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Аннотация Данная презентация предназначена для учащихся 9 классов к уроку чтения «Robin Mac Wizard’s Diary» (учебник Happy English К.И.Кауфман, М.Ю.Кауфман). Презентация содержит краткий исторический материал с иллюстрациями. Цель: познакомить учащихся с условиями жизни первых переселенцев английских колоний в Америке. Задачи: совершенствование навыков аудирования и чтения с целью извлечения необходимой информации, навыков устной речи.
Background Pilgrims is a name used for first settlers in America. The Pilgrims strongly believed that the Church of England, and the Catholic Church, had strayed beyond Christ's teachings, and established religious rituals, and church hierarchies, that went against the teachings of the Bible. This belief put them at odds with church officials, who in the early years of King James I tried to have them arrested and thrown in jail for refusing to participate in church rituals. The Pilgrims held similar Calvinist religious beliefs to the Puritans but unlike many Puritans, maintained that their congregations needed to be separated from the English state church. For this reason, many of the Pilgrims fled to Leiden, Holland, where there was religious freedom. However, the Pilgrims had difficulty adjusting to the more permissive Dutch culture, and had difficulty supporting themselves financially. So they wanted to move to the New World for more freedom.
Mayflower The Mayflower was hired in London, and sailed from London to Southampton in July 1620 to begin loading food and supplies for the voyage--much of which was purchased at Southampton. The Pilgrims were mostly still living in the city of Leiden, in the Netherlands. They hired a ship called the Speedwell to take them from Delfshaven, the Netherlands, to Southampton, England, to meet up with the Mayflower.
Passengers There were 102 passengers and the crew on board the ship. The passengers were a really unusual group of people. Most of them left home for a very important reason: religion. They called themselves the Saints of the Holy Discipline, or just the Saints. The Saints called the other passengers "strangers". The Strangers had come with them for different reasons: some hoped to get rich, some wanted the chance of a better life and some were just running away from Britain to save their lives. Aboard the Mayflower were many stores that supplied the pilgrims with the essentials needed for their journey and future lives. It is assumed that among these stores, they would have carried tools and weapons, including cannon, shot, and gunpowder; as well as some live animals, including dogs, sheep, goats, and poultry
Route Finally, on September 6, the Mayflower departed from Plymouth, England, and headed for America. By the time the Pilgrims had left England, they had already been living onboard the ships for nearly a month and a half. The Pilgrims intended to land in Northern Virginia, which at the time included the region as far north as the Hudson River in the modern State of New York. The Hudson River, in fact, was their originally intended destination. They had received good reports on this region while in the Netherlands. . All things considered, the Mayflower was almost right on target, missing the Hudson River by just a few degrees.
Crossing the Atlantic Initially the trip went smoothly, but under way they were met with strong winds and storms. One of these caused a main beam to crack, and although they were more than half the way to their destination, the possibility of turning back was considered. Using a "great iron screw" (probably a jack to be used for house construction or a cider press) brought along by the colonists, they repaired the ship sufficiently to continue. One passenger, John Howland, was washed overboard in the storm but caught a top-sail halyard trailing in the water and was pulled back on board. One crew member and one passenger died before they reached land. A child was born at sea and named Oceanus.
Arrival in America On November 9, 1620, after 66 days of sailing they sighted land, which was present-day Cape Cod. After several days of trying to sail south to their planned destination of theColony of Virginia where they had already obtained permission from the Company of Merchant Adventurers to settle, strong winter seas forced them to return to the harbor at Cape Cod hook, well north of the intended area, where they anchored on November 11.
Landing They were obviously not prepared for the bitter winter weather they encountered on their reconnoiter, the Mayflower passengers not being accustomed to winter weather much colder than back home. Due to the bad weather encountered on the expedition, they were forced to spend the night ashore ill-clad in below-freezing temperatures with wet shoes and stockings that became frozen. Bradford wrote "some of our people that are dead took the original of their death here".
