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«Holidays and tradition in Russia and English-speaking countries» Рroject: ДАГЕСТАНСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ ПОВЫШЕНИЯ КВАЛИФИКАЦИИ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИХ КАДРОВ КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ
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What holidays in Great Britain do you know?
Every year a huge Christmas tree, the gift of the Norwegian people, graces Trafalgar square. In Russia Christmas is celebrated on the 7th of January. On this day people celebrate the birthday of Jesus Christ. New Year is a public holiday but it is not marked with any particular custom in Britain and America, yet it has a joyful celebration in Russia. People stay awake until after midnight on December 31st to watch the Old Year out and the New Year in. Many parties are given on this night. Theatres, night clubs and streets are crowded. Easter is one of the most important Christian holiday. It is traditionally associated with Easter eggs and with the coming of spring, and most churches are specially decorated with flowers for the service held on Easter Day. There is a popular belief that wearing three new things on Easter will bring good luck. St. Valentine's day is not the official holiday in most countries. February 14 is the day of lovers. Boys and girls, sweethearts and lovers, husbands and wives, friends and neighbours, and even the office staff exchange greetings of affection. Valentine's day is a whirl of hearts, candy and good wishes in the form of bright, lacy, colorful cards, with loving emblems and amorous doggerel, saying: "Be my Valentine". There are also some special holidays which are usually celebrated in a particular country. Let's start with the traditional British holiday Pancake day. But people don't only eat pancakes on this day, they run with them. In many towns in England pancake races are held every year. These races are run by housewives. Every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions. But there are also international holidays which are celebrated in all countries world-wide. They are: Christmas, New Year, Easter and St. Valentine's day. Christmas comes but once a year. Christmas is a traditional family reunion day. On this day, many people attend a church service, open their presents and eat a Christmas dinner. In Britain, Christmas is the most important public holiday of the year. It combines the custom of giving gifts with the tradition of spending this day with the family.
. There is a big difference of people between America and Britain. An Englishman in America is respected, Americans love his accent and his country. An American in England is thought to be a little strange because of his behavior and his language. To the English their private lives are important, their holidays are important, their garden are important, their animals are important. For American the work is the most important thing in life. And in England you can hear the most extraordinary excuse not to go to work, for example "My dog's got a cold". In Britain pets can send Christmas or birthday cards to their friends. There are special animal hotels at the airports. In English houses the fire-place has always been the centre of interest in a room. For many months of the year people like to sit round the fire and watch the dancing flames. Fire places are decorated with woodworks, there is a painting or a mirror over it. Above the fire there is usually a shelf with a clock and some photos. The English are a nation of stay-at-homes. There is no place like home. The Englishman is never tired to say "My house is my castle". The Americans are different. I think they are more open, they speak their minds, so if they don't like something, they actually tell it directly. Not like the British, who might think one thing and say another. Americans start conversations with people in the street, in the subway; they are more enthusiastic. American customs underline independence and freedom of the nation. Russia is the country of the dramatic beauty. To my mind, the main traits of the real Russia character character are hospitality, "open heart", "golden hands", wise Russian fairytales reflect their wisdom. The Russians are a very talented nation. Russia gave the world beautiful names of Pushkin and Lermontov, Chaikovsky and Repin, thousands of names of world famous poets, writers, composers, scientists. Every country is also know for its food. England is noted for its pudding, bacon, marmalade, porridge and five-o'clock-tea. America is the country of Coca-Cola, hamburgers and chewing gum. Traditional Russian cooking is world-famous for such dishes as okroshka, shi, pelmeni and kvass. The most American holiday is Thanksgiving day. It was first celebrated in early colonial times by Pilgrim Fathers after their first good harvest. Thanksgiving is a day when the family eats a large traditional dinner, usually with turkey and pumpkin pie. In Russia we celebrate Women's day on the 8th of March. On this day men are supposed to do everything about the house and cook all the meals. Every country has its own traditions, customs and superstitions. Someone once said: Don't be superstitious, it will bring you bad luck. I think it is very important to follow special traditions, because they untie people. In Britain traditions play more important part in the life of the people than in some other countries. English are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up
Christmas is celebrated on the 25th December. It is the time when Christians around the world celebrate the birth of Jesus. Most people are on holiday in the UK and stay at home with their family on Christmas day. Christmas Day is the favourite day for children. They wake up very early in the morning to find their stockings have been filled by Father Christmas. Traditionally all relatives and friends give each other presents. So, before Christmas all the department stores and shops are crowded, everybody is choosing a present. In general, people get prepared for this holiday very carefully. They decorate their houses in the traditional way. Christmas trees are set up in houses, in the streets and churches. They are always decorated with fairy lights, angels and small toys. In addition, little packets with nuts, candies and special biscuits are hung on the tree. Presents are put around the tree and artificial «frost» is scattered over the branches.
