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In the west - the Caspian depression. In the south-west - Mangyshlak (Karagiye Depression, 132 meters below sea level). In the central part - Kazakh low hills in the north - the southern outskirts of the West Siberian Plain, in the east and south-east - the Altai Mountains, Tarbagatai, Jungar Alatau and Tien Shan (altitude up to 4973 m). Kazakhstan is located at the junction of two continents - Europe and Asia, between 45 and 87 degrees east longitude, 40 and 55 degrees north latitude. The geographical center of the Euro-Asian subcontinent is located in Kazakhstan (at the intersection of the meridian of 78 to 50 parallel) - the epicenter of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.
The climate in the country is mainly continental. The average January temperature - from -19 ° C in the north and -5 ° C in the south, the average July temperature - from +17 ° C in the north to +31 ° C in the south. Summer in the country universally hot and dry. Temperatures can reach +50 ° C.
On the territory of Kazakhstan are few large massifs. The highest peak - Khan Tengri - 6,995 meters above sea level.
The main rivers - Irtysh, Ural, Chu, Syrdarya. The longest river in Kazakhstan - Yertys (Irtysh). Its extent within the country - 1700 km (total length - 4248 km).
The largest lake is Caspian. Its area 374 square km.