Plymouth Settlement The settlers explored the snow-covered area and discovered an empty native village, now known as Corn Hill in Truro. The curious settlers dug up some artificially made mounds. They explored the area of Cape Cod for several weeks, looting and stealing native stores as they went. The Pilgrims spent the next month and a half exploring Cape Cod, trying to decide where they would build their plantation. On December 25, 1620, they had finally decided upon Plymouth, and began construction of their first buildings.
Mayflower Compact Saints and Strangers signed an agreement which they called the Mayflower Compact promising cooperation among the settlers "for the general good of the Colony into which they promised submission and obedience." John Carver was chosen as the colony's first governor. The Mayflower Compact was the seed of American democracy and has been called the world's first written constitution.
Thanksgiving Day Life in Plymouth settlement was getting better. The people worked hard and got a great harvest next year. Because the New World had been so kind to them and the harvest was so good the pilgrims decided to celebrate and give thanks to God and to the Indians who had been helping them. So they were getting ready for the day they were calling Thanksgiving. That was the beginning of new traditions of modern America.
Role in History The Pilgrim ship Mayflower has a famous place in American history as a symbol of early European colonization of the future United States. The main record for the voyage of the Mayflower and the disposition of the Plymouth Colony comes from the letters and journal of William Bradford, who was a guiding force and later the governor of the colony.
Places to Commemorate The National Monument to the Forefathers, formerly known as the Pilgrim Monument, commemorates the Mayflower Pilgrims. Dedicated on August 1, 1889, it honors their ideals as later generally embraced by the United States. It is thought to be the world's largest solid granite monument, and is the fourth-tallest statue in the United States. Plymouth Rock is the traditional site of disembarkation of William Bradford and the Mayflower Pilgrims who founded Plymouth Colony in 1620. It is an important symbol in American history.
Places to Commemorate Plimouth Plantation Museum. This excellent living history museum consists of a historical recreation of Plymouth Colony as it existed in 1627, complete with role-playing Pilgrims and historic breeds of livestock. There is a Wampanoag Homesite where visitors can meet modern-day Wampanoag and see examples of native houses, crafts, agriculture, and lifeways. The museum also maintains the Mayflower II, a full-scale replica of theMayflower anchored just a short distance from Plymouth Rock, as well as the Jenny Grist Mill in Plymouth. Pilgrim Hall Museum. This museum in downtown Plymouth houses most all surviving Mayflower relics, including the Peregrine White cradle, the portrait of Edward Winslow, the Bible of William Bradford, the sword of Myles Standish, the original 1621 Pierce Patent, and numerous other artifacts ranging from dishes, to furniture, to maps and books, and even a few surviving articles of clothing including a beaver hat that once belonged to Constance Hopkins.
Questions 1.When did the first pilgrims come to America? 2.How did they get there? 3.How long did it take them to get the shores of America? 4.Was the journey pleasant or dangerous? 5.Did all the people reach the shores of America safe? 6.Why did they decide to leave England for America? 7.How did Indians help the first settlers? 8.Was the voyage important for modern America? 9. What places to commemorate the event are known? 10.What things to commemorate the event can you name?
Resources http://mayflowerhistory.com http://mayflowersteps.co.uk http://en.wikipedia.org www.archive.ru www.e-reading.club www.days.people.ru www.gumer.info www.ru.wikipedia.org www.planetguide,ru www.graceel.ru www.umedia.ru www.kinopoisk.ru www.portalostranah.ru http://discover-history.com http://plus.google.com http://news.putc.org http://historylearningsite.com.uk www.yandex.images.ru учебник Happy English для 9 классов К.И.Кауфман, М.Ю.Кауфман- Обнинск: 2012
Данный ресурс представляет собой презентацию для учащихся 9 класса к уроку чтения Robin MacWizard's Diary учебника Happy English К.Кауфман, М.Кауфман издательства "Титул".
Материал содержит описание исторического путешествия первых переселенцев к берегам Америки на основе текста учебника, а также различных источников Интернета и подкреплен иллюстрациями. Презентация создана для совершенствования навыков аудирования и чтения с целью извлечения конкретной информации, навыков устной речи и имеет своей целью расширение страноведческих знаний.
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