many movie stars including Michael Keaton, Val Kilmer, and Adam West. FAMILY LIFE He married actress Winona Ryder's make-up artist and personal assistant in January 2000. His parents are David and Jenny Bale and he has a daughter named Emmeline. ASSOCIATED WITH He starred in a Midsummer's Night Dream with Calista Flockhart.
Luke Evans Luke Evans as Bard, who possesses the last black arrow capable of killing the dragon Smaug (played through performance-capture technology by Benedict Cumberbatch), smuggling Thorin Oakenshield (Richard Armitage) and his company of dwarves into Lake-town — one step closer to reclaiming their homeland. But Bard’s decision to help Thorin and his company inadvertently leads to the destruction of his home after the dwarves unleash the dragon’s wrath. Luke Evans MOVIE ACTOR BIRTHDAY April 15, 1979 BIRTHPLACE Wales AGE 35 years old ABOUT Welsh action star who became known for his roles in the 2011 films, Immortals and The Three Musketeers. As a stage actor, he performed in Rent, Piaf, and Miss Saigon. BEFORE FAME He launched his acting career in the London Stage productions of Avenue Q, Rent and Miss Saigon. TRIVIA He has played the Greek Gods Zeus and Apollo in separate films. FAMILY LIFE He was raised as an only child and as of 2012, has not been married. ASSOCIATED WITH He co-starred in the 2012 thriller, The Raven, with John Cusack.
Duffy Duffy. Singer, songwriter and rising soul star enchanted the world with her lyrics and incredible voice. She reveals her life in genuine songs. She’s young but already has the world at her feet. Don’t compare her to other singers, she’s different, she’s real, and she’s the new soul queen. The star is born. Duffy SINGER BIRTHDAY June 23, 1984 BIRTHPLACE Wales AGE 30 years old ABOUT British soul and pop singer and songwriter. She won a Grammy Award for Rockferry, her 2008 United Kingdom chart-topping debut album. BEFORE FAME She attended the University of Chester, studying at both the Warrington and Parkgate campuses. Her first EP, Aimee Duffy, was released in 2004. TRIVIA She released her second album, Endlessly, in 2010. FAMILY LIFE She was born in Wales to a Welsh mother and a British father. Her birth name was Amie Ann Duffy; she later adopted the stage names of Duffy and Aimee Duffy. ASSOCIATED WITH From 2009-2011, she was romantically involved with Welsh-born rugby player Mike Phillips.
Wales is known for great poets, musicians, actors and explorers. Do the following puzzle and guess the name of the famous Welsh person. 1. 2. 4. 3. 8. 6. 9. 10. 11. 13. 12. 5. 7. Wales’s national sport. One of the two official languages in Wales. The highest mountain in Wales. The capital of Wales. An ancient European people. The animal on the Welsh flag. The English king built many castles in Wales. Wales’s patron saint. Wales’s national emblem. A popular Welsh souvenir is a love ______. Hen Wlad Fy Nhaday is the national _____ of Wales. The name of present Prince of Wales. The national holiday of Wales is celebrated on 1st of _____.
Colonel Sir George Everest (1790 — 1866) was a Welsh surveyor and geographer. He surveyed India fromsouthern India extending north to Nepal, a distance of about 2,400 km. In 1865, Mount Everest was named in his honour despite his objections by the Royal Geographical Society. This enormous peak was surveyed by Everest's successor, Andrew Scott Waugh, in his role as the Surveyor-General of India.
Thank you for your attention! And remember…
Краткое описание документа:
Цикл лингвострановедческих викторин «Великобритания» включает в себя:
1) Вводное мероприятие “What is it like to be British?”.
2) Лингвострановедческая викторина «Англия, страна туманов и вековых традиций».
3) Лингвострановедческая викторина «Шотландия, страна замков и приведений».
4) Лингвострановедческая викторина «Уэльс, страна песен и легенд».
Мероприятие построено в форме Вопрос-ответ(ы). Каждый вопрос сопровождается слайдом с развернутым ответом по теме. Интерактивная форма данного мероприятия дает возможность проявить себя каждому ученику, узнать много нового и интересного по изучаемому предмету.
5) Лингвострановедческая викторина «Ирландия, страна кельтов».
Цикл рассчитан на старших школьников (мероприятия написаны полностью на английском языке).