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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Презентации / Презентация по английскому языку на тему "Фонетика"

Презентация по английскому языку на тему "Фонетика"

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List of questions 1. Semasiology. Two trends in semasiology. Word-meaning. Re...
List of questions 26. Modifications of English consonants in connected speech...
Phonetics
Glossary Accommodation аккомодация Adaptation адаптация Affricate аффриката A...
21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. (Main definition...
21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. (Organs of speec...
21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. (Consonants)
21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. (Consonants) Eng...
21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. (Consonants) Lev...
21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. (Consonants) Eng...
21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. According to the...
21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds.
21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. English terminol...
21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. English terminol...
22. The phoneme. The system of English phonemes. Main definitions Sounds are...
22. The phoneme. The system of English phonemes. Relevant and irrelevant feat...
23. Phonemes and allophones. Main definitions Sounds are combinations of the...
23. Phonemes and allophones. Phoneme 3 aspects of the Phoneme Abstract Materi...
24. The system of English consonants and vowels. See 21.
24. The system of English consonants and vowels. See 21.
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№ слайда 1 List of questions 1. Semasiology. Two trends in semasiology. Word-meaning. Re
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List of questions 1. Semasiology. Two trends in semasiology. Word-meaning. Referential and functional approaches to meaning. Types of meaning. 2. Homonymy in English. 3. Synonymy. Classification of synonyms. 4. Antonyms. 5. Morpheme. Structural types of words. The stem of a word. Functions of roots, suffixes, prefixes, inflections. 6. The basic ways of word-formation. 7. Secondary ways of word formation. 8. Etymology. The role of native and borrowed elements. Etymological doublets. 9. Phraseology. Different principles of classification of phraseological units. 10. The basic variants of the English language. «Word Englishes». 11. Inventory of stylistics: Expressive means and stylistic devices. Tropes. 12. Stylistic differentiation of The English vocabulary. 13. Functional styles of the English language (formal, colloquial, publicistic). 14. Functional styles of the English language (the belles-lettres style, scientific prose, newspapers). 15. Stylistic syntax. Syntactical stylistic devices. 16. Stylistic lexicology. Lexical stylistic devices. 17. Stylistic phonetics. Phonetic expressive means and stylistic devices. 18.Syntactical stylistic devices. 18. Syntactical stylistic devices. 19. Colloquial stratum of words. Literary stratum of words. 20. Stylistic devices: Metaphor, metonymy, oxymoron, zeugma. 21. The system of English sounds. Classification of sounds. 22. The phoneme. The system of English phonemes. 23. Phonemes and allophones. 24. The system of English consonants and vowels. 25. Syllable. Syllable division. Syllable formation.

№ слайда 2 List of questions 26. Modifications of English consonants in connected speech
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List of questions 26. Modifications of English consonants in connected speech. 27. Modifications of English vowels in connected speech. 28. Word stress. Manifestation of word stress and its linguistic functions. 29. Rhythm and rhythmic groups. 30. Intonation and prosody. Basic intonation patterns. 31. General characteristics of the Old English period. Outer and inner history of English. 32. General characteristics of the Middle English period. Outer and inner history of English. 33. General characteristics of the New English period. Outer and inner history of English. 34. Scandinavian invasion and Norman invasion and their effect on the English language. 35. The first Consonant Shift. Grimm's Law. Verner's Law. 36. The first Vowel Shift. 37. Development of the analytical system. 38. Written records. Formation of the English national language. 39. Ethymological strata in modern English. 40. Geographical expansion of English in the 17-th - 20th centuries and its effect on the language. 41. Parts of speech. Classification. Grammatical categories. 42. The sentence. Major aspects. The distributive model. The transformational model. 43. Major and minor parts of speech. 44. Word combinations. Principles of classification. 45. The Compound Sentence. 46. The Complex Sentence. The Composite Sentence. 47. The Noun and its grammatical categories (Gender, Number, Case). 48. The Verb. General characteristics. Grammatical categories (Voice, Aspect, Tense, Mood, Person, Number). 49. Non-finite forms of the verb. Grammatical Categories. 50.The Adjective. Grammatical Categories.