The Germans are believed to be the first to use the Christmas tree in their celebrations and Martin Luther was the first to place a star on the top of the tree. This star represents the star appeared over the stable in which Christ was born. In Great Britain, the Christmas tree became popular while Queen Victoria ruled the country. Besides the Christmas tree, holly and mistletoe are used to decorate the house. Branches of holly are put up behind pictures and mistletoe is hung over doors, so the young people have a chance to kiss the girls under it, plucking each time a red berry from the mistletoe. It is said that the girl who was not kissed under it at Christmas would not get married that year. On the eve of Christmas children hang their stockings, so that Santa Claus could put presents into them: oranges, sweets, nuts and if the child didn't behave properly Santa Claus can put there a piece of coal as punishment. Santa Claus got his name from a man known as St. Nicolas, who lived in the fourth century. He gave his wealth to the poor and often to children. After he died, the Dutch brought this legend to colonial America. Soon the Dutch name Sinter Klaus became Santa Claus. Carol singing is an essential part of Christmas. No church or school is without its carol service. Carols may be traditional or with some variations that express different feelings. Carols were used for the first time during Christmas in the fifteenth century. Usually children come around in the evening to the front doors and start singing carols and people who live in these houses give children candies, nuts, pies and so on, to thank them for carol singing. A typical Christmas lunch includes turkey with cranberry sauce and pudding. Every young woman in each household helps to stir the Christmas pudding, if she wishes to be married that year. Usually a coin or two are hidden inside the pudding and part of the fun is to see who finds it. After the lunch they go to the sitting room to listen to the Christmas speech of the Queen, shown on TV. So, Christmas is a merry family holiday for all the people of Great Britain. Christmas comes but once a year.
Boxing Day is usually celebrated on the following day after Christmas Day. It is the day to open the Christmas Box to share the contents with the poor. Boxing Day is the day when families get together. It is a day of watching sports and playing board games with the family. Many families go on walks in the countryside.
New Year in Britain is celebrated on January 1, the first day of the first month as per the Gregorian Calendar. This day was officially declared as New Year’s Day in 1752. New Year is the much awaited celebration for the people of Britain. Many people hold or attend parties in the evening to say goodbye to the old year and to welcome the new year. The past year is also thoroughly reviewed in the media, including television and newspapers.
New Year celebrations in Britain is a colorful affair and is celebrated with great enthusiasm. Midnight parties, lavish meals, champagnes, music, dance and fireworks are the important parts of New Year in Britain. It is the biggest night-out of the year. Another important part of New Year celebrations in Britain is the biggest New Year parade. The parade starts at noon walking down the streets via Whitehall, Pall Mall and finishing in Berkley square. Musicians, dancers, acrobats, drums and other entertainers do a splendid job to make the event most distinguished one. Everyone present at the Berkley is openly invited to join the carnival and enjoy the festive occasion. New Year Traditions in Britain
The First-Foot A very old custom of “first footing” is still followed in Britain. “First foot” is the first person to cross the threshold of a home on New Year’s Day and a bringer of good fortune for the coming year. Preferably the male visitor would be a young, handsome, dark-haired, healthy male. A blonde, a red-haired or a woman are not allowed to enter the house first as they are supposed to bring bad luck. This is because a dark-haired man in ancient times would have been regarded as a fellow Scotsman, and therefore to be deemed safe, whereas a fair haired or red headed man could have been a Viking and therefore potentially a dangerous enemy. But in some places the first-foot must always be a male who enters the house first, and the colour of his hair doesn’t matter. The first-foot was supposed to bring gifts of money, bread or cake, coal or salt as these were considered lucky. The bread and cake was to ensure that the household did not go hungry during the coming year, the coal was to ensure that the house would be warm throughout the year and the salt was said to bestow wealth, as salt used to be a rare and precious commodity.
6 January Epiphany, or Twelfth Night, marks the end of the Christmas and New Year season for most people in the United Kingdom (UK). It is also an occasion for Christians to celebrate the three kings' (or wise men's) visit to Jesus shortly after his birth and Jesus' baptism.
