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Elizabeth I Абдульмянова Диана Рустамовна ГБОУ Школа №439 г. Москва Учитель английского языка
The 5th and last monarch of the TUDOR dynasty
HENRY VII (1457-1509) TUDOR DYNASTY HENRY VIII (1491-1547) EDWARD VI (1537-1553) MARY I (1553-1558) ELIZABETH I
HENRY VIII ANNE BOLEYN ELIZABETH I 1491 –1547 1507 –1536 1533 –1603
Predecessor MARY I Successor JAMES I
Elizabeth set out to rule by good counsel, and she depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers led by William Cecil, Baron Burghley. One of her first moves as queen was to support the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor.
This Elizabethan Religious Settlement held firm throughout her reign and later evolved into today's Church of England. It was expected that Elizabeth would marry, but despite several petitions from parliament and numerous courtships, she never did. The reasons for this outcome have been much debated. As she grew older, Elizabeth became famous for her virginity, and a cult grew up around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants, and literature of the day.
In government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and siblings. One of her mottoes was "video et taceo" ("I see, and say nothing"). Within 20 years of her death, she was being celebrated as the ruler of a golden age, an image that retains its hold on the English people.
Elizabeth's reign is known as the Elizabethan era, famous above all for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe, and for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Francis Drake.
Elizabeth is acknowledged as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor. Such was the case with Elizabeth's rival, Mary I, Queen of Scots, whom she imprisoned in 1568 and eventually had executed in 1587.
Accession Elizabeth became queen at the age of 25. As her triumphal progress wound through the city on the eve of the coronation ceremony, she was welcomed wholeheartedly by the citizens and greeted by orations and pageants, most with a strong Protestant flavour.
The following day, 15 January 1559, Elizabeth was crowned at Westminster Abbey and anointed by the Catholic bishop of Carlisle. She was then presented for the people's acceptance, amidst a deafening noise of organs, fifes, trumpets, drums, and bells.
Religion Unfortunately for historians, Elizabeth's personal religious convictions will never be definitely known. Her religious policy favoured pragmatism above all in dealing with three major concerns. Perhaps most importantly, the break with Rome made her legitimate in her own eyes. For this reason, it was never in serious doubt that Elizabeth would embrace at least nominal Protestantism.
Elizabeth and her advisors perceived the threat of a Catholic crusade against heretical England. Elizabeth therefore sought a Protestant solution that would not offend Catholics too greatly while addressing the desires of English Protestants; she would not tolerate the more radical Puritans though, who were pushing for far-reaching reforms. As a result, the parliament of 1559 started to legislate for a church based on the Protestant settlement of Edward VI, with the monarch as its head, but with many superficially Catholic elements, such as priestly vestments.
The House of Commons backed the proposals strongly, but the bill of supremacy met opposition in the House of Lords, particularly from the bishops. Elizabeth was fortunate that many bishoprics were vacant at the time, including the Archbishopric of Canterbury.
Elizabeth was forced to accept the title of Supreme Governor of the Church of England rather than the more contentious title of Supreme Head, which many thought unacceptable for a woman to bear. The new Act of Supremacy became law on 8 May 1559. All public officials were to swear an oath of loyalty to the monarch as the supreme governor or risk disqualification from office. At the same time, a new Act of Uniformity was passed, which made attendance at church and the use of an adapted version of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer compulsory, though the penalties for recusancy, or failure to attend and conform, were not extreme.
Spain After the disastrous occupation and loss of Le Havre in 1562–1563, Elizabeth avoided military expeditions on the continent until 1585, when she sent an English army to aid the Protestant Dutch rebels against Philip II.
This followed the deaths in 1584 of the allies William the Silent, Prince of Orange, and François, Duke of Anjou, and the surrender of a series of Dutch towns to Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma.
Meanwhile, Sir Francis Drake had undertaken a major voyage against Spanish ports and ships to the Caribbean in 1585 and 1586, and in 1587 had made a successful raid on Cadiz, destroying the Spanish fleet of war ships intended for the Enterprise of England: Philip II had decided to take the war to England at last.
On 12 July 1588, the Spanish Armada, a great fleet of ships, set sail for the channel, planning to ferry a Spanish invasion force under the Duke of Parma to the coast of southeast England from the Netherlands. A combination of miscalculation, misfortune, and an attack of English fire ships on 29 July off Gravelines which dispersed the Spanish ships to the northeast defeated the Armada.
