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Globalisation «Happy English.ru» K. Kaufman, M. Kaufman, 11. Работа выполнена учителем английского языка МБОУ СОШ ст. Терской Мурзабековым А.М.
These days Paris is a suburb of New York and vice-versa. Jean-Marie Messier If you look at the tag on your shirt, you would see that it was made in a country other than the one in which you sit right now. What's more, before it reached your wardrobe, this shirt could have very well been made with Chinese cotton sewed by Thai hands, shipped across the Pacific on a French freighter crewed by Spaniards to a Los Angeles harbor. This international exchange is just one example of globalization, a process that has everything to do with geography.
Globalisation is not new. For thousands of years people have been trading goods and travelling across great distances. During the Middle ages, merchants travelled along the Silk Road, which connected Europe and China. The modern age of globalisation started with the Industrial Revolution at the end of the 18th century. New machines were able to produce cheaper goods. Trains and steam-powered boats transported products farther and faster. Since 1980, globalisation has been moving at a faster pace. Today it is easier for companies to work in other countries. The Internet gives them the chance of reaching more customers around the world. Teleworkers work for firms that may be far away. History of Globalisation рace - темп, ритм
Globalisation is the process of increased interconnectedness among countries most notably in the areas of economics, politics, and culture. McDonalds in Japan , French films being played in New York, and the United Nations , are all representations of globalisation.
The idea of globalisation may be simplified by identifying several key characteristics: Improved Technology in Transportation and Telecommunications: Some years ago, people across the globe did not have the ability to communicate and could not interact without difficulty. Nowadays, a phone, instant message, fax, or video conference call can easily be used to connect people. Movement of People and Capital: A general increase in awareness, opportunity, and transportation technology has allowed for people to move about the world in search of a new home, a new job, or to flee a place of danger. Most migration takes place within or between developing countries, possibly because lower standards of living and lower wages push individuals to places with a greater chance for economic success. Additionally, capital (money) is being moved globally with the ease of electronic transference and a rise in perceived investment opportunities. Developing countries are a popular place for investors to place their capital because of the enormous room for growth. awareness – осведомленность ; to flee - спасаться бегством
Diffusion of Knowledge: The word 'diffusion' simply means to spread out, and that is exactly what any new found knowledge does. When a new invention or way of doing something pops up, it does not stay secret for long. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Multinational Corporations: As global awareness of certain issues has risen, so too has the number of organizations that aim to deal with them. So called non-governmental organizations bring together people unaffiliated with the government and can be nationally or globally focused. Many international NGOs deal with issues that do not pay attention to borders (such as global climate change, energy use). Examples of NGOs include Amnesty International or Doctors without Borders. Amnesty International «Международная амнистия» (известная также как Amnesty, МА, «Эмнести») — международная неправительственная организация, основанная в Великобритании в 1961 году; Issue - проблема; unaffiliated - самостоятельный - не являющийся членом (общества и т. п.)
Businesses are going global: As countries are connected to the rest of the world (through increased communication and transportation) they immediately form what a business would call a market. As more and more markets are opening up, business people from around the globe are coming together to form multinational corporations in order to access these new markets. Another reason that businesses are going global is that some jobs can be done by foreign workers for a much cheaper cost than domestic workers; this is called outsourcing. outsource - передавать (часть бизнес-процесса) независимому подрядчику; заказывать или нанимать на стороне
There is a heated debate about the true effects of globalisation and if it really is such a good thing. Let's look at the positives and negatives of globalisation, and you can decide for yourself whether or not it is the best thing for our world. Positive Aspects of Globalisation: Globalisation lets countries do what they can do best. If, for example, you buy cheap steel from another country you don’t have to make your own steel. You can focus on computers or other things. Globalisation gives you a larger market. You can sell more goods and make more money. You can create more jobs. Consumers also profit from globalisation. Products become cheaper and you can get new goods more quickly.
Globalisation causes unemployment in industrialized countries because firms move their factories to places where they can get cheaper workers. Globalisation may lead to more environmental problems. A company may want to build factories in other countries because environmental laws are not as strict as they are at home. Poor countries in the Third World may have to cut down more trees so that they can sell wood to richer countries. Globalisation can lead to financial problems . In the 1970s and 80s countries like Mexico, Thailand, Indonesia or Brazil got a lot of money from investors who hoped they could build up new businesses there. These new companies often didn’t work, so they had to close down and investors pulled out their money. Negative Aspects of Globalisation:
Negative Aspects of Globalisation: Some of the poorest countries in the world, especially in Africa, may get even poorer. Their population is not as educated as in developed countries and they don’t have the new technology that we do. Globalisation may also lead to faster spread of infectious disease, for people animals and plants. Such infection may be carried through, people or goods. Although there is no consensus on the consequences of globalisation on national cultures, many people believe that a people’s exposure to foreign culture can undermine their own cultural identity. exposure - воздействие, подверженность undermine - подрывать, подтачивать
Many experts say that we need a different kind of globalisation in our world today. There must be ways to make sure that all countries profit from the good sides of globalisation. We should help poorer countries by giving them better education and showing them how new technology works. Every year, leaders of the world’s biggest industrial countries get together to discuss economic problems. This meeting is called the G8 summit. In the last few years groups against globalisation have organized protest marches and demonstrations to point out that not everyone is happy with how the world’s economy is developing. We need a different kind of globalisation in our world today
Использованные интернет-ресурсы: http://tedenodjag.blogspot.com/2013/12/blog-post_3208.html Глобализация экономики . - Картинка 8340/20http://900igr.net/kartinki/ekonomika/Mirovaja-sistema/020-Globalizatsi… http://geography.about.com/http://geography.about.com/ http://www.globalization101.org/globalization-vs-local-cultures/
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