№ слайда 3 Phonetics
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Phonetics

№ слайда 4 Glossary Accommodation аккомодация Adaptation адаптация Affricate аффриката A
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Glossary Accommodation аккомодация Adaptation адаптация Affricate аффриката Alveolar ridge, teeth ridge альвеолы Apical апикальный Articulation артикуляция Aspiration аспирация Assimilation ассимиляция Back of the tongue задняя часть языка Back vowel гласный заднего ряда Bilabial губно-губной Central vowel гласный среднего ряда Closed syllable закрытый слог Close vowel закрытый гласный Cluster сочетание звуков Constrictive щелевой Dental зубной Diphthong дифтонг Dorsal дорсальный Elision элизия Emphasis эмфаза Emphatic эмфатический Front vowel гласный переднего ряда General American американское литературное произношение Glottal образованный в голосовой щели Glottal stop твердый приступ Glottis голосовая щель Hard palate твердое небо Interdental межзубный Intonation интонация Lateral боковой Lateral plosion боковой взрыв Lateral sonorant боковой сонант Lax vowel ненапряженный гласный Linking связка Logical stress логическое ударение Loss of plosion потеря взрыва Lower lip нижняя губа Lower teeth нижние зубы Mid-open vowel гласный среднего подъема Monophthong монофтонг Nasal носовой Nasal cavity носовая полость Nasal plosion носовой взрыв Nasal sonorant носовой сонант Occlusive смычный Open syllable открытый слог Open vowel открытый гласный Palatal нёбный Palatalization палатализация Palate нёбо Phoneme фонема Plosion взрыв Post-alveolar заальвеолярный Received Pronunciation британское литературноепроизношение Reduced vowel редуцированный гласный Reduction редукция Retroflex articulation ретрофлексивная артикуляция Rhythm ритм Scale шкала Soft palate мягкое нёбо Sonorant сонант Stop consonant взрывной, смычный согласный Stress ударение Syllable слог Timbre тембр Tempo темп Tense vowel напряженный гласный Tongue tip кончик языка Upper lip верхняя губа Upper teeth верхние зубы Velar велярный, задненебный, постпалатальный Velum мягкое нёбо Vocal cords голосовые связки Voiced consonant звонкий согласный Voice range диапазон голоса Voiceless consonant глухой согласный

№ слайда 5 21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. (Main definition
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21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. (Main definitions) Main definitions Sounds are combinations of the acoustic waves. Units of the phonetic system which help to recognize and distinguish words of the language are generally called phonemes. Different phonetic realizations of a phoneme are known as allophones. Minimal pairs are the pairs of words which are different in respect of one sound. Words like pin, tin, sin are distinguished by a change in the first consonantal element so the phoneme p, t, s may be revealed. The two main groups of sounds in the phonetics are consonants and vowels.

№ слайда 6 21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. (Organs of speec
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21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. (Organs of speech) Organs of speech Active-movable are the organs of speech that are taking the active part in the sounds formation The passive organs of speech stay non moving during the process of articulation The air passage: Diaphragm Lungs Larynx Supraglottal cavities Pharynx Mouth Nasal cavities Speech characteristics

№ слайда 7 21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. (Consonants)
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21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. (Consonants)