The Armada straggled home to Spain in shattered remnants, after disastrous losses on the coast of Ireland (after some ships had tried to struggle back to Spain via the North Sea, and then back south past the west coast of Ireland). Unaware of the Armada's fate, English militias mustered to defend the country under the Earl of Leicester's command. He invited Elizabeth to inspect her troops at Tilbury in Essex on 8 August. The defeat of the armada was a potent propaganda victory, both for Elizabeth and for Protestant England. The English took their delivery as a symbol of God's favour and of the nation's inviolability under a virgin queen. However, the victory was not a turning point in the war, which continued and often favoured Spain.
Edmund Spenser , a poet Christopher Marlowe, an English dramatist, poet and translator William Shakespeare William Shakespeare, an English poet and playwright
In 1576, the first Elizabethan theatre in London was built by James Burbage.
Her 45-year reign is generally considered one of the most glorious in English history. During it a secure Church of England was established.
The reign of Elizabeth I is often thought of as a Golden Age. It was a time of extravagance and luxury in which a flourishing popular culture was expressed through writers such as Shakespeare, and explorers like Drake and Raleigh sought to expand England's territory overseas.
Elizabeth was dedicated to her country in a way few monarchs had been or have been since. Elizabeth had the mind of a political genius and nurtured her country through careful leadership and by choosing capable men to assist her, such as Sir William Cecil and Sir Francis Walsingham. Elizabeth was a determined woman, but she was not obstinate. She listened to the advice of those around her, and would change a policy if it was unpopular. In appearance she was extravagant, in behavior sometimes flippant and frivolous, but her approach to politics was serious, conservative, and cautious. When she ascended the throne in 1558, England was an impoverished country torn apart by religious squabbles
Check yourself Task 1 Answer the following questions: What dynasty was Elizabeth I referred to? (Tudor) 2. At what age did Elizabeth I become a queen? (25) 3. Who was the predecessor and successor of Elizabeth I? (Mary I, James I) 4. How is the age of her reign called? (the Virgin Queen, Gloriana, or Good Queen Bess)
5. How is the name of Elizabeth I associated with the Renaissance? (Elizabeth I was the Queen of England and reigned 45 years. Her age was called the age of Elizabeth or the age of Renaissance. She was a well-educated person and became a great patron of the arts. It was the period of peace, a prosperous period. It was the time when arts, music and science were in need. Her name is associated with the Renaissance) 6. What names is the period of Renaissance associated with? (Edmund Spenser, Christopher Marlowe, William Shakespeare) What kind of Church did she establish? (an English Protestant Church of which she became the Supreme Governor) What document did she introduce? (the Act of Supremacy)
Task 2 Match the following events with dates: November, 17 1558 September, 7 1533 May, 8 1559 1588 16th -17th centuries January, 15 1559 Elizabeth was crowned at Westminster Abbey Act of Supremacy the defeat of the Spanish Armada Elizabeth I was born The English Renaissance Elizabeth II became a queen
Task 3 Choose the right version: One of Elizabeth's mottoes was "I see/hear, and say nothing". Within 20 years of her death, she was being celebrated as the ruler of a golden/silver age. It was never in serious doubt that Elizabeth would embrace at least nominal Catholicism/ Protestantism. Keys: 1 – see 2 – golden 3 – Protestantism
Task 4 Who is it? William Shakespeare Christopher Marlowe Francis Drake Key: 2. Christopher Marlowe
Philip II Philip III Philip V Key: 1. Philip II
Margaret Hilda Thatcher Mary I, Queen of Scots Mary Stuart II Key: 2. Mary I, Queen of Scots
Task 5 True or false: Elizabeth's reign is known as the Elizabethan era. The new Act of Uniformity became law on 8 May 1559. Elizabeth is acknowledged as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor. William Shakespeare had undertaken a major voyage against Spanish ports and ships to the Caribbean in 1585. Elizabeth I was a daughter of Henry VII Keys: 1-true 2-false, Act of Supremacy 3-true 4-false, Sir Francis Drake 5- false, Henry VIII
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Целью данной методической разработки является введение и закрепление страноведческой информации по теме " Елизавета I: "Золотой" век". Методическая разработка представлена в формате презентации, в конце которой предложен тест Check yourself с целью отработки изученной страноведческой информации. Данная методичсекая разработка предназначена для обучающихся 10 класса
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