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One of the most original of the Russian 20th-century poets, whose literary rehabilitation began in the 1960s. Tsvetaeva's disciplined poetry arose from her own contradictory personality, eccentricity and highly controlled use of language. Among her innumerable themes were female sexuality and the tension between women's private emotions and their public roles. She lived in exile in the 1920s and 1930s because of her political views. After returning to the Soviet Union and being ostracized by the literary community she committed suicide in 1941.
Marina Tsvetaeva was born in Moscow. Her father, Ivan Tsvetayev, was a professor of art history and the founder of the Museum of Fine Arts. Her mother Mariya, née Meyn, was a talented concert pianist. The family travelled a great deal and Tsvetaeva attended schools in Switzerland, Germany, and at the Sorbonne, Paris. Tsvetaeva started to write verse in her early childhood. She made her debut as a poet at the age of 18 with the collection Evening Album, a tribute to her childhood.
In 1912 Tsvetaeva married Sergei Efron, they had two daughters and one son. Magic Lantern showed her technical mastery and was followed in 1913 by a selection of poems from her first collections. The poems composed between 1917 and 1921 appeared in 1957 under the title The Demesne of the Swans.
In 1922 Tsvetaeva emigrated with her family to Berlin, where she rejoined her husband, and then to Prague. This was a highly productive period in her life - she published five collections of verse and a number of narrative poems, plays, and essays. She blended elements from Orthodox prayers and folklore with modernist idiom, and often sought inspiration from the 18th century and the (Russian) romantic age, from which she adopted the idea of the poet as a rebel or an outcast: "We are poets, which has the sound of outcast," she once wrote. Molodets (the swain), completed in Czechoslovakia in the late 1922, was her second fairy tale in verse and was widely reviewed by the émigré press. Tsvetaeva and Natal'ia Goncharova, who drew illustrations for it, tried in vain to publish it in French. Le Gars, based on this Russian work, was published in Paris in 1986.
In exile Tsvetaeva felt more and more isolated. Friendless and almost destitute she returned to the Soviet Union in 1938, where her son and husband already lived. Next year her husband was executed and her daughter was sent to a labor camp. Tsvetaeva was officially ostracized and unable to publish. After the USSR was invaded by German Army in 1941, Tsvetaeva was evacuated to the small provincial town of Elabuga with her son. In despair, she hanged herself ten days later on August 31, 1941. She had written in 1922 in 'The Tsar-Maiden': "I am nowhere. / I've vanished in no land. / Nobody catches up with me. / Nothing will bring me back."
Tsvetaeva left behind a great body of work, that broke new ground for women poets. In her poems Tsvetaeva used characters from the Bible, heroines of the classical mythology, and Russian folklore and history. She experimented with many styles, and her collection Razluka (1922, separation) impressed the poet Andrey Bely so that he wrote one of his collections in Tsvetaeva's style.
Selected works: VECHERNII AL'BOM, 1910 VOLSHEBNYI FONAR', 1912 IZ DVUKH KNIG, 1913 VERSTY, VYPUSK I, 1922 RAZLUKA, 1922 STIKHI K BLOKU, 1922 TSAR'-DEVITSA, 1922 KONETS KAZANOVY, 1922 REMESLO, 1923 PSIKHEIA, 1923 MOLODETS, 1924 KRYSOLOV, 1925 POSLE ROSSII, 1928 - After Russia PROZA, 1953
LEBEDINYI STAN, 1957 - The Demesne of the Swan IZBRANNOE, 1961 IZBRANNYE PROIZVEDENIIA, 1965 PROSTO SERDTSE, 1967 MOI PUSHKIN, 1969 STIKHHOTVERENIIA, 1969 PROZA, 1969 PIS'MA K ANNE TESKOVOI, 1969 PIS'MA K RAZNYM LITSAM, 1969 Selected Poems, 1971 (trans. by E. Feinstein) NEIZDANNYE PIS'MA, 1972 NEIZDANNOE, STIKHI, TEATR, PROZA, 1976 METEL'. PRIKLIUCHENIE. ARIADNA. P'ESY, 1978 IZBRANNAIA PROZA 1917-1937, 1979 (2 vols.)
STIKHOTVORENIIA I POEMY, 1979 STIKHOTVERENIIA I POEMY, 1980 A Captive Spirit: Selected Prose, 1980 SOCHINENIIA, 1980 (2 vols.) STIKHOTVERENIIA I POEMY, 1980-1990 (5 vols.) Three Russian Woman Poets: Anna Akhmatova, Marina Tsvevaeva, Bella Akhmadulina, 1983 Rainer Maria Rilke, Marina Zwetajewa, Boris Pasternak: Briefwechsel, 1983 - Boris Pasternak, Marina Tsevtaeva, Rainer Maria Rilke: Letters, Summer 1926 STIKHOTVORENIIA, 1986 Selected Poems, 1987 TEATR, 1988
"POKLNIS' MOSKVU, 1989 In the Inmost Hour of the Soul, 1989 SOBRANIE SOCHINENII, 1990 (3 vols.) PIS'MA K ARIADNE BERG (1934-1939), 1990 V POLEMIKE S VEKOM, 1991 SIVILLA, 1991 GDE OTSTYPAETSIA LIUBOV'., 1991 OB ISKUSSTVE, 1991 AVTOBIOGRAFICHESKAIA PROZA, 1991 POEMY, 1992 Art in the Light of Conscience, 1992 SOBRANIE SOCHINENII, 1994-95 (7 vols.) PIS'MA K DOCHERI, 1995 PIS'MA K ANATOLIIU SHTEIGERU, 1995
Tasks: 1. True, false or no information? - Marina Tsvetaeva was born in Kiev. - The family didn`t travell a great deal . - She made her debut as a poet at the age of 18 - They had two daughters and one son. - In 1922 Tsvetaeva emigrated with her family to Berlin. - Tsvetaeva was evacuated to the small provincial town of Elabuga with her husband.
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