№ слайда 8 21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. (Consonants) Eng
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21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. (Consonants) English terminology Specifics Organs of speech Russian terminology Examples Consonants Согласные Themanner of noise production     Способ производства шума   Non-sonorous (noise) Noise prevails over tone.   Глухой   Occlusive (stops, plosives) They are stops because the breath is stopped, they are plosive because the they are realesed with an explosure. Lips, tongue, teeth ridge Смычный (иначе взрывной) [p,b,t,d,k,g] [p,b] bilabial [t,d] forelingual alveolar [k,g] backlingual [p,t.k,] strong [b,d,g] weak pig, big, tag, dog, kengaroo, good Constrictive (fricatives) They are constrictive because the air passage is constricted, they are fricatives because the air passes through the narrowing with a friction. Lips, teeth, tongue, teeth ridge, hard palate Щелевой (иначе фрикативный) [f,v,θ, ∂,s, z, ʃ, Ʒ, h] [f,v] labio dental [θ, ∂]forelingual, interdental [, s, z, ʃ, Ʒ] forelingual, alveolar [h] glottal far, vase,thin, this, sock, vase, she, hate Occlusive – constrictive (affricates) They are occlusive because a complete air stop is formed, they are constrictive because the air is released slowly with a friction. Lips, tongue, teeth ridge, soft palate, hard palate. Смычно - щелевой (иначе смычно-фрикативный) [tʃ,dƷ] [tʃ,dƷ] occlusive-constrictive,forelingual, apical,bicentral chin, gin Sonorous (sonorants) Tone prevails over noise.   Звонкий (сонорный)   Occlusive Complete obstruction is formed Lips, soft palate, nasal cavity Смычный (иначе взрывной) [m, n,ŋ] most, nest, thing Lateral Боковой (латеральный) Medial Средний (срединный) Nasal Носовой (назальный) [m] is occlusive, nasal. bilabial [n] is occlusive nasal. forelingual. apical, alveolar [ŋ] is occlusive. nasaL backlinguaL velar Constrictive Incomplete obstruction is formed Lips, tongue, teeth ridge, hard palate Щелевой [l, w, j, r] like, week, jam, read Lateral Боковой (латеральный) [l] is constrictive, lateral, forelingual, apical, alveolar Medial Средний (срединный) [w] is constrictive. medial, bilabial,bicentral [j] is constrictive. medial,mediolingual, palatal [r] is constrictive: medial,forelingual, cacuminal, post-alveolar.

№ слайда 9 21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. (Consonants) Lev
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21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. (Consonants) Level of noise     Уровень шума   Unicentral Unicentral [θ,s, z, j] Bicental Bicental [Ʒ, ʃ, dƷ, tʃ, w] Work of the vocal cords     Работа голосовых связок   Voiced Звонкий [b, d, g, v, ∂, z, ʃ, Ʒ, dƷ ] Voiceless Глухой [p, t, k, f, θ, s, ʃ, tʃ, h] The level of the muscular tension     Уровень мышечного напряжения   Strong (Fortis) Сильные (Fortis) [p, t, k, f, θ, s, ʃ, tʃ, h] Weak (Lenis) Слабый (Lenis) [b, d, g, v, ∂, z, ʃ, Ʒ, dƷ ] Type of obstruction (the manner of articulation)     Тип обструкции (или особенности артикуляции)   Occlusive (stops, plosives) They are stops because the breath is stopped, they are plosive because the they are realesed with an explosure. Lips, tongue, teeth ridge Смычный (иначе взрывной) [p,b,t,d,k,g] [p,b] bilabial [t,d] forelingual alveolar [k,g] backlingual [p,t.k,] strong [b,d,g] weak pig, big, tag, dog, kengaroo, good Constrictive (fricatives) They are constrictive because the air passage is constricted, they are fricatives because the air passes through the narrowing with a friction. Lips, teeth, tongue, teeth ridge, hard palate Щелевой (иначе фрикативный) [f,v,θ, ∂,s, z, ʃ, Ʒ, h] [f,v] labio dental [θ, ∂]forelingual, interdental [s, z, ʃ, Ʒ] forelingual, alveolar [h] glottal far, vase,thin, this, sock, vase, she, hate Occlusive – constrictive (affricates) They are occlusive because a complete air stop is formed, they are constrictive because the air is released slowly with a friction. Lips, tongue, teeth ridge, soft palate, hard palate. Смычно - щелевой (иначе смычно-фрикативный) [tʃ, dƷ] [tʃ, dƷ] occlusive-constrictive, forelingual, apical, bicentral chin, gin

