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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The Wildlife of the United Kingdom includes its flora and fauna and their natural habitats.
Animal diversity is modest, as a result of factors including the island's small land area, the relatively recent age of the habitats developed since the last Ice Age and the island's physical separation from continental Europe, and the effects of seasonal variability.
100 species have become extinct in the UK during the 20th century. However, some species, such as the brown rat, red fox, and grey squirrel, are well adapted to urban areas. brown rat red fox grey squirrel
Rodents make up 40% of the total number of mammal species in Great Britain. These include squirrels, mice, voles, rats and the recently reintroduced European beaver. There is also an abundance of rabbits, hares, hedgehogs, shrews(землеройка), moles and several species of bat. Vole (полевка) European beaver (речной) бобр) Mole (крот)
Carnivorous mammals include the fox, badger, otter, weasel, stoat and elusive wildcat. Badger (барсук) Weasel (ласка) Stoat (горностай)
Various species of seal, whale and dolphin are found on or around British shores and coastlines. dolphins whale
The largest land-based wild animals today are deer. The red deer is the largest species, with roe deer and fallow deer also prominent; the latter was introduced by the Normans. roe deer (косуля) fallow deer (лань)
Habitat loss has affected many species. Extinct large mammals include the brown bear, grey wolf and wild boar; the latter has had a limited reintroduction in recent times. wild boar (кабан)
There is a wealth of birdlife in Britain, 583 species in total, of which 258 breed on the island or remain during winter. Because of its mild winters for its latitude, Great Britain hosts important numbers of many wintering species, particularly ducks, geese and swans. Other well known bird species include the golden eagle, grey heron (серая цапля), kingfisher(зимородок), pigeon, sparrow, pheasant, partridge(серая куропатка), and various species of crow, finch(зяблик), gull, auk(гагарка), grouse(шотландская куропатка), owl and falcon(сокол). The Robin is popularly known as "Britain's favourite bird".
In a similar sense to fauna, and for similar reasons, the flora of Great Britain is impoverished compared to that of continental Europe. Great Britain's flora comprises 3354 vascular plant species in total, of which 2297 are native and 1057 have been introduced into the island. Heather growing wild in the Highlands at Dornoch.
The island has a wide variety of trees, including native species of birch, beech, ash, hawthorn(боярышник), elm, oak, yew(тис), pine, cherry and apple. Other trees have been naturalized, introduced especially from other parts of Europe (particularly Norway) and North America. Introduced trees include several varieties of pine, chestnut, maple, spruce, sycamore and fir, as well as cherry plum and pear trees. The tallest species are the Douglas firs; two specimens have been recorded measuring 65 meters or 212 feet. The Fortingal Yew in Pertshire is the oldest tree in Europe. Yew (тис) Sycamore (платан)
There are at least 1500 different species of wildflower in Britain, Some 107 species are particularly rare or vulnerable and are protected by the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. It is illegal to uproot any wildflowers without the landowner's permission. A vote in 2002 nominated various wildflowers to represent specific counties. These include red poppies, bluebells(пролеска), daisies, daffodils, rosemary, gorse(утёсник обыкновенный), iris, ivy(плющ), mint, orchids, brambles, thistles, buttercups(лютик), primrose, thyme, tulips, violets, cowslip, heather and many more. Gorse ( утёсник обыкновенный) thistles