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There are many types of animals that have their own habitat and it isn't all frozen. The animals vary in size and characteristics
Arctic Fox (полярный песец)
The arctic foxes are well adapted for the cold harsh weather of the Arctic. The arctic fox can hunt lemming but if the arctic fox can't kill enough to eat, it will settle for leftovers (объедки) from other animals. Live in Northern and western Alaska, Russia, and Greenland; a few records indicate presence farther south.
Interesting Facts The arctic fox has the warmest fur, even warmer than the polar bear and arctic wolf. Arctic fox feed primarily on small mammals (млекопитающиеся), including lemmings and tundra voles (полевка), also seabirds such as puffins (буревестники), and murres (кайры).
Interesting Facts Arctic fox can be either gray-blue or white. As summer begins, the arctic fox sheds its white coat for a brown one. Foxes of the blue coloring remain dark colored all year but become a little lighter in winter.
Interesting Facts Hunting: Arctic fox walk along on top of the snow listening for the small creatures under the snow. When they hear one they jump up and down to break through the snow with their front paws. Once the snow is broken they can grab their prey (добыча).
Caribou (карибу) [ˈkærɪbu:]
The caribou is a member of the deer family. Although the caribou looks like a deer, they are different from other members of their family in many ways. They are capable of sleeping in water, and are herd (стадо) animals that are always on the move. This tamable (укротимый) animal likes to eat moss (мох) and lay in the shade.
Interesting Facts They live throughout the arctic tundra of Russia, Alaska, Canada and Greenland. Eat moss and lichen (лишайники). Caribous are wild, if they are domesticated they are called reindeer [ˈreɪndɪə]. Eurasians do not use the name caribou at all, they use the terms wild and domestic reindeer.
Interesting Facts When the caribou eats, the food goes down to the caribou’s first stomach, where it is mashed into small balls called cud and stored to eat at the caribou’s next meal.
Interesting Facts The caribou has a very warm very soft fur that sheds (сбрасывать, избавляться) water and snow. The caribou population kept dropping because of overhunting until laws were passed to protect it. The caribou is color blind Caribou eat large quantities of food to increase their internal heat production.
The lemming is one of the most interesting Arctic animals because of how it has adapted to the cold Arctic temperatures. It is a small rodent (грызун) that burrows under the snow or ground making extensive runways. The lemming grows enlarged claws on the third and fourth 'fingers' of its front feet.
Interesting Facts The lemming has smaller ears and tails than other rodents. The lemming is the only true rodent that turns white in the winter. Live only in the Arctic tundra. In summer their main foods are shoots (побеги) of grasses and shrubs (кусты). During the winter they eat bark and twigs (ветки) off willow (ива) and birch (береза).
Interesting Facts They build their nests with dry grasses, feathers, and fur. The number of lemmings reduces and grows depending on how much food (plants) is available. The collared lemming is so important as a food source in the Arctic.
Polar Bear (белый медведь)
Polar bears live only in the northern Arctic where they spend most of their time on ice floes (ледники). They are the largest land meat-eater in the world and the largest of the bear family. They are well suited to the cold Arctic ice and snow.
Interesting Facts The polar bear has many unique adaptations for dealing with the Arctic cold. The polar bear's skin is actually black, which allows it to soak up as much heat as possible from the sun. They are also great swimmers. They have been seen swimming 50 miles away from any ice or land.
Interesting Facts Eats mostly seals (тюлень). They will occasionally eat other mammals, eggs, vegetation and carrion (падаль). Polar bears don't drink water. They get all the liquids that they need from the animals that they eat. Polar bears find a seal air hole and sneak up on (красться) it slowly and sit there until a seal comes up to breathe and then they scoop (копать, вычерпывать) him right out of the hole. Polar bears are usually solitary (одинокий)
Interesting Facts Polar bear hide (шкура) is very useful it can be used as clothing, rugs, and blankets (одеяла). Polar bear meat can also be eaten.
Walrus (морж) [ˈwɔ:lrəs]
Walruses are pinnipeds (ластоногие). Walruses are the largest pinnipeds in the Arctic and Subarctic areas. They like to live in shallow water by ice floes or land. There are two types of walrus - the Pacific and the Atlantic. The walrus migrate in the spring and fall following the food.
Interesting Facts Distinguishing Characteristics: Tusks (клыки), whiskers, and sounds they make. Eat clams (моллюски), snails, crabs, shrimp and worms. You can tell how old a walrus is by the number of rings you can find in a cross-section of its teeth. Most walrus don't die from old age but from hunting. The longer the walrus tusk is the more important their rank in their group.
Interesting Facts Walrus walk on all four fins. He can even move on land as fast as a man can run. The walrus' skin is very wrinkly (морщинистый). These wrinkles are like armor and protect the walrus. Living in the Arctic is not hard for the walrus to do because they have blubber under their skin. Blubber is their body fat.
Interesting Facts The walrus have big whiskers. They use their whiskers to feel around until they find food. The arctic people use the walrus for many things. The meat is eaten by the villagers and fed to the dogs.They use the ivory tusks and carve (вырезать) beautiful pictures on them and make a lot of different objects with them like necklaces (ожерелья).
Wolverine (росомаха) [ˈwulvəri:n]
Despite it’s name, the wolverine is not related to the wolf. The wolverine is related to the weasel (ласка) and like most weasels the wolverine is scarcely seen. There are people who have spent years in the Alaskan wild and never seen one. Although you may not see them, you can smell them because like most weasels the wolverine has glands that it often uses to mark territory. The wolverine is very fierce, fearless and protective of it’s young.
Interesting Facts The wolverine doesn’t eat more than he needs. If he kills a caribou or bear he will bury it. Later he will come back and finish it. Although the Alaska natives don’t let any part of the wolverine go to waste, they prize the soft warm fur to keep them warm in subzero temperatures.
Interesting Facts The wolverine has bad eyesight, is slow, and clumsy (неуклюжий). The wolverines bad eyesight and slow pace requires it to hunt in an ambush (засада) type way. Going as fast as possible helps the wolverine stay on top of the snow. This MUST be done or it can’t cover the distance it has to for finding food.
These mammals are well adapted to live in the water for a good portion of their lives, but they are capable of moving about on land. Seals are much more vulnerable (уязвимый) to predators (хищники) when not in the water. There are many species of seals living in the tundra biome, including harp, gray, Weddell, elephant and ribbon seals.
Interesting Facts Eat shellfish (моллюски) and smaller fish. Arctic seals have thick layers of fat called blubber that protects their internal organs from coldThe fur is thick but short. Seals can hold their breath for a long time underwater and dive very deep by letting air out of their lungs.
Interesting Facts Harp, ribbon, ringed, leopard and spotted seals are named for the different markings they have on their coats. After molting (линька), harp seals usually have a distinctive black harp (вееробразный) pattern. Ribbon seals and ringed seals have lighter marks on their dark coats. Leopard seals have dark spots on their tan (жёлто-коричневый) or brown coats, and spotted seals have light gray or white spots on dark gray or black coats.
Interesting Facts Seals are different from sea lions in specific ways. Sea lions can walk on their back flippers, but seals pull themselves over land using only their front flippers. Sea lions also have flaps (заслонка) that cover their ears, but seals' ears are flat (плотно прилегающий) to their head without flaps. Having flat ears enables seals to swim faster.
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