№ слайда 10 21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. (Consonants) Eng
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21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. (Consonants) English terminology Specifics Organs of speech Russian terminology Examples Consonants Согласные Place of obstruction (or place of articulation)     Место обструкции (место артикуляции)   Labial Lips Губной Bilabial Lip+lip Губно-губной (билабиальный) [b,p, m, w] Labio-dental Lip+teeth Губно-зубной [v, f] Lingual Tongue, teeth ridge Язычный (лингвальный) Fore lingual Tongue, teeth ridge Переднеязычный Interdental Tongue, teeth ridge Переднезубной Apical Tongue, teeth ridge Апикальный (кончик языка) [θ, ∂] Dental Tongue, teeth ridge Зубной Do not exist in the English language Apical Tongue, teeth ridge Апикальный (кончик языка) Do not exist in the English language Dorsal Tongue, teeth ridge Дорсальный (лопатка языка) Do not exist in the English language Alveolar Tongue, teeth ridge Альвеолярный Apical Tongue, teeth ridge Апикальный (кончик языка) [d ,t ,z, s, n, l] Post-alveolar Tongue, teeth ridge Пост-альвеолярный Cacuminal Tongue, teeth ridge Какуминальный [r] Palato-alveolar Tongue, teeth ridge Палато-альвеолярный Apical Tongue, teeth ridge Апикальный (кончик языка) [Ʒ, ʃ, dƷ, tʃ] Dorsal Tongue, teeth ridge Дорсальный (лопатка языка) Medio lingual Front part of the tongue Среднеязычный Palatal Front part of the tongue Палатальный [j] Back lingual Back part of the tongue Заднеязычный Velar Back part of the tongue Велярный [g, k, ŋ] Glottal Glottis Глоттальный (образованный в голосовой щели) [h]

№ слайда 11 21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. According to the
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21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. According to the degree of noise Noise consonants   Sonorants   According to the manner of articulation Occlusive - plosive Constrictive Occlusive - constrictive Occlusive Constrictive Rolled According to the work of the vocal cords Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless       According to the force of articulation Lenis Fortis Lenis Fortis Lenis Fortis       1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 According to the place of articulation Labial Bilabial b p         m w   Labiodental     v f           Lingual Fore lingual Inter dental Apical     ð θ           Dental Apical               only russian   Dorsal only russian only russian only russian only russian   only russian only russian     Alveolar Apical d t z s   n l     Post-alveolar Cacuminal               r only russian Palato-alveolar Apical     ʒ ʃ ʤ ʧ       Dorsal     only russian only russian   only russian       Medio lingual Palatal               j j   Back lingual Velar g k         Ƞ     Glottal       h           According to the position of the soft palate   Oral Nasal Oral

№ слайда 12 21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds.
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21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds.

