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Brick - artificial stone the correct form is used as a building material made from mineral materials with the properties of stone, strength, water resistance, frost resistance. The best known are four types (type) of brick: herself - from clay and filler; ceramic (clay, red) - from baked clay; silicate consisting of sand and lime; hyperpressed. Normal format has dimensions 250x120x65 mm.
History The word "brick" is borrowed from the Turkic languages .Before bricks used plinfa. "Plinth" - thin and wide clay plate with a thickness of about 2.5 cm. They are made in special wooden forms. Plinfa dried 10-14 days, then it was calcined in a furnace. Many plinfy find stamps that are considered hallmarks of the manufacturer. Although up to this time it had the widest distribution in many countries, mud brick, raw, often with the addition of chopped straw into the clay. Standard Burnt bricks used in Russia since the end of the XV century. A striking example was the construction of walls and temples of the Moscow Kremlin in the time of John III, which was headed by Italian masters.
Types of bricks and their benefits Brick is divided into two groups: red and white. A red brick consists mainly of clay, white - of sand and lime. A mixture of the latter was called "silicate" and hence the calcium silicate bricks.
Production technology Until the XIX century engineering bricks remained primitive and labor-intensive. Moulded bricks by hand, dried only in summer, and fired in a kiln-floor temporary shelters, built of dried mud brick. In the middle of the XIX century was built kiln ring and belt press that led to a revolution in production techniques. At the end of the XIX century began to build the dryer. At the same time, there were machines: runners, rollers, pug-mill. Nowadays more than 80% of the bricks produced year-round enterprise, among which there are large mechanized factories, output of 200 million pieces. in year.
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