You can write a short rhyme inside the heart: Roses are red. Violets are blue, Sugar is sweet, And so are you!
St. Valentine's Day has roots in several different legends. One of the earliest popular symbols of the day is Cupid, the Roman god of Love, who is represented by the image of a young boy with a bow and arrow. St. Valentine's Day is now a day for sweethearts. It is the day that you show your friend or loved one that you care. You can send candy to someone you think is special. Or you can send roses, the flower of love. Most people send «valentines, a greeting card named after the notes that St. Valentine wrote from jail. Valentines can be sentimental, romantic and heartfelt. They can be funny and friendly. If the sender is shy, valentines can be anonymous. Americans of all ages love to send and receive valentines. Handmade valentines are created by cutting hearts out of coloured paper. Valentines can be heart-shaped, or have hearts, the symbol of love, on them. In elementary schools, children make valentines for their classmates and put them in a large decorated box, similar to a mailbox. On February 14, the teachers open the box and distribute the valentines to each student. After the students read their valentines, they have a small party with refreshments.
1April A day of jokes and tricks. You have to play the joke before 12 o’clock midday, otherwise the joke is on you. No one really knows when this custom began but it has been kept for hundreds of years. The First of April, some do say Is set apart for All Fools Day; But why the people call it so, Not I, nor they themselves do know.
America and England celebrate an wonderful holiday. It is Mother`s Day. There is almost the same holiday on the 8th March In Russia. Mother`s Day is a celebration that honors mothers. Mother`s day was first celebrated in 1908 in America. In Great Britain and Ireland celebrate MotheSunday of March. They eat cake and buy gifts of chocolate or flowers for their mothers as way to thank them for all they do.ring Sunday on the fourth
A popular saying is that God cannot be present everywhere and so he created mothers. If it is not possible to see a mother, one can send presents and cards to her. Flowers and cakes are the traditional gifts for all mothers in England. All women try to be nice and happy on this day.
Good Friday is a public holiday in the United Kingdom. It falls just before Easter Sunday. People who regularly attend church will probably attend a special church service on Good Friday. For other people, it is a day off work in the spring. Some people use the day to work in their gardens, while others take advantage of the long Easter weekend and the school holidays at this time ofyear to take a short vacation.
In the UK Easter is one of the major Christian festivals of the year. It is traditionally about Jesus Christ’s resurrection from death, according to Christian belief. However, Easter in Britain has its beginnings long before the arrival of Christianity. Many theologians believe Easter itself is named after the Anglo-Saxon goddess of the dawn and spring — Eostre. In Britain Easter is observed on the first Sunday after the first full moon following thevernal equinox. This means that the festival can occur on any Sunday between March 22 and April 25. Not only is Easter the end of the winter it is also the end of Lent, traditionally a time of fasting in the Christian calendar. It is therefore often a time of fun and celebration!
Easter eggs are a very old tradition going to a time before Christianity. Eggs are a symbol of spring and new life. Exchanging and eating Easter eggs is a popular custom in many countries. Many people celebrate Easter Sunday by decorating, exchanging or searching for eggs. The eggs may be fresh or boiled eggs laid by chickens or other birds, chocolate eggs or eggs made of other materials. Many children believe that the Easter bunnyor rabbit comes to their house or garden to hide eggs. Some businesses and attractions hold special Easter egg games. These can be competitions to see who can collect the most eggs or something else. For example in the north of England they still carry out the custom of egg rolling. Hard boiled eggs are rolled down the slope of a hill to see whose egg goes furthest. In other places another game is played. You hold an egg in the palm of the hand and bang against your opponent’s egg. The loser is the one whose egg breaks first. The Easter Bunny Rabbits, due to their fecund nature, have always been a symbol of fertility. The Easter bunny (rabbit) however may actually be an Easter hare. The hare was allegedly a companion of the ancient Moon goddess and of Eostre. However the bunny as an Easter symbol seems to come to the UK from Germany, where it was first mentioned in German writings in the 16th Century. The first edibleEaster bunnies appeared in Germany during the early 1800s, they were made of pastry and sugar. Children in the UK believe that if they are good the «Easter Bunny » will leave (chocolate) eggs for them.
