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Terra Australis incognita
Australia has six states— New South Wales (NSW), Queensland (QLD), South Australia (SA), Tasmania (TAS), Victoria(VIC) and Western Australia (WA)— and two major mainland territories— the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and the Northern Territory (NT). In most respects these two territories function as states, but the Commonwealth Parliament can override any legislation of their parliaments.
Flags of Australia The flag of Australia is a defaced Blue Ensign: a blue field with the Union Jack in the canton (upper hoist quarter), and a large white seven-pointed star known as the Commonwealth Star in the lower hoist quarter. The fly contains a representation of the Southern Cross constellation, made up of five white stars – one small five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars. The Southern Cross is one of the most distinctive constellations visible in the Southern Hemisphere, and has been used to represent Australia since the early days of British settlement The Australian Aboriginal Flag is a flag that represents Indigenous Australians. It is one of the official "Flags of Australia", and holds special legal and political status, but it is not the "Australian National Flag". It was designed in 1971 by Aboriginal artist Harold Thomas, who is descended from the Luritja people of Central Australia and holds intellectual property rights in the flag's design. The flag was originally designed for the land rights movement, and it became a symbol of the Aboriginal people of Australia. Black: Represents the Aboriginal people of Australia Red: Represents the red earth, the red ochre and a spiritual relation to the land Yellow: Represents the Sun, the giver of life and protector
National Anthem of Australia Until 1974 "God Save the Queen" was Australia's national anthem. "Advance Australia Fair" is the official national anthem of Australia. Created by the Scottish-born composer Peter Dodds McCormick, the song was first performed in 1878, and was sung in Australia as a patriotic song. It did not gain its status as the official anthem until 1984.
Coat of Arms in Australia The shield is the focal point of the coat of arms, contained within is the badge of each Australian state, the whole surrounded by an ermine border representing the federation of the states: New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland,South Australia, Western Australia, and Tasmania. Above the shield is the seven-pointed Commonwealth Star or Star of Federation above a blue and gold wreath, forming the crest. The Red Kangaroo and Emu that support the shield are the unofficial animal emblems of the nation. They owe this recognition to the fact that they are native Australian fauna (found only on that continent. It is often claimed these animals were chosen because neither animal can move backward, only forward - i.e. progress. In the background is wreath of Golden Wattle, the official national floral emblem, though the representation of the species is not botanically accurate. At the bottom of the coat of arms is a scroll that contains the name of the nation.
History of Australia In 1770 Lieutenant James Cook charted the East Coast of Australia for Britain and returned with accounts favouring colonisation at Botany Bay (now in Sydney), New South Wales. The British colony of New South Wales was established with the arrival of the First Fleet of 11 vessels under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip in January 1788. It consisted of over a thousand settlers, including 778 convicts (192 women and 586 men). A few days after arrival at Botany Bay the fleet moved to the more suitable Port Jackson where a settlement was established at Sydney Cove on 26 January 1788. The first gold rush in Australia began in May 1851. The gold rushes brought many immigrants to Australia from Great Britain, Ireland, continental Europe, North America and China.
Australian fauna include monotremes (the platypus and echidna), and a host of marsupials, including the koala, kangaroo, wombat, and birds such as the emu, cockatoo, and kookaburra. The dingo was introduced by Austronesian people that traded with Indigenous Australians around 4000 BCE. Many plant and animal species became extinct soon after human settlement, including the Australian megafauna; many more have become extinct since European settlement, among them the Thylacine (Tasmanian Tiger).
Marsupials are an infraclass of mammals living primarily in Australasia and the New World. A distinctive characteristic, common to most species, is that the young are carried in a pouch. Well-known marsupials include kangaroos, wallabies, the koala, possums, opossums, wombats and the Tasmanian devil. Less well-known species of marsupials include the numbat, bandicoots, bettongs, the bilby, quolls, and the quokka. The only marsupials found in North America are (2) These marsupials are strictly vegetarians.(1) This marsupial is already extinct since 1936 (6) Which of the following marsupials are carnivores? (3, 8) Marsupial and national animal of Australia (5) They spend most of their time underground, coming to the surface mostly after rains. (9) This marsupials don’t live in groups, only alone (7) Since 2005, an unofficial holiday called …. Day on 22 October.(4)
Australian plants and trees
Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, typically insects and other arthropods. Australia has one of the world's richest carnivorous plant floras, with around 187 recognized species from 6 genera. Byblis gigantea is a species of plant in the Byblidaceae family. It is endemic to Australia. Cephalotus follicularis, a small carnivorous pitcher plant. The pit-fall traps of the modified leaves have inspired the common names for this plant, which include Albany pitcher plant, Western Australian pitcher plant, fly-catcher plant or mocassin plant.
