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Vladimir Date of Foundation: 990 by Prince Vladimir the Red Sun Location: on the Klyazma river in the center of Europe Population: 340,000 History: the capital of Rus in XII-XIV centuries; a religious centre of Russia; a centre of Vladimir Gubernia since XVIII century; an administrative centre of the Vladimir region since 1944 Awards: Order of the Red Banner of Labour in 1971 Present-Day Life: an idustrial, educational and cultural centre, one of the towns of the Golden Ring of Russia
Vladimir is famous for its monuments of architecture of Vladimir – Suzdal School
At the end of the 18-th century the building was seriously changed. The earth ramparts, which adjoined the Gate were removed; buttresses surrounded by circular bastions were added to four corners of the old tower to reinforce it; the gateway church was built in brick and reconstructed in 1810; the platform around the church was turned into a covered gallery. Extremely rare monument of the old-russian fortification. It was built in white stone in 1158-1164 by prince Andrei Bogolyubsky of Vladimir and was the main entrance and defensive tower of the new fortress, the assault of the mongol-tartar army and was not covered with shame at that. Today the Golden Gate is a part of the Vladimir and Suzdal museum, in 1992 it was inscribed on the World Heritage List of UNESCO.
The Cathedral of the Assumption It is the unique monument of the white-stone architecture of Vladimir and Suzdal. The church was built in 1158-1160 by prince Andrei Bogolyubsky as a principle church of the Vladimir-Suzdal principality. The cathedral stands on a high hill over the Klyazma river. Four domes together with a central one form a five-domed roof, that determined a model of the orthodox church for a long time. The architectural complex of the Assumption Cathedral includes a bell-tower and St.George church. The cathedral was restored in the 19-20-th centuries. At a moment the Assumption cathedral is used by both the Vladimir-Suzdal museum and the Russian Orthodox Church. It is on the World Heritage List of UNESCO.
The Cathedral of St. Demetrius The Cathedral of St. Demetrius, built by Prince Vsevolod III, is one of the most graceful and beautiful churches in Vladimir. It is like an icon in stone. Beauty and mystery are inseparably united in it, making the Cathedral of St. Demetrius unique among Vladimir's churches. The first mystery of this cathedral involves its "birth." None of the chronicles mention exactly when this royal church was built. However, so it is assumed that it there are many reports that in 1197 the icon of St. Demetrius of Salonica was brought here from Byzantium was around this date that the cathedral was constructed.
The church of the Intercession on the Nerl river One of the most poetic structures of Ancient Russia is the church of the Intercession, situated in the flooded meadows at the confluence of the Nerl and Klyazma rivers. The shape of the church is graceful and silhouette is elegant. The reliefs - female masks, the frieze and the figure of King David in the center – form the idea of the Intercession of the Virgin. As the part of the Bogolyubovo convent it is being used both by the museum and the church. It's on the World Heritage List of UNESCO
Trades of the Vladimir region
Production of glass in Gus -Khrustalny The Gusevskoy Khrustalny zavod (Gus-Khrustalny Crystal Factory) is the Russian market leader in manufacturing of crystal, cased crystal, glassware, colored glass and artistic ware. In 1756 Akim Maltsov, the famous manufacturer, founded the plant, which became famous worldwide. Now the Gus-Khrustalny Crystal Factory keeps the best traditions of Russian glassmakers developing them according to contemporary style tendencies and modern technology and experience.
Crystal Museum in Gus -Khrustalny The beginning of the collection formation is connected with the name of I.S.Maltzov (1807- 1880), who owned the Gus- Khrustalny factory in 1823- 1880. It was he, who began collecting unique glassware and sample of mass production of the factory. In 1981 the collection of the factory was handed over to the museum.
The main parts of the collection: - engraved glass of the 18-th century, works of the Art Nouveau period including unique articles from the leading European glass-making factories, - items, representing mass-scale production of Gus-Khrustalny factory, from the second half of the 18-th century till the present day period, sample of the production of the Russian glass-making factories beginning from the second half of the 19-th century, modern original plastic composition of coloured glass. The collection embraces the period from the middle of the 18-th century up to the end of 1990-s.
Decorative-applied art was well-developed among rural population already in 11-12-th centuries. The first seam-embroidery factory was built at the end of 1960-s in Alexandrov, when manual embroidery was changed into effective machine production. Embroidery
Mountain-ash colouring Blue colouring Graphic Arts
First lacquer miniatures appeared at the beginning of the 19-th century. Lev Phomitchev’s work Lacquer Painting in Mstera
Faces are usually "cartoonish. The use of gold is traditionally avoided, except in borders, which are often intricate. Bylini (epic stories) and skazki (fairy-tales) dominate the subject matter of Mstera, though it has produced many classic boxes of political topics and village scenes in the Soviet times. Their miniatures are characteristically done in pale tones, usually on an ivory background. Colours are commonly more muted those of the other villages with figures, sometimes elongated, against backgrounds of light blue or other pastel shades, with landscapes predominating, the trees showing a tendency towards Stroganoff style.
Old Traditions Are Still Alive!
Bylini of the Vladimir Land
Ilya Muromets is a well known Russian mythical hero. Ilya Muromets is considered one of the greatest medieval knights of all times, who was respected for the values he stood for. Alyosha Popovich and Dobrynya Nikitich are two other legendary Russian knights that have been closely associated with Ilya Muromets. Ilya Muromets
According to legends, Ilya, the son of a farmer, was born in the village of Karacharovo, near Murom. He suffered serious illness in his youth and was unable to walk until the age of 33, when he was miraculously healed by two pilgrims. He was then given super-human strength by a dying knight,Svyatogor, and set out to liberate the city of Kiev from Idolishche to serve Prince Vladimir the Fair Sun (Vladimir Krasnoye Solnyshko). Along the way he single-handedly defended the city of Chernigov from invasion by the Tatars and was offered knighthood by the local ruler, but Ilya declined to stay. In the forests of Bryansk he then killed the forest-dwelling monster Solovey-Razboynik. In Kiev, Ilya was made chief bogatyr by Prince Vladimir and he defended Rus from numerous attacks by the steppe people, including Kalin, the (mythical) tsar of Golden Horde. Generous and simple-minded but also temperamental, Ilya once went on a rampage and destroyed all the church steeples in Kiev after Prince Vladimir had failed to invite him to a celebration. He was soon appeased when Vladimir sent for him.
The only epic hero canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church. The saint remains of the powerful Russian bogatyr Ilya Muromets are supposedly stored in the catacombs of Kiev - Pecherski Monastery.