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Электронное пособие Тема: “Passive Voice”
Passive Voice The Passive is formed by using the appropriate tense of the verb to be + past participle. Present Perfect Continuous, Future Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous are not normally used in the passive.
The Passive is used: When the agent (the person who does the action) is unknown, unimportant or obvious from the context; When we are interested more in the action than the agent, such as in news reports, formal notices, instructions, processes, headlines, advertisements etc. To make statements more formal or polite. To put emphasis on the agent.
Present Simple Active Voice: They serve dinner at 6.00. Passive Voice: They serve dinner at 6.00. is served Dinner
Present Continuous Active Voice: He is cooking supper now. Passive Voice: He is cooking supper is being cooked Supper now
Past Simple Active Voice: They caught him a year ago. Passive Voice: a year ago. They caught him He was caught
Past Continuous Active Voice: He was writing a letter. Passive Voice: He was writing a letter was being written. A letter
Future Simple Active Voice: They will build a new house. Passive Voice: They will build a new house will be built. A new house
Present Perfect Active Voice: They have sold the house. Passive Voice: They have sold the house has been sold. The house
Past Perfect Active Voice: They had celebrated the New Year party. Passive Voice: They had celebrated the New Year party had been celebrated. The New Year party
Future Perfect Active Voice: They will have cooked buns. Passive Voice: They will have cooked buns will have been cooked. Buns
Present infinitive Active Voice: They should win the game. Passive Voice: They should win the game should be won. The game
Perfect infinitive Active Voice: He should have collected the toys. Passive Voice: should have been collected. He should have collected the toys The toys
-ing form Active Voice: She likes people singing her songs. Passive Voice: She likes people singing her songs being sung.
Perfect –ing form Active Voice: Having robbed the bank, … Passive Voice: aving the bank robbed H h been The bank
Modals + be + p.p. Active Voice: You must arrest him. Passive Voice: You must arrest him He must be arrested
Changing from Active into Passive The object of the active becomes the subject in the new sentence. The active verb changes into a passive form and the subject of the active verb becomes the agent which is either introduced with “by” or is omitted. The Passive can be used only with transitive verbs (verbs which take an object such as give, write, take etc). Verbs such as happen, sleep, come, go, seem etc. are not used in the Passive. fed the cat A boy The cat was fed by a boy
In the Passive we use by + agent to say who or what did the action. We use with + instrument or material to say what the agent used. The computer was broken by the clerk with a hammer.
With verbs that take two objects, it is more usual to begin the Passive sentence with the person. Active Voice: They gave Jane some money. Passive Voice: Jane was given some money. (more usual than: Money was given to Jane)
We put the agent (= person who performs the action) in the Passive only if it adds information. When the agent is unknown, unimportant or obvious from the context, it is omitted. Agents such as someone, people, I, you etc are omitted. 1. The money was saved by my sister (The agent is not omitted; it adds information) 2. Somebody cooked the soup. -> The soup was cooked (unknown agent; by + agent are omitted)
Make, hear, help, see are followed by a to-infinitive in the Passive. She helped him plant a tree. -> He was helped to plant a tree. Hear, see, watch can be followed by a present participle in the active and passive. I heard him practicing the violin. -> He was heard practicing the violin.
Believe, expect, feel, hope, know, report, say, think etc are used in the following passive patterns in personal and impersonal constructions. People believe he is a hero. a) Subject (person) + passive + to-infinitive (personal construction) He is believed to be a hero. b) It + passive + that-clause (impersonal construction) It is believed that he is a hero.
We use be + past participle or have been + past participle after modal verbs (will, can, may etc). I can’t solve the task. -> The task can’t be solved. They may have built the house. -> The house may have been built.
Verbs followed by a preposition (accuse somebody of, look after etc) take the preposition immediately after them when turned into passive. They accused him of the murder. -> He was accused of the murder.
In passive questions with who/whom/which we do not omit by. Who signed the letter? -> Who was the letter signed by? Who gave you these books? -> Who were you given these books by?
Participles like amazed, broken, interested, pleased, worried etc can be used either as adjectives or participles in the passive. If these participles are used as adjectives, they cannot be turned into the active. Compare: The first time I saw her I was amazed. (“amazed” is used as an adjective) I was amazed by her appearance. (“amazed” is used as a past participle - Your appearance amazed me)
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