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The 29th of January. European Settlements in the early 17th century in Canada.
seal[si:l] тюлень walrus ['wɔ:lrəs] морж caribou['kærəbu:] карибу (северный олень) beaver ['bi:və] бобр, бобёр buffalo['bʌfələu] буйвол squash[skwɔʃ] кабачок, тыква maize[meɪz] кукуруза spot - увидеть, заметить abandon [ə'bændən] забросить, покинуть permanently ['pɜ:m(ə)nəntlɪ] надолго, постоянно convert['kɔnvɜ:t] – обратить Christianity [krɪstɪ'ænətɪ] христианство Smallpox ['smɔ:lpɔks] ; оспа rivalry['raɪv(ə)lrɪ] соперничество
No permanent European settlements were made in Canada until the early 17th century. In 1603 a Frenchman named Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) sailed up the St Lawrence River. In 1604 he founded Port Royal in Acadia (Nova Scotia). In 1608 de Champlain founded Quebec. (The name Quebec is believed to be an Algonquin word meaning a narrow part of a river). In 1642 the French founded Montreal. The new colony in Canada was called New France. By 1685 the population of New France was about 10,000. By 1740 it was 48,000.
In the early 17th century French missionaries such as the Jesuits attempted to convert the natives of Canada to Christianity - without much success. Meanwhile the French settlers traded with the natives for furs and farmed the land. Unfortunately they also brought European diseases like smallpox, to which the natives had no resistance.
However the English were also interested in Canada. In 1610 Henry Hudson discovered Hudson Bay. (In 1611 his crew mutinied and set him adrift). In 1631 Thomas James led another expedition. James Bay is named after him. Then in 1629 the English captured Quebec. However it was returned to France in 1632.
In 1670 the English founded the Hudson Bay Company. The company was given exclusive rights to trade with the inhabitants of the Hudson Bay area. They traded with the natives for skins and furs. Meanwhile rivalry between the British and the French in Canada continued.