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Direct and Indirect speech
Direct speech means to say exactly what someone else said. It is usually put inside quotation marks (". . ."). I have the package. He says, "I have the package." Direct Speech Прямая речь – это речь, переданная дословно, без изменений. Прямая речь заключается в кавычки
Reported speech (also called indirect speech) means to say what someone else said, without actually quoting them. Meaning, you don't necessarily use their own words. You don't use quotation marks with reported speech. «I have the package» --- > He says he has the package. Reported Speech (Indirect Speech) Indirect Speech Косвенная речь – это способ передачи чужой речи. Косвенная речь в кавычки не ставится и запятой не отделяется.
To report what someone said we usually use verbs such as: Say, tell, ask, explain, etc. For example: •She says we should go. •He asked them the time. •I explained the rules to her. Reporting verbs (Глаголы сообщения)
The word THAT can be used after reporting verbs to begin the statement. But remember – it is optional. You can use it or leave it out, as you prefer. For example: •She says they are full = She says that they are full •I told them we could help = I told them that we could help •I suggest we start = I suggest that we start The word THAT (…,Что…)
When you report a statement (tell it in your own words), there are some necessary changes. How to report
Pronouns: If there are any pronouns present, you may have to change them. Examples for when and how to change pronouns: Reported speech – changes Directspeech Reported speech She says, "I like ice cream." She says she likes ice cream. They say, "You are right." They say we are right. He says, "My name is Gary." He says his name is Gary.
Third person singular verbs: Verbs in the third person singular form usually get an –S- at the end: I cook => He cooks We talk => She talks You have => It has I am => He is So when reporting speech we must apply this rule. Reported speech – changes Examples for when and how to change pronouns: Directspeech Reported speech He says, "I work every day." He says he works every day. She says, "I am a big girl." She says she is a big girl. Bonnie says, "I have a question." Bonnie says she has a question.
A list of common place and time expressions Direct Speech Indirect Speech this that these those here there now then / at the time today that day / yesterday yesterday the day before / the previous day a week ago / last week a week before / the previous week last month the month before / the previous month next year the following year in three years threeyearsfromthen
Переведите предложения из прямой в косвенную речь: Rob says, «I don’t care about fashion» Alex says, «I can’t stand shopping». Kate says, «I don’t like to stand out». Tom says, «I like casual clothes. Jane says, «Clothes are a status things». Checking yourself Model: Emily says, «We should go shopping, guys» --- Emily says that they should go shopping.
Rob says (that) he doesn’t care about fashion. Alex says (that) he can’t stand shopping». Kate says (that) she doesn’t like to stand out. Tom says (that) he likes casual clothes. Jane says (that) clothes are a status things. Answers
Backshift is the changing of a tense when reporting what someone said. When reporting what somebody said in the past, the tenses of the verbs in the reported statement go one step backwards. «I am sorry» --- > He said he was sorry. Tense backshift
Here are some more examples: Tense backshift Direct speech Reported speech You said, "We are late." You said we were late. They said, "We have plans." They said they had plans. He said, "I work hard." He said he worked hard. She said, "I drink water." She said she drank water.
How does the tense backshift work?
Directspeech Reportedspeech Present Simple He said, "I eat cheese." Past Simple He said he ate cheese. Present Continuous He said, "I am eating cheese." Past Continuous He said he was eating cheese. Present Perfect He said, "I have eaten cheese." Past Perfect He said he had eaten cheese. Present Perfect Continuous He said, "I have been eating cheese." Past Perfect Continuous He said he had been eating cheese.
Directspeech Reportedspeech Past Simple He said, "I ate cheese." Past Perfect He said he had eaten cheese. Past Continuous He said, "I was eating cheese." Past Perfect Continuous He said he had been eating cheese. Past Perfect He said, "I had eaten cheese." Past perfect(no change) He said he had eaten cheese. Past Perfect Continuous He said, "I had been eating cheese." Past Perfect Continuous(no change) He said he had been eating cheese.
The backshift also works on certain modal verbs: Direct speech Reported speech Will She said, "I will eat cheese." Would She said she would eat cheese. Can She said, "I can eat cheese." Could She said she could eat cheese. Must She said, "I must eat cheese." Had to She said she had to eat cheese. Shall She said, "I shall eat cheese." Would She said she would eat cheese. May She said, "I may eat cheese." Might She said she might eat cheese.
Would: She said, "I would eat cheese." --- She said she would eat cheese. Could: She said, "I could eat cheese." --- She said she could eat cheese. Should: She said, "I should eat cheese." --- She said she should eat cheese. Might: She said, "I might eat cheese." --- She said she might eat cheese. Ought to: She said, "I ought to eat cheese." --- She said she ought to eat cheese. There is NO CHANGE in the following modal verbs:
When reporting a question, you should also change the question into an indirect question. In other words, you need to change this sentence so that it is a normal positive sentence, not a question. You can use the words if or whether for YES / NO questions. Reporting questions
Reporting questions Direct speech Reported speech She asked, "Are you well?" She asked if I was well. "Where do you live?" he asked me. He asked me where I lived. "Why don't we meet?" she asked me. She asked me why we didn't meet. I asked, "How does she make them?" I asked how she made them. They asked, "Where is the mall?" They asked where the mall is.
When reporting an order or request we change them into an infinitive. Reporting orders and requests (приказы и просьбы) Direct speech Reported speech "Go home," she told me. She told me to go home. "Start talking," he told us. He told us to start talking. "Stop right there," they ordered us. They ordered us to stop right there. "Could you please open the door?" she asked me. She asked me to open the door. "Don't shout," I asked. I asked them not to shout.
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