The Great Barrier Reef The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over 2,300 kilometers over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometers. The reef is located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland, Australia. The Great Barrier Reef can be seen from outer space and is the world's biggest single structure made by living organisms. This reef structure is composed of and built by billions of tiny organisms, known as coral polyps. It supports a wide diversity of life and was selected as a World Heritage Site in 1981. CNN labeled it one of the seven natural wonders of the world. The Queensland National Trust named it a state icon of Queensland.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia. It is on Australia's south-east coast, on the Tasman Sea. Sydney was established in 1788 at Sydney Cove by Captain Arthur Phillip, of the First Fleet, as a penal colony. The city is built on hills surrounding one of the world's largest natural harbours, Port Jackson, which is commonly known as Sydney Harbour, where the iconic Sydney Opera House and the Harbour Bridge are prominent structures. The hinterland of the metropolitan area is surrounded by national parks, and the coastal regions feature many bays, rivers, inlets and beaches, including the famous Bondi and Manly beaches. Within the city are many parklands, including Hyde Park and the Royal Botanic Gardens.
Main sights of Sydney
Blue Mountains National Park Blue Mountains is known for its rock formations, blue gums and wildlife like laughing kookaburras, common wombats and superb lyrebirds. And, it’s only 60km from the central Sydney – easily done on a day trip. The Mountains are said to have a blue glow to them due to the Eucalyptus from the trees - hence its name. THE THREE SISTERS This is a Rock Formation situated at the end of Katoomba town. Activities for the visitor include short walks to lookouts above cliffs and waterfalls, overnight and longer walks to more remote areas of the park, canyoning, abseiling, rock climbing and mountain biking. It is also home to the world's steepest railway, The Katoomba Scenic Railway.
Twelve Apostles, Port Campbell National Park, Australia The apostles were formed by erosion: the harsh and extreme weather conditions from the Southern Ocean gradually eroded the soft limestone to form caves in the cliffs, which then became arches, which in turn collapsed; leaving rock stacks up to 45 metres high. Now because of this erosion there are less then ten remaining. The site was known as the Sow and Piglets until 1922 ;after which it was renamed to The Apostles for tourism purposes. The formation eventually became known as the Twelve Apostles, despite only ever having nine stacks.
Kakadu National Park Kakadu National Park is a protected area in the Northern Territory of Australia, 171 km southeast of Darwin. Kakadu National Park is located within the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory of Australia. The name Kakadu comes from the mispronunciation of Gaagudju, which is the name of an Aboriginal language formerly spoken in the northern part of the park. Kakadu is ecologically and biologically diverse. There are more than 5,000 recorded art sites illustrating Aboriginal culture over thousands of years. The cultural and natural values of Kakadu National Park were recognized internationally when the park was placed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park is the location of a world-renowned sandstone monolith, which stands 348 metres in height and bears various inscriptions made by ancestral indigenous peoples, located in Northern Territory of Australia. It is located 1431 kilometres south of Darwin. Kata Tjuta, meaning ‘many heads’, is a sacred place relating to knowledge that is considered very powerful and dangerous, only suitable for initiated men. It is made up of a group of 36 conglomerate rock domes that date back 500 million years. Anangu are the traditional Aboriginal owners of Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park. They believe that their culture was created at the beginning of time by ancestral beings.
Alan Marshall is a great Australian writer Alan Marshall, (2 May 1902, Noorat, Victoria — 21 January 1984, Melbourne) was an Australian writer, story teller, humanist and social documenter. Marshall received the Australian Literature Society Short Story Award three times, the first in 1933. His best known book, I Can Jump Puddles (1955) is the first of a three-part autobiography. The other two books are This is the Grass (1962) and In Mine Own Heart (1963). When Marshall was six years old he contracted polio leaving him with a physical disability that grew worse as he grew older. From an early age, he resolved to be a writer, and in I Can Jump Puddles he demonstrated an almost total recall of his childhood in Noorat.
Popular Australian books
Перевод: Никола Аполлонов Are you real? Or I merely dream of you? Are you just black paper cuttings with some glue? No, Australian black swan is swimming on Green-blue water! He is a real, real swan!! Kangaroos in jumps in shades of many a tree Are enticing, are inviting you and me. And enchanted water holes among its grass, Like hothouses, keep lotuses for us. Spears-alike, the eucalyptus bluish trunks Sway above the bush in bloom on river banks. Honey-eaters hover there, among the thorns, Waenga-bird is nightingaling her concerns. Kookaburras laugh in branches ‘s loud and clear And reminds of stories heard in childhood years. This, however, ‘s merely a small forgotten spot, Howling hoots make singing birds abruptly stop! The Australia of our childhood days ‘s burnt in furnaces and stolen from us away. Rails gnew down deep into the earth face Chaining, snaring the broad-wide, enormous space. К. Бальмонт. Австралийский черный лебедь на волне Австралийский чeрный лебедь на волне, Словно в сказке на картинке, виден мне. Настоящий, проплывет предо мной, весь змеиный, весь узорный, вырезной. И воистину влечет меня в игру Настоящими прыжками кенгуру. И в хранимом зачарованном прудке Светят лотосы во влажном цветнике. Голубеет эвкалипта стройный ствол, Куст невиданной акации расцвел. Как колибри, медонос припал к цветку, Птица-флейта засвирелила тоску. И хохочут зимородки по ветвям, Словно в сказке, что сказали в детстве нам. Только это все лишь малый уголок — Громче пенья птиц на фабрике гудок. Нет Австралии тех детских наших дней, Вся сгорела между дымов и огней. И от города до города всегда Воют, копоть рассевая, поезда.
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