Simnel Cake. A traditional way of breaking the Lenten fast is to eat some Simnel cake. It is a fruit cake with marzipan covering and plenty of candied lemon peel and dried fruit. An old Shropshire tale has it that long ago there lived an honest couple, Simon and Nelly, and it was their custom to gather their children around them at Easter. Nelly had some leftover unleavened dough from Lent, and Simon reminded her there was some plum pudding still left over from Christmas. So they decided to make some treats for their family. Nell put the leftovers together, and Sim insisted the cake should be boiled, while she was just as certain that it should be baked. They had a fight and came to blows, but compromised by doing both. They cooked the cake over a fire made from furniture broken in the scuffle, and some eggs, similarly broken, were used to baste it. The delicacy was named after this couple. Or, so it is said. If you want to taste Simnel cake, you can cook it yourself. Just click the picture below. Dressing Up For Easter. Easter was once a traditional day for getting married, that may be why people often dress up for Easter. Women wear special Easter bonnets — decorated with flowers and ribbons. Even today in London there is a special Easter Parade, where hand-made bonnets are shown off.
Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) was born on 21 April, 1926 at 17 Bruton Street, London. Her birthday is officially celebrated in Britain on the second Saturday of June each year. The day is referred to as “the Trooping of the Colour”, the official name is “the Queen’s Birthday Parade”.
The official birthday of Queen Elizabeth II is marked by a military parade known as Trooping the Colour (Carrying of the Flag). Each June, the Queen and other members of the Royal Family attend the Trooping the Colour ceremony on Horse Guards Parade.
St. George's Day is on 23 April. It is England's national day. St George's Day in the United Kingdom remembers St George, England's patron saint. The anniversary of his death, which is on April 23, is seen as England's national day. According to legend, he was a soldier in the Roman army who killed a dragon and saved a princess. A traditional custom on St George's day is to wear a red rose in one's lapel, though this is no longer widely practised. Another custom is to fly or adorn the St George's Cross flag in some way: pubs in particular can be seen on 23 April festooned with garlands of St George's crosses. It is customary for the hymn "Jerusalem" to be sung in cathedrals, churches and chapels on St George's Day, or on the Sunday closest to it. Traditional English food and drink (e.g. afternoon tea) may be consumed.
The first Monday of May is a bank holiday in the United Kingdom. It called May Day in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It is known as the Early May Bank Holiday in Scotland. It probably originated as a Roman festival honoring the beginning of the summer season. In more recent times, it has been as a day to campaign for and celebrate workers' rights.
The last Monday in May is a bank holiday. Many organizations, businesses and schools are closed. Some people choose to take a short trip or vacation. Others use the time to walk in the country, catch up with family and friends, visit garden centers or do home maintenance.
In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, the summer bank holiday is on the last Monday of August. In Scotland it is on the first Monday of August. This day marks the end of the summer holidays for many people who return to work or school in the autumn.
Skyline Auckland Waterfront From the 19th Century to the present day, 31st October has increasingly acquired a reputation as a night on which ghost, witches, and fairies, are especially active. Halloween celebrations include costume parties where people dress as witches, ghosts, and animal figures associated with Halloween. On Halloween children dress up in costumes and go from door to door at dusk gleefully calling "Trick or Treat!" The holiday got its name from "All Hallows Evening" or the evening before All Saints Day, November 1, according to the western European Christian church calendar.
October 31 was the eve of the Celtic New year, a time when ghosts or evil spirits walked the earth and mingled mischievously with the living. Costumes and jack-o-lanterns were thought to protect people from any harm they might cause. A jack-o-lantern is a face carved into one side of a hollowed out pumpkin in which a lighted candle has been placed. This gives it an inviting yellow and orange glow on a dark autumn night. This is why the Halloween colours are orange and black. Even today small children are told that any house with a jack-o-lantern burning in the window is a safe place to go trick-or-treating. Children still go begging for treats. However, over the last few years, school, church and neighbourhood parties are replacing the custom of trick or treating from house to house. More and more adults are also celebrating Halloween with masquerade parties in which they dress up like political and historical figures, or just plain old scary fellows from recent horror films like ghosts, vampires, goblins, Frankenstein, etc. Witches flying on broomsticks with black cats, skeletons, spiders and haunted houses are other symbols of Halloween.
Another popular activity at Halloween parties is bobbing for apples. One person at a time must get an apple out of a tub of water without using his hands and only by sinking his or her face into the water and biting the apple. The party may start or end with a Halloween costume parade, wherein those with the best or scariest costumes receive prizes. Telling scary stories or "ghost" stories while huddled together by candlelight or around a fire outside is one of the highlights of Halloween night. Any story will do, but it must be spoken in a low, tense voice and reach a startling climax.