№ слайда 13 21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. English terminol
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21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. English terminology Specifics Organs of speech Russian terminology Examples Vowels Toungue, pharyngal and nasal cavities Гласные Stability of articulation     Стабильность артикуляции   Monophthongs Pure quality of the sound Монофтонги [i, e,æ,α:,ɒ,ɔ:, ʊ,ᴧ,ɜ:, ǝ] [i]i- bit, pit, kitchen,y- busy, syllable,e- pretty, before, homeless,ie- bodies, studies,a- luggage [e] e- red, get,ea-bread, leather,a- many, any [æ] a- land, bad, sat [α:]ar- cart, star,a- grass, after, path, branch,au- aunt, laugh,ear- heart,al- calf, calm [ɒ] o- dog, rock,a- want, quality,ou,ow- cough, knowledge,au-sausge, Austria [ɔ:] or- corn, port,aw- law, drawn,ou,au- bought, fault,a- call, chalk, water,ore,oor, oar, our- shore, door, board, four, court [ʊ] u- full,o- wolf, woman,oo- look, wool,ou-would, could [ᴧ]u- mud, dull, butter,o-son,brother, nothing,ou- young, country, rough,oo- flood [ɜ:]ir, yr- sir, girl, bird, myrtle,er, ear, err- her, earl, heard,err,ur,urr- fur,cyrl, purr,wor- worm, worse,our- journalist [ǝ] e- mineral, president,a- ago,o- correct omit,u- suggest, support,i- possible,er- teacher, after,or- director, doctor,ure- picture, furniture,ou- dangerous,our-favour Diphthongs The organs of speech glide from one to another position Дифтонг [ei,ai,ɔi,aʊ,ɜʊ,iǝ,ɛǝ,ʊǝ] [ei] a -take, paper, made,ai, ay-main, say,ei,ey- vein, grey, they,ea- great, break,eigh- eight, neighbour [ai]i- like, write,y- my, type,igh- high, light,ie, ye- tie, rye,i+nd- kind, find,i+ ld- child, mild,ei-neither, height,ign-sign [ɔi]oi- oil, noise,oy- boy, enjoy [aʊ]ou- house, sound,ow- now, town,ough- bought, plough [ɜʊ] o -so, home,oa+ consonant- boat, road,ow- know, fellow,ou- shoulder, though,o +st-most,post,o +ll- roll, poll,o + ld- told, cold [iǝ] ere- here, severe,eer- deer, pioneer,ear- clear, near,ea- idea, real,ier- fierce, pierce [ɛǝ] are- care, parents,ear- bear, wear,ere- there, where [ʊǝ] u- cure, fury,oor- poor, moor,our- tour, tourist,ue- cruel , fluent,ewer,uer- fewer,truer Diphthongoids The organs of speech also glide from one to another position, but the starting point of the glide is not so obvious Дифтонгоид [i:, u:] [i:]e- be, scene, complete,ee- see, been, meet,ea-sea,mean,beaf,ie- field, believe, belief,ei,ey- key, receive,i-police [u:]oo- soon, mood, boot,o- to, lose,ou- soup, wound, through,u- rule, June,ew,ue,ui,oe- news, due, suit, shoe

№ слайда 14 21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. English terminol
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21. The system of English sounds. Classifications of sounds. English terminology Specifics Organs of speech Russian terminology Examples Vowels Toungue,pharyngaland nasal cavities Гласные Tongue position         Front vowels Front part of the tongue is raised to hard palate Tongue, hard palate, lungs Гласный переднего ряда [i:, e, æ] Front - retracted Front part of the tongue (but close to central) is raised to hard palate Tongue, hard palate, lungs Редуцированный гласный переднего ряда [i] Central Front part of the tongue is raised to the back part of the hard palate Tongue, hard palate, lungs Гласный среднего ряда [ᴧ,ɜ:, ǝ] Back vowels The tongue is in the back part of the mouth, its back is raised towards the soft palate Tongue, soft palate, hard palate, lungs Гласный заднего ряда [α:,ɒ, ɔ:, u:] Back advanced The tongue is in the back part of the mouth, its central part is raised towards the soft palate Tongue, soft palate, hard palate, lungs Гласный заднего продвинутого ряда [ʊ] Close (Narrow / broad) Back of the tongue is moved close towards the palate Tongue, soft palate, hard palate, lungs Закрытый гласный [i:, u:] [i:, ʊ] Open (Narrow / broad) The tongue is moved as low as possible Tongue, soft palate, hard palate, lungs Открытый гласный [e, ɜ:, ɜ] [ᴧ,ǝ, ɛ] Mid vowels (Narrow / broad) The highest part of the tongue occupies the intermediate position Tongue, soft palate, hard palate, lungs Гласный среднего подъема [ɔ:, ɔ] [æ,α:,ɒ,α] Lip position         Unrounded The lips are neutral or spread Lips, mouth, lungs [i:, i, e, æ, α:, ᴧ, ɜ:, ǝ] Rounded The lips are drawn together Lips, mouth, lungs [ɒ, ɔ:, ʊ, u:] Character of vowel end         Checked (tense) The end of the vowel is strong (mostly in theclosedsyllables) Напряженный гласный Free (lax) Mostly in the open syllables Ненапряженный гласный Vowel length         Long vowels Длинный гласный [i:, α:, ɔ:, u:, ɜ:] Short vowels Короткий гласный [i, e, ɒ, ʊ, ᴧ, ǝ]

