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ГАОУ СПО «ББМК МЗ» РБ Кяхтинский филиал Дисциплина: Английский язык Текстовая презентация: История развития сестринского дела в России преподавателя английского языка Сергеевой Г.П. 2015 год
Plan: 1 Becoming a care in Russia X - XVII centuries 4 2 Development of care in the XVIII century. 4 3 Nursing in the XIX century. 5 4 Reform of nursing education at the beginning of the XX century 5 Introduction Every nurse should know the history of nursing. Unlike Europe nursing care in Russia is secular roots. By the nursing community hospitals for the poor, engaged woman of noble birth, and Grand Duchesses (Olga Mariya). In foreign countries, leaving women engaged mainly lower strata of society ("the fallen woman"). In Russia, the profession of "nurse" was considered respectable. Currently, the nursing profession is malouvazhaemoy and low-paid.
Female nursing existed at all times and in all countries of the world. Women perform hygienic measures and create comfortable conditions for patients, often relatives. In monasteries the sisters cared for the sick unselfishly. Mass for the sick woman's care were not involved. In Russia already in the tenth century Duchess Olga organized a hospital where care was entrusted to women. In the XVI century "Stoglavy Council" issued a decree on the organization of male and female hospices involving the employment of women. In the XVII century during the "Time of Troubles" in the territory of the Trinity Monastery of St. Sergius, it was established the first hospital - in 1612. In 1618, at the Trinity Monastery came first (in the modern sense) Hospital. In 1650, there was a hospital in the territory of the monastery of St. Andrew's. No reliable data are not available, but it is possible in these hospitals used the female care. 1 Becoming a care in Russia X - XVII centuries
Approximately in 1707 in Moscow was established the first civilian hospital, and in 1715 by decree of Peter I was organized in foster homes which were to serve women. Then, attracting women to work in hospitals has been canceled, the role of nurses performed retired soldiers. Perhaps the use of female labor was temporary. In 1735 came the general regulation on hospitals, which defines the scope of women (washing floors, washing clothes). In 1763 in Moscow, established Pavlovskaya Hospital where specifically for female patients were "women - sidelnitsy" widows and wives of sick soldiers. Special training nurses were not. 2 Development of care in the XVIII century.
Many authors believe that it is from 1803, in Russia there was "nursing". Argue with that hard, but it was from the beginning of the 19th century began special training of female nurses. In 1818 it was established "Institute compassionate widows", and in hospitals there were courses for women caregivers. Other authors believe that the nurse appeared in Russia only in 1841, after the establishment of the first community of the Sisters of Mercy (Holy Trinity). In 1854 he was created Krestovozdvizhennaya community nurses. It became urgent EM Balunina - some authors believe it is the founder "nursing" in Russia. During the Crimean War, it proved to be a very good organizer. After the war, she went to the family estate in the Tver region, and to organize a hospital for farmers (considered to be the founder of rural medicine). Great part in the development of "nursing" NI Pirogov - the great Russian surgeon. When was the Holy Cross community Pirogov directed it. Pies are actively involved in the care of women supporting innovation among the nursing staff. 3 Nursing in the XIX century.
beginning of XX century In the early twentieth century, the leadership headed by charities Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna. In 1909, Martha was opened - Marinskaya abode that by 1911 become the "center of Solace" in Moscow. In 1914, the community was transformed into a hospital in connection with the outbreak of the First World War. Training of nurses was carried out with the community. Until 1917, Russia had 10 thousand nurses. August 26, 1917 in Moscow, the I All-Russian Congress of the Sisters of Charity, which was established by the All-Russian Society of the Sisters of Mercy. The first medical schools were in 1920. Programs have been developed for the training of midwives, nurses and orderlies. In 1927, under the leadership of NA Semashko, issued "Regulations on the nurses' which defines the responsibilities of nursing care for the sick. In the years 1934-1938 prepared by nurses 9000, there were 967 medical and nursing schools and offices. At this time, there are new requirements for training nurses "for the conscious attitude to doctor's appointments, it must be health literacy." But the activities of nurses is not affected. The conscious attitude to doctor's appointments, even if it is produced, remains unclaimed (all responsible doctor). 4 Reform in Nursing Education
The development of "nursing" in Russia proceeded very difficult and long. But in spite of this in the 19th century the profession nurse was very honorable. But since the beginning of the XX century up to the present time nurse turned into a "pilgrim of the doctor working on his instructions and under his supervision." Although the 90-ies of XX century there was a tendency to a certain self-sufficiency in the nurse. Conclusion
1. "Theoretical Foundations of Nursing" IV Ostrovsky. year 2000. 2. "teaching aids on the basics of nursing" AI Shpirin. year 2000. Bibliography