The 17th of March is a national holiday in Ireland – St. Patrick’s day. On that day people wear a shamrock. A shamrock is a plant with three leaves. It is the national symbol of Ireland. St. Patrick was a man who had wonderful power. He cleared Ireland of snakes.
View of Town Town Centre Remembrance Day is on 11 November. It is a special day set aside to remember all those men and women who were killed during the two World Wars and other conflicts. At 11am on each Remembrance Sunday a two minute silence is observed at war memorials and other public spaces across the UK.
Thanksgiving Day Almost in every culture in the world there is a celebration of thanks for rich harvest. The American Thanksgiving began as a feast of thanksgiving almost four hundred years ago. In 1620, a religious community sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to settle in the New World. They settled in what is now known as the state of Massachusetts. Their first winter in America was difficult. They arrived too late to grow a rich harvest. Moreover, half the colony died from disease. The following spring the Iroquois Indians taught them how to grow corn. Indians showed them also how to grow other crops and how to hunt and fish.
In the autumn of 1621 they got a beautiful harvest of corn, barley, beans and pumpkins. The colonists had much to be thankful for, so they planned a feast. Local Indian chief and ninety Indians were present. The colonists learned from Indians how to cook cranberries and dishes of corn and pumpkins. In following years many of the colonists celebrated the harvest with a feast of thanks. After the United States gained independence, Congress recommended one yearly day of thanksgiving for the whole country. Later, George Washington suggested the date November 26 as Thanksgiving Day. Then, after the Civil war, Abraham Lincoln suggested the last Thursday in November to be the day of thanksgiving. On Thanksgiving Day, family members gather at the house of an older relative, even if they live far away. All give thanks for everything good they have. Charitable organizations offer traditional meal to the homeless. Foods, eaten at the first thanksgiving, have become traditional. The traditional thanksgiving meal consists of roast turkey stuffed with herb-flavoured bread, cranberry jelly, mashed potatoes, pumpkin pie. Other dishes may vary as to region: ham, sweet potatoes, creamed corn.
Guy Fawkes’ night
Victory Day One of the most remarkable public events in my country is the Victory Day. It is traditionally celebrated on the 9th of May. This patriotic holiday commemorates the victory of the USSR over the Nazi Germany. Every year in honour of this day in all cities across the country lots of cheerful parades and celebrations are held. Despite the fact that the holiday is celebrated in a flamboyant way, May 9 is a sad day for the majority of our population. Many people have lost their loved ones and close relatives during this ruthless war. From one hand everyone is happy that the country wasn’t occupied by the fascist invaders, from the other hand everyone grieves over their loss. On this day we are grateful to our saviors, to those who sacrificed their lives for us. That’s why we try to celebrate this day with honours. Some part of younger generation doesn’t understand the importance of this event, which I think is disrespectful. In my opinion, the Victory Day is one of the greatest holidays during the year.
Since long ago there is a tradition in Russia to say “goodbye” to winter and “hello” to spring. The holiday of seeing off of the winter is called Maslenitsa. The concert is held in our country on this matter, the artists sing age-old songs, chastushkas and organize practical jokes. People take part in different competitions, ride horses and drink hot tea with pancakes not to be frozen. The pancakes are the main attribute of this festival because a pancake is a symbol of the sun. The festival always ends in burning of a big man of straw. During these weeks people avoid eating fat meals, meat and there are few entertainments. People must work hard, pray and clean their soul. Shrovetide During these days people should avoid eating any kind of meat, but they are to eat much butter, cheese, sour cream, lots of pancakes. Lent follows Maslenitza, it is the strictest and long holiday, it lasts 7 weeks.
The 1st of May- Day of spring and labor On first of May it was celebrated in the Russian empire for the first time in 1890 in Warsaw, and in 1891 already in capital - in St.-Petersburg. Its first name - Day of the international solidarity of workers. In Soviet Union a holiday often named simply on number – on first of May. In the Russian Federation it is marked, as a holiday of Spring and Work. As though it named – Day of solidarity of workers or a holiday of spring and work, for many on first of May traditionally symbolizes revival and arrival of spring. The big emotional charge which it bears in itself (himself) is connected not only with sensation of spring awakening of the nature, but also with perception on first of May as the general celebration rallying all Russians. "A mass holiday" on first of May became in the USSR. And it really was the holiday for the workers who have received in addition two days off. May гуляния passed on all country. This day people amicably went on demonstration with headers and colours. The celebratory table was obligatory attribute of the 1st of May.