№ слайда 15 22. The phoneme. The system of English phonemes. Main definitions Sounds are
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22. The phoneme. The system of English phonemes. Main definitions Sounds are combinations of the acoustic waves. Units of the phonetic system which help to recognize and distinguish words of the language are generally called phonemes. Different phonetic realizations of a phoneme are known as allophones. Minimal pairs are the pairs of words which are different in respect of one sound. Words like pin, tin, sin are distinguished by a change in the first consonantal element so the phoneme p, t, s may be revealed. The two main groups of sounds in the phonetics are consonants and vowels. The number of phonemes varies from language to language There are 44 phonemes in the English language (24 consonants and 20 vowels) (see question 21)

№ слайда 16 22. The phoneme. The system of English phonemes. Relevant and irrelevant feat
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22. The phoneme. The system of English phonemes. Relevant and irrelevant features The features which cannot be changed without the change of meaning are called relevant or distinctive. The features which can change the meaning are called irrelevant. Consonants Vowels /р/as in pill /æ/ as in pat /b/ as in bill /a:/ as in part /f/ as in fin /e/ as in pet /d/ as in din /i/ as in pit /к/as in cot /i:/ as in peat /g/ as in got /ɒ/ as in pot /m/ as in meat /o:/ as in port /n/ as in neat /ʊ/ as input /ŋ/ as in sing /u:/ as in boot /l/ as in lake /ᴧ/as inbut /r/ as in rake /ɜ:/ as in bird /f/ as in fast /ǝ/ as in ago /v/ as in vast /ei/ as in bay /θ/as in thin /ai/ as in buу /∂/ as in then /ɔi/ as in boy /s/ as in sink /аʊ/ as in bout /z/ as in zinc /ǝʊ/ as in boat /ʃ/ as in ship /iǝ/ as in beer /Ʒ/as in beige /еǝ/ as in bare /h/ as in hat /ʊǝ/ as in doer, dour /tʃ/ in chin /dƷ/as in gin /w/ as in wet /j/ as in yet Distinctive features Non-distinctive features Consonants Place of articulation; Manner of articulation: Absence / presence of voice. aspiration/no aspiration Vowels The vowel quality; The length (in the past), currently it is less important. the length (current tendency)

№ слайда 17 23. Phonemes and allophones. Main definitions Sounds are combinations of the
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23. Phonemes and allophones. Main definitions Sounds are combinations of the acoustic waves. Units of the phonetic system which help to recognize and distinguish words of the language are generally called phonemes. Different phonetic realizations of a phoneme are known as allophones. Minimal pairs are the pairs of words which are different in respect of one sound. Words like pin, tin, sin are distinguished by a change in the first consonantal element so the phoneme p, t, s may be revealed. The two main groups of sounds in the phonetics are consonants and vowels. The number of phonemes varies from language to language There are 44 phonemes in the English language (24 consonants and 20 vowels) (see question 21)

№ слайда 18 23. Phonemes and allophones. Phoneme 3 aspects of the Phoneme Abstract Materi
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23. Phonemes and allophones. Phoneme 3 aspects of the Phoneme Abstract Material (sound) Functional (when a word appears) Allophone The requirements to the allophone of the same phoneme are: They possess similar articulating feature but can shoe considerable phonetic differences. They never occur in the same phonetic context. They are not capable of differentiating the meaning. We cannot produce a Phoneme, we produce allophones. But they are accompanied by several sounds and personal characteristics. The actual sounds which we hear, are called phones. The native speakers do not pay attention to the allophones (phones), which do not change the meaning of the words; but every nature speaker has a generalized idea of distinctive features that cannot be changed without changing the meaning.

№ слайда 19 24. The system of English consonants and vowels. See 21.
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24. The system of English consonants and vowels. See 21.

№ слайда 20 24. The system of English consonants and vowels. See 21.
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24. The system of English consonants and vowels. See 21.

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Раздел